This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 35 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

The total cost of a flight between two cities is made up of three parts: a basic cost, taxes and a booking fee. Last year, for any flight, the basic cost and the taxes were in the ratio 3 : 2 and the booking fee was fixed at $50. This year, the basic cost of a flight has been increased by 20%, the taxes have been increased by 10% and the booking fee has been halved.

1. What is the new total cost of a flight that last year cost a total of $330?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    This is a question designed to get you in a muddle by flooding you with information, so rationalise it! First thing is to understand what we’re looking for: the new cost of the flight in total. There are 3 parts, each of which have changed by a proportion (which are all pretty easy to calculate!). So, we should define the original costs, then the new values after change, then add them up for the final value.

    1. The costs are the basic cost, the taxes and the booking fee. The booking fee was fixed at $50, so this one is easy.
    2. Subtracting $50 from $330 gives us $280 between which basic costs and taxes are split in a ratio of 3:2.
    3. With this ratio, one part is equivalent to 1/5 of the total $280 so the ratio of 3:2 converts to $168:$112.
    4. The basic cost has increased by 20%, from $168 to $201.60
    5. The taxes have increased by 10%, from $112 to $123.20
    6. The booking fee has halved, from $50 to $25
    7. Adding all of these gives us the new price of $349.80!

    Top Tips

    Use multipliers for percentages; remember that an increase of 20% is equivalent to multiplying by 1.2!

    Spend a little time to define your goal before just diving into the question. Rushing too much will lead to silly mistakes, when the arithmetic itself shouldn’t be too difficult!

    Post Comment

    The rise of the internet-connected smartphone and similar devices poses a risk to the ties that bind us together within society. It is true that for many people, these devices provide ready access to a wealth of information and help them to maintain existing interpersonal relationships and to develop new ones. Yet the devices can also act as a significant obstacle within one of the most important relationships of all: that between a young child and his or her caregivers. With many users of smartphones checking them hundreds of times a day, psychologists are increasingly worried about the potential ‘cyber effect’ of parents and others shifting more of their attention away from the young children around them. Eye contact and other features of face-to-face ‘real world’ interaction are essential for the social and emotional development of young children.

    2. Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The passage concludes that given the increasing role of smart phones and technology in peoples lives generally, there may be a ‘cyber effect’ on children whose parents are increasingly shifting their attention away from their children (as a result of technology).

    Statement C strengthens this argument as young children who are entertained more with videos and smartphone content, rather than encouraged to interact with people, can be fairly said to be the result of the ‘cyber effect.’

    Statements A, B and D are irrelevant as they are not mentioned in a relevant way that would help to strengthen the overarching conclusion that parents are potentially having a ‘cyber effects’ on their children based on their increased interactions with technology rather than with people.

    Post Comment

    The table shows details of six hire cars.

    I will need to hire a car for my holiday and I have a number of requirements. I want to pick up the car at the hotel at the beginning of the holiday, but drop it off at the airport at the end of the holiday. The car must have a sun roof and air con. However, I do not want a car above 1600 cc, and I can only afford to pay up to $160 for 7 day hire.

    3. Which one of the six cars suits my requirements?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The only cars with sun roof and air con are Cronal and Elox.

    However, Elox costs 180$ for a 7 day hire. This is more than the required limit of $160.

    This leaves us with only Cronal.

    Post Comment
    Anon Medicmind Tutor

    Wed, 10 Nov 2021 09:50:21

    The explained answer is not for the right question?

    It never fails. The only time both political parties are willing to work together in the US Congress is when they’re cooking up really bad ideas. If they’ve found a new way to cause trouble, reduce freedom, or generally damage the health of the nation, they work together just fine. This time, the brilliant idea is a sales tax on goods bought on the internet, similar to the current sales tax imposed upon goods bought in physical stores. If the economy is to get stronger, charging consumers more is not a wise move. A tremendous number of people buy online, and if the cost of buying online increases, internet sales will go down, and companies will sell fewer products and have lower profits. Net tax receipts will therefore be less, which means that states and the federal government will collect less revenue, and have less to spend on things like education and healthcare. This is why an internet sales tax is such an unbelievably bad idea.

    4. Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    The conclusion of the paragraph states that it is overall a bad idea if the government imposes a tax on goods bought on the internet, as this will have a net overall negative impact on the economy, the government and services like education and healthcare. It does not take into account the possibility that people who previously were online shopping could instead start shopping in physical stores. This means that they would encounter a similar tax in physical stores. Thus, this statement B flaws the argument as it is likely that the economy and the government will not be affected to the extent that the author has described, since consumers will be either purchasing goods and services from online stores or physical stores, both of which will have similar taxes.

    Post Comment
    Doigu Medicmind Tutor

    Wed, 20 Oct 2021 22:01:13

    This is fucking bullshit

    Why NOT C Medicmind Tutor

    Fri, 29 Oct 2021 10:44:57

    Why not C?

    Doigu Medicmind Tutor

    Fri, 29 Oct 2021 10:45:41

    I mean the question the actual website is sensational because its free and doesnt help people for money like other dogshit websites

    The transparent box shown below has identical arrows painted on one pair of opposite faces.

    [diagram not to scale]

    5. Which one of these nets will not fold up to make the box?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    A tricky visualisation task! The first important thing here is to understand that you’re looking for the net that will not form the box. Now, if visualisation comes easy for you, then you could just imagine the box folding and answer from there. However, if not, we can think smart because we are only concerned about the faces with the arrows on them. Look at them in relation to the bottom face, one face has the base of the arrow nearest the base and the other has the head. A, C and D all fulfil this requirement whereas B does not, so B must be the answer.

    Post Comment
    R_S Medicmind Tutor

    Fri, 12 Nov 2021 21:38:57

    Im so confused how it doesnt make a box?

    How much value does a particular new product or service bring to our lives? This is hard to quantify, and yet traditional economics has provided us with a neat means for doing so: look at how much it costs. In a free market economy, how much something costs tells us how much people are prepared to pay for it. And how much people are prepared to pay for something is a direct sign of how much they value it. The problem with this model – using the market price to assess value – is that it is starting to break down with new technologies. Many of the products and services we value most, including popular apps and social media platforms, are provided for free. While there may indeed be a cost, such as a loss of privacy, this is not a financial cost.

    6. Which one of the following statements is best supported by the above passage?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The passage explains that cost is usually related to how much value we place on a good or service. Generally, the greater the cost, the greater the value of the good or service. However, goods and services that are now free are commonly the most valued. Thus, it can be deduced that we need a different method to measure value of a good or service aside from cost. This is summarised in statement C.

    Statement A is incorrect because the paragraph suggests that value may be or use to be a good measure of the value of a product or service. It is also far too definitive to be correct with the use of the word ‘impossible.’

    Statement B is incorrect as the paragraph specifically discusses the value placed on goods and services. Thus, statement B contradicts or weakens the argument.

    Statement D is incorrect because the general conclusion of the paragraph is that value is hard to determine and may need another method. Thus statement D does not fully capture the essence of the argument and thus does not directly support it.

    Post Comment

    A medical consultant devises a test to diagnose the presence or absence of a particular disease in children. After many years the test proves itself to be 90% accurate. In other words, on 10% of tests done on children who do actually have the disease, the test will erroneously indicate that they do not have it. These 10% of tests are known as ‘false negatives’. Similarly, on 10% of tests done on children who do not actually have the disease, the test indicates incorrectly that they do have it. These 10% of tests are known as ‘false positives’.

    The hospital serving a small town tests 1000 children for the presence of the disease. The table below provides the results as expected in terms of the test’s 90% accuracy level.

    7. If a child has a positive test result, what is the probability that s/he does actually have the disease?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    This is something you will come to encounter (and very possibly hate) in medicine, dentistry or whatever healthcare discipline you enter! This calculation is fairly straightforward however – we are looking at the first row of positive test results and determining the number of these which are true positives. 164 total children tested positive, and 72 of these actually had the disease. Therefore, the answer is E. 

    Insider tips!

    These types of tables express values known as sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test. Sensitivity tells us the ability of the test to correctly identify those with the disease, or in other words how worried a patient would be if they got a positive result. Specificity tells us how good the test is at identifying those without a disease, in other words how relieved a patient would be if they got a negative result.

    Post Comment

    The gender pay gap is calculated as the difference between the average hourly earnings of men and the average hourly earnings of women, expressed as a proportion of the average hourly earnings of men. In 2017, average weekly earnings for full-time employees in the UK were £550, up 2.2% from £539 in 2016. Men were paid more than women on average: for fulltime employees, the gender pay gap was 9.1%, down from 9.4% in 2016. This is the lowest since the survey began in 1997, when the gap was 17.4%, although it has changed relatively little in recent years.

    A recent study used statistical analysis to calculate the percentage of the gender pay gap (for all employees) that can be explained by factors such as common differences between the kinds of job that men and women do. It found that a proportion of the gap is due to the fact that more men are in senior roles in companies, which means they are in jobs which have a higher salary attached to them, and also because relatively more women work part time, which is paid less per hour. But when the analysts adjusted for these factors they found that they could only account for 36% of the average hourly pay gap. The rest (64%) was still unexplained, raising the possibility that discriminatory behaviour by employers might be partly responsible.

    The analysts said that this did not mean that two thirds of the gap must be attributable to pay discrimination by employers, because women’s relative academic qualifications and domestic caring responsibilities are also likely to be factors that they did not capture in their modelling exercise. But they did say that pay discrimination might be part of the explanation for the unexplained gap. Figure 1 outlines how the factors that were investigated contributed to the explained part of the gap.

    Figure.1

    Percentage of the gender pay gap accounted for by variation in other explanatory factors

    8. Which one of the following could be drawn as a conclusion about the role of discrimination in the gender pay gap?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    This very current question addresses the gender pay gap and has quite the chunk of text to think about. Use keywords to assess each statement, starting with the most likely. Statements C and D are very extreme, so skip these on your first run-through to assess the statements in a logical order! 

    Statement A talks about ‘senior roles’, which is found in the second paragraph. Here, it is confirmed that more men are in senior roles, however it is not discussed whether this is related to discrimination. 

    Statement B has the keyword ‘two thirds’, synonymous with 66%. This is not found, but 64% is found in the second paragraph. Here, it says that this discrepancy raises the possibility of discrimination, but not that it proves it.

    Statement C talks about a ‘another study’, whereas only one is addressed in the passage. Moreover, it uses extreme language in the form of ‘will provide’ greater evidence. 

    Statement D is also overly extreme, saying that there is no evidence for the role of discrimination. This is not supported by the passage, which says that the discrepancy raises the possibility of discrimination. 

    Statement E is true – the whole sentiment of the passage is that the possibility of discrimination affecting the pay gap is there, but that there is not conclusive proof either way. 

    Top tip!

    Use extreme language to decide how viable a statement is. Here, statements C and D are too extreme, so start with assessing other statements before them.

    Post Comment

    The gender pay gap is calculated as the difference between the average hourly earnings of men and the average hourly earnings of women, expressed as a proportion of the average hourly earnings of men. In 2017, average weekly earnings for full-time employees in the UK were £550, up 2.2% from £539 in 2016. Men were paid more than women on average: for fulltime employees, the gender pay gap was 9.1%, down from 9.4% in 2016. This is the lowest since the survey began in 1997, when the gap was 17.4%, although it has changed relatively little in recent years.

    A recent study used statistical analysis to calculate the percentage of the gender pay gap (for all employees) that can be explained by factors such as common differences between the kinds of job that men and women do. It found that a proportion of the gap is due to the fact that more men are in senior roles in companies, which means they are in jobs which have a higher salary attached to them, and also because relatively more women work part time, which is paid less per hour. But when the analysts adjusted for these factors they found that they could only account for 36% of the average hourly pay gap. The rest (64%) was still unexplained, raising the possibility that discriminatory behaviour by employers might be partly responsible.

    The analysts said that this did not mean that two thirds of the gap must be attributable to pay discrimination by employers, because women’s relative academic qualifications and domestic caring responsibilities are also likely to be factors that they did not capture in their modelling exercise. But they did say that pay discrimination might be part of the explanation for the unexplained gap. Figure 1 outlines how the factors that were investigated contributed to the explained part of the gap.

    Figure.1

    Percentage of the gender pay gap accounted for by variation in other explanatory factors.

    Assume that the numbers of women and men working full-time are the same.

    9. What were the approximate average weekly earnings of women in full-time employment in 2017?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    This question is an easy trap to fall into but remember to set up your equation first! To calculate the approximate weekly earnings of women, we need the average weekly earnings of everyone and the pay gap. The average weekly wage was £550 and the wage gap was 9.1%. But be careful! The pay gap statistically works both sides of the average – that is to say the answer is not simply 9.1% higher than £550, rather it is the case that women earn 9.1/2% less than £550 and men earn 9.2/2% more than £550. 

    9.1/2 comes to a 4.55% decrease from £550, which comes to £524.98 which rounds to D. 

    Timing tip

    Always use multipliers! A 4.55% decrease is equivalent to multiplying by 0.9545, which gives you the answer much more quickly.

    Post Comment
    Saif ur Rehman Medicmind Tutor

    Sat, 07 Aug 2021 08:01:12

    for men 9.2/2%, shouldn't it be 9.1?

    The gender pay gap is calculated as the difference between the average hourly earnings of men and the average hourly earnings of women, expressed as a proportion of the average hourly earnings of men. In 2017, average weekly earnings for full-time employees in the UK were £550, up 2.2% from £539 in 2016. Men were paid more than women on average: for fulltime employees, the gender pay gap was 9.1%, down from 9.4% in 2016. This is the lowest since the survey began in 1997, when the gap was 17.4%, although it has changed relatively little in recent years.

    A recent study used statistical analysis to calculate the percentage of the gender pay gap (for all employees) that can be explained by factors such as common differences between the kinds of job that men and women do. It found that a proportion of the gap is due to the fact that more men are in senior roles in companies, which means they are in jobs which have a higher salary attached to them, and also because relatively more women work part time, which is paid less per hour. But when the analysts adjusted for these factors they found that they could only account for 36% of the average hourly pay gap. The rest (64%) was still unexplained, raising the possibility that discriminatory behaviour by employers might be partly responsible.

    The analysts said that this did not mean that two thirds of the gap must be attributable to pay discrimination by employers, because women’s relative academic qualifications and domestic caring responsibilities are also likely to be factors that they did not capture in their modelling exercise. But they did say that pay discrimination might be part of the explanation for the unexplained gap. Figure 1 outlines how the factors that were investigated contributed to the explained part of the gap.

    Figure.1 Percentage of the gender pay gap accounted for by variation in other explanatory factors

    Figure 1 indicates that one of the factors that partly explain the gender pay gap is tenure (length of time in current post).

    1 Women tend to have longer tenures in their jobs than men, and the longer someone’s tenure in their job, the greater their average hourly earnings.

    2 Women tend to have shorter tenures in their jobs than men, and the longer someone’s tenure in their job, the greater their average hourly earnings.

    3 Men tend to have longer tenures in their jobs than women, and the longer someone’s tenure in their job, the smaller their average hourly earnings.

    4 Men tend to have shorter tenures in their jobs than women, and the longer someone’s tenure in their job, the smaller their average hourly earnings.

    10. Which of the following statements is/are consistent with this finding?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is H.

    Here, you need to remember to let go of external knowledge to accurately answer the question. Remembering that the premise is that women are paid 9.1% less than men, and this is related to tenure, the statements which are consistent with this must logically mean that women are paid less and men are paid more. Therefore…

    Statement 1 would logically mean that women get more pay than men, so is not consistent with the premise.

    Statement 2 would mean that men are paid more than women, so is consistent with the statement. 

    Statement 3 would mean that men are paid less than women, so is not consistent with the statement.

    Statement 4 would mean that women are paid less than men, so is consistent with the premise.

     Therefore, statements 2 and 4 are consistent with the premise, and this is answer H.

    Common Trap!
    Be very careful around external knowledge. Statement 4 may sound illogical, as a longer tenure is likely to be associated with higher wage. However, if this statement were true, it would logically support the premise.

    Post Comment

    The gender pay gap is calculated as the difference between the average hourly earnings of men and the average hourly earnings of women, expressed as a proportion of the average hourly earnings of men. In 2017, average weekly earnings for full-time employees in the UK were £550, up 2.2% from £539 in 2016. Men were paid more than women on average: for fulltime employees, the gender pay gap was 9.1%, down from 9.4% in 2016. This is the lowest since the survey began in 1997, when the gap was 17.4%, although it has changed relatively little in recent years.

    A recent study used statistical analysis to calculate the percentage of the gender pay gap (for all employees) that can be explained by factors such as common differences between the kinds of job that men and women do. It found that a proportion of the gap is due to the fact that more men are in senior roles in companies, which means they are in jobs which have a higher salary attached to them, and also because relatively more women work part time, which is paid less per hour. But when the analysts adjusted for these factors they found that they could only account for 36% of the average hourly pay gap. The rest (64%) was still unexplained, raising the possibility that discriminatory behaviour by employers might be partly responsible.

    The analysts said that this did not mean that two thirds of the gap must be attributable to pay discrimination by employers, because women’s relative academic qualifications and domestic caring responsibilities are also likely to be factors that they did not capture in their modelling exercise. But they did say that pay discrimination might be part of the explanation for the unexplained gap. Figure 1 outlines how the factors that were investigated contributed to the explained part of the gap.

    Figure.1 Percentage of the gender pay gap accounted for by variation in other explanatory factors

    Between 1997 and 2016, the average hourly earnings of men working full-time rose by approximately 75%.

    Assume that the numbers of women and men working full-time were the same during this period.

    11. By approximately what percentage did the average hourly earnings of women working full-time rise in the same period?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    We know, from the question stem, that the gender pay gap closed from 17.4% to 9.4% between 1997 and 2016. Therefore, the wages of women must have increased more than those of men so the answer cannot be A, B or C as these are below or equal to the 75% increase for men. To calculate: 

    1. We need to divide the difference between 1997 and 2016 by the original value in 1997 for the percentage increase. 
    2. We do not know how much either group was paid, so let us call the wages of men in 1997 x. 
    3. If women’s wages were 17.4% less then this is equal to 82.6% of x or 0.826x, which we can use to represent the original wage
    4. If men’s wages increased by 75%, we can call the men’s 2016 wage 1.75x. 
    5. If women’s wages are 9.4% less than this, that is equal to 90.6% of 1.75x or 1.5855x
    6. If difference/original = % change, then (1.5855x-0.826x)/0.826x = 92% and this is the answer
    Post Comment

    A ferry company operates a route between port X and port Y with the following daily timetable:

    The crossing takes 2 hours and 30 minutes, and the ferries need to spend at least 1 hour in port to unload and reload before their next sailing. The ferries operate throughout the day, and ports X and Y are in the same time zone.

    12. How many ferries does the company need to operate this timetable?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The difficulty of this question is thinking about how long one cycle would take for a ferry, in other words, what is the length of time it would take a ferry to get from X to Y and back and be ready to leave. All departures from X between these times would each need a ferry to service them. So, if we assume that ‘ferry 1’ leaves X at 00.00, it would take 2.5 hours to reach Y and then 1 hour to load and unload. Therefore, it would only be ready to leave for the 03.45am from Y. Then, it would be ready to leave by 07.30am from X again. So, while ferry 1 is away until 07.30, we need ferries to service 01.30, 03.00, 04.30 and 06.00 which means we need, in total, 5 ferries. 

    Top tip!

    Don’t panic when you see questions like this, as they can be quite tricky to get your head around at first. The important thing is to put yourself in the scenario, and imagine you have one ferry at first. Then, fill in the gaps around what you do know!

    Post Comment

    The standard price for a cup of coffee in Italy is €1 (about £1), but in the UK you can be charged as much as £4. But why? The biggest part of the cost of serving a cup of coffee certainly isn’t the coffee. The most significant cost is staff wages, though in fact that’s not the key difference. It’s the difference in drinking culture that has the greatest effect on the difference of the price of a cup of coffee: British coffee drinkers spend far longer on a coffee than Italians, who order a coffee at the bar and drink it standing up, allowing Italian cafés to make more sales for the same costs. The opposite extreme is in Greece, where people sit over a single coffee for hours. As a result, Greece has some of the most expensive coffees in Europe, despite having lower wages.

    13. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    The paragraph argues that the price of coffee is positively correlated with the length that people take to drink the coffee at the place of purchase. Hence, the longer that people stay at coffee shops to drink their coffee, the more expensive the coffee will thus be. The length of time that people spend at coffee shops is determined and shaped by a country’s culture. Therefore, the passage concludes that ‘It’s difference in drinking culture that has the greatest effect on the difference of the price of a cup of coffee.’ This is paraphrased in statement B.

    Statement A, C & D are pieces of evidence rather than summarising the main conclusion.

    Post Comment

    Terence drew the bar chart below to represent the sales from his shop on each day from Monday to Friday last week.

    He also drew the following pie chart, but forgot to include one of the days.

    14. Which day was missed out on the pie chart?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    Some clever tricks and estimation here allow us to eliminate certain options. First of all, Monday and Friday are very close and likely represented by the black and lightest grey segments of the chart. Moreover, Tuesday can only be represented by the small grey segment. We are left with Wednesday and Thursday.

    If Terence missed out Thursday, then overall sales would be 280 and Friday with 70 sales would represent exactly a quarter of total sales.

    Given that there is no wedge at exactly a quarter, this cannot be the case so the answer must be Wednesday which, if missed, would give a total sales of 300 and a split roughly represented by the pie chart given.

    Post Comment

    People seem to love words that give a sense of size, terms like ‘umpteen’ and ‘zillion’. These terms are referred to as ‘indefinite hyperbolic numbers’ – ‘indefinite’ because they do not represent actual numbers, and ‘hyperbolic’ because they are used to imply a larger size than the reality. What’s interesting is that everyone roughly agrees on the size these vague terms refer to, and that is because there are language models that underpin the terms and allow a general understanding of their meaning. For example, the word ‘umpteen’ has a generally agreed meaning of ‘big, but not bigger than a hundred’, using the language model ‘-teen’ from the two-digit numbers thirteen to nineteen. And the indefinite hyperbolics ‘gazillion’ and ‘bazillion’ use ‘ga’ and ‘ba’ as intensifiers to the root word ‘zillion’ (itself an indefinite hyperbolic) to suggest a number more than a billion or even than a zillion!

    15. Which one of the following could be drawn as a conclusion from the above information?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    Here, remember to define the main point of the passage! The point here is that indefinite hyperbolic numbers are indefinite, but certain rules do underpin them. 

    Statement A is not addressed by the passage, although these numbers are used in an exaggerative way sometimes it does not say or imply that they encourage it. 

    Statement B talks about native speakers, which are talked about in the passage. The passage says everyone ‘roughly’ agrees on the definition, but that is absolutely not to say that nobody ever misunderstands. 

    Statement C is a neat summary of the point we defined earlier.

    Statement D directly contradicts the passage which says that ‘there are language models that underpin the terms’. 

    Post Comment

    The table below shows the results of an eye test carried out on the population of a small village. The bottom row of the table shows the percentage of each gender group that were able to read the bottom line of the eye-test chart:

    16. What percentage of all those tested could read the bottom line of the chart?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is A.

    Defining your calculation here can save you a lot of time! You need the total number of people and the number of people who could read the bottom line. You can sum up the top line for the first part, which gives you a total of 450 people. In the bottom line, 28% of 50 is 14, 32% of 50 is 16, 12% of 200 is 24, 18% of 150 is 27 and these add up to 81. Therefore, our calculation is (81/450) x 100, which gives us 18%.

    Post Comment

    During World War I (1914–1918), three hundred British soldiers were executed by firing squad for the offences of desertion and disobeying an order. To later generations, these sentences seemed so severe that a movement was set up to exonerate the executed men. Prolonged debate took place within the UK government about whether it was appropriate to issue a legal pardon. Wisely, it was decided that this was not appropriate. Too much time has elapsed for individual cases to be reviewed fairly, and a blanket pardon that made no distinctions between individual circumstances would be no more just. Social norms have changed so much that there can be no reliable evaluation of judgements made under the terrible circumstances of the war.

    17. Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    Here, we are thinking about assumptions underlying the argument. This requires us to carefully read the passage then individually assess statements. The premise of the passage, in short, is that the punishment for desertion seems very severe today and there is some consternation about this as social norms have changed a lot.

    Statement A uses extreme language, so be cautious. In fact, the passage says that ‘there can be no reliable evaluation of judgements’, which implies that there can be evaluations, so this assumption does not underlie the argument. 

    Statement B is wrong because, although the text talks about different norms in wartime, it does not assume that crimes committed are always more serious. 

    Statement C is not an assumption because, again, the text tells us that ‘there can be no reliable evaluation of judgements’. Therefore, they have not assumed that capital punishment was necessary because they believe it cannot be evaluated. 

    Statement D is an assumption underlying the passage. Indeed, it says ‘too much time has elapsed for individual cases to be reviewed fairly’ and uses this point to argue against a blanket pardon. This line of argument assumes that some death sentences may have been more or less deserved.

    Post Comment

    Jasper’s school bag can carry up to 5 books. He stores the rest of his school books in his locker. He can visit his locker before school, at break time, and at lunch time to change the books he carries in his bag.

    The tables below show his timetable and the number of books needed for each of his lessons.

    Each subject has completely different books.

    18. On which day does Jasper not need to visit his locker at break time?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    This is a great, pretty straightforward question where the important thing is going to be moving carefully through the steps. If Jasper can carry 5 books in his bag, we need to find the day on which he needs 5 or fewer books before lunch. 

    On Monday, he needs 3 for maths, 1 for English and 2 for history which makes 6.

    On Tuesday he needs 1 for music, 2 for science and 3 for geography for a total of 6 again.

    On Wednesday he needs 3 for maths, 2 for history and 2 for science for a total of 7. 

    On Thursday he needs 1 for music, 1 for English and 3 for maths for a total of 5. This is therefore the answer. 

    On Friday he needs 1 for art, 3 for geography and 2 for science for a total of, again, 6. 

    Therefore, the answer is D, Thursday.

    Timing tip!

    You will find on running through this counting in your head that Thursday is the correct answer. You do not, therefore, need to assess Friday and nor should you

    Post Comment

    National daily newspapers
    The sales of national daily papers in the UK reached a peak in the mid-1950s. Since then there has been a gradual decline in sales. The availability of multimedia news platforms has accelerated this decline in the 21st century, and by the close of 2014, no UK newspaper had daily sales exceeding two million.

    Despite this decline, there is no denying the enormous power the national newspapers still have to influence public opinion. No papers have done this on a bigger scale than Rupert Murdoch’s Sun and the Mail under Paul Dacre. And no issue has ever demonstrated it more clearly than the divisive issue of Brexit.

    Dacre became editor at the Mail in 1992 and resigned in 2018 (Figure 1 relates to his time in charge). Before and during the 2016 referendum – on leaving or remaining in the European Union – the Mail openly backed the Leave campaign, along with the Express, Star, Sun, and Telegraph. The combined daily sales of these brands was over 4 million, dwarfing those of the four Remain-supporting papers. No surprise, therefore, that the majority of the UK population was persuaded to vote Leave.

    Figure 1

    Percentage change in national daily newspaper sales, 1992-2018

    Figure 2

    Average daily sales of the nine national daily papers

    19. Which one of the following is the best estimate of the average daily sales of the Mirror in 1992?
  • 2
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    Remember for questions such as this you should only read the important information – we want to know the average daily sales specifically of The Mirror in 1992. We see in Figure 1 that sales of The Mirror declined by 80% from 1992-2018, and in Figure 2 that 583,192 copies were sold in 2018. Therefore, if we call our 1992 value 100%, then 2018 sales represent 20% or 1 fifth of this. Roughly multiplying 583,192 by 5 (by rounding it up to 600,000) gives us 3 million, which is closest to 2.9 million or D.

    Timing tip!
    When you see prompt words like ‘roughly’ or ‘estimate’ and the answers are considerably different from one another, this is a hint to estimate! Don’t multiply the exact number, instead just round it to a good number and work with this. If you round up, then the correct answer will be a little lower than your estimate and if you round down then it will be a little higher.

    Post Comment

    National daily newspapers
    The sales of national daily papers in the UK reached a peak in the mid-1950s. Since then there has been a gradual decline in sales. The availability of multimedia news platforms has accelerated this decline in the 21st century, and by the close of 2014, no UK newspaper had daily sales exceeding two million.

    Despite this decline, there is no denying the enormous power the national newspapers still have to influence public opinion. No papers have done this on a bigger scale than Rupert Murdoch’s Sun and the Mail under Paul Dacre. And no issue has ever demonstrated it more clearly than the divisive issue of Brexit.

    Dacre became editor at the Mail in 1992 and resigned in 2018 (Figure 1 relates to his time in charge). Before and during the 2016 referendum – on leaving or remaining in the European Union – the Mail openly backed the Leave campaign, along with the Express, Star, Sun, and Telegraph. The combined daily sales of these brands was over 4 million, dwarfing those of the four Remain-supporting papers. No surprise, therefore, that the majority of the UK population was persuaded to vote Leave.

    Figure 1

    Percentage change in national daily newspaper sales, 1992-2018

    Figure 2

    Average daily sales of the nine national daily papers

    20. The following unlabelled graph compares the daily sales of five of the nine national daily papers between 1995 and 2015. Which of the five lines 1-5 corresponds to the data for the Mirror?
  • 0
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    You could really help yourself on this question by quickly noting down the figures for each year and using these notes to support your answer. We do not have 1995, so start at 2000. 

    2000 – 2.3 million

    2005 – 1.8 million

    2010 –  1.2 million

    2015 – 900,000

    Therefore, we can quickly eliminate lines 2 and 5. We see a steady decrease in sales of The Mirror, and lines 2 and 5 show increases and plateaus at different times respectively. 

    Comparing then for the more nuanced lines, we see that line 1 has a much steeper decrease between 2010 and 2015 than 2000 and 2015 which is not consistent with the numbers showing us a drop of 0.3 million and 0.6 million respectively. 

    Finally, line 4 shows a linear drop between 2005 and 2015 which is not the case – we see a 0.6 million drop and a 0.3 million drop for the 2005-10 and 2010-15 periods respectively.

    However, line 3 shows a more or less linear decrease between 2000 and 2010 which is much more compatible with the 0.5 million at 0.6 million figures for 2000-05 and 2005-10 respectively.

    Post Comment

    National daily newspapers
    The sales of national daily papers in the UK reached a peak in the mid-1950s. Since then there has been a gradual decline in sales. The availability of multimedia news platforms has accelerated this decline in the 21st century, and by the close of 2014, no UK newspaper had daily sales exceeding two million.

    Despite this decline, there is no denying the enormous power the national newspapers still have to influence public opinion. No papers have done this on a bigger scale than Rupert Murdoch’s Sun and the Mail under Paul Dacre. And no issue has ever demonstrated it more clearly than the divisive issue of Brexit.

    Dacre became editor at the Mail in 1992 and resigned in 2018 (Figure 1 relates to his time in charge). Before and during the 2016 referendum – on leaving or remaining in the European Union – the Mail openly backed the Leave campaign, along with the Express, Star, Sun, and Telegraph. The combined daily sales of these brands was over 4 million, dwarfing those of the four Remain-supporting papers. No surprise, therefore, that the majority of the UK population was persuaded to vote Leave.

    Figure 1

    Percentage change in national daily newspaper sales, 1992-2018

    Figure 2

    Average daily sales of the nine national daily papers

    21. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument expressed in the second and third paragraphs?
  • 0
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    Focus here, you only need to read the second and third paragraphs! The argument here is that newspapers can hugely influence public opinion, and because Leave-supporting papers sold so many more copies than Remain-supporting papers it is little surprise that Leave won in the Brexit referendum. Now, you have been asked to select the argument which most weakens this concept if true.

    Statement A does not really relate to the argument – even if the Leave-supporting papers don’t present the best arguments we cannot logically conclude that they don’t influence people. 

    Statement B is again irrelevant, what people want does not equate to the impact of newspapers on public opinion. Therefore, this does not undermine the argument. 

    Statement C would actually more strengthen the argument, if more people access news then it would have a greater impact on the population. 

    Statement D does weaken the argument, in elegant fashion. Indeed, if people are buying the papers which support their own views anyway, then these sources of news do not sway public opinion and it is simply the case that more Leave-supporting newspapers sold because there are more Leave-supporting people.

    Post Comment

    National daily newspapers
    The sales of national daily papers in the UK reached a peak in the mid-1950s. Since then there has been a gradual decline in sales. The availability of multimedia news platforms has accelerated this decline in the 21st century, and by the close of 2014, no UK newspaper had daily sales exceeding two million.

    Despite this decline, there is no denying the enormous power the national newspapers still have to influence public opinion. No papers have done this on a bigger scale than Rupert Murdoch’s Sun and the Mail under Paul Dacre. And no issue has ever demonstrated it more clearly than the divisive issue of Brexit.

    Dacre became editor at the Mail in 1992 and resigned in 2018 (Figure 1 relates to his time in charge). Before and during the 2016 referendum – on leaving or remaining in the European Union – the Mail openly backed the Leave campaign, along with the Express, Star, Sun, and Telegraph. The combined daily sales of these brands was over 4 million, dwarfing those of the four Remain-supporting papers. No surprise, therefore, that the majority of the UK population was persuaded to vote Leave.

    Figure 1

    Percentage change in national daily newspaper sales, 1992-2018

    Figure 2

    Average daily sales of the nine national daily papers

    1 Between 2017 and 2018 the combined sales of the nine national daily papers fell by between 11% and 12%.

    2 In 2016 the sales of the five pro-Leave newspapers accounted for more than 70% of the combined sales of the nine major daily papers.

    22. Which of the following statements is/are supported by the data in Figure 2?
  • 1
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    Here, it is as important as ever to quickly take a moment to think about what you’re going to calculate. Here are the calculations for each:

    1. (Difference in sales between 2017 and 2018/Sales in 2017) x 100
      1. Difference in sales between 2017 and 2018 = 6008137 – 5381969
        1. = 626168
      2. (626168/6008137) x 100 = 10.4%
      3. Therefore, this difference is not between 11% and 12% and this statement is not true
    2. (Sum of sales for the Leave-supporting papers in 2016/Sum of all 9 papers sales in 2016) x 100
      1. Leave supporting papers = Mail, Express, Star, Sun and Telegraph
        1. 4,726,969
      2. Sum of all 9 papers = 6,303,317
      3. (4,726,969/6,303,317) x 100 = 74.99%
      4. Therefore, this is above 70% and this statement is true.

    Therefore, with a couple of relatively short calculations, we see that only statement C is true.

    Post Comment

    As a cricket fan, one of the perks of my job is that my office overlooks Old Bridge cricket ground. I have a good view of the playing area, but an ill-placed advertising hoarding means that I can only see the very top of the electronically operated scoreboard. So for a score of 167 I see:

    There is a match currently in progress. Returning to my desk a few minutes ago, all I could see of the score was

    Since then one of the batsmen has scored 4, 6, 4, 6, 6 and 4 from consecutive balls.

    After the first 4 the part of the score that I can see didn’t change.

    After the first 6 it changed to:

    It didn’t change again until after the third 6, when it became:

    After the last 4 it returned to:

    23. What is the correct score now?
  • 1
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    This question requires some level of visualisation, try to put yourself in the scenario as this might make it easier! The patterns formed in the second diagram can only be from the numbers 2, 3 or 7. Then, we can take the information we are given step by step to logically find the answer.

    1. After the first 4, the pattern does not change. Therefore, originally the score would have been ? – ? – 3 and become ? – ? – 7, since these are the only possibilities given the numbers 2, 3 and 7. 
    2. After the first 6, the only possible numbers which could constitute the middle one are 0, 8 or 9. Since 7+6=13, the middle number can only have increased by 1 so must be 8, as it can only have changed from 2, 3 or 7. Therefore, we know at this point that the number is ? – 8 – 3. 
    3. After the next 4 and 6, the number does not change. This is understandable as it must have moved from ? – 8 – 3 to ? – 9 – 3 which would appear the same. 
    4. After the next 6, we see that it becomes ? – 9 – 9.
    5. After the final 4, we can see that ? – 9 – 9 would be 103 so the first number must have increased by 1, and the last two will be 0 – 3. Because the number can originally only have been 2, 3 or 7 and the pattern has not changed after an increase of 1, it must have changed from 2 to 3. 
    6. Therefore, the final score is 3 – 0 – 3.
    Post Comment

    The chore of raising young chicks is one some birds manage to avoid. By laying their eggs in the nests of others, they dupe those others into feeding the babies once hatched. Such ‘brood parasitism’ has been noted in at least three groups, namely cuckoos, cowbirds and honey guides. It provides a good example of convergent evolution, in which unrelated groups with similar ways of life evolve similar adaptations that help them thrive. The adaptation noted in these three groups of birds is that the shells of their eggs are significantly thicker than those of the birds they parasitise. To demonstrate that this is an example of convergent evolution, a benefit has to be shown to be associated with the adaptation. In this case, the thicker shells have been shown to provide greater warmth, enabling the parasitic chicks to hatch sooner than the chicks of the host bird – giving a greater chance of survival.

    24. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    The paragraph provides three different examples of species that have adopted this method of ‘parasitism’, whereby these birds will lay their eggs in the nests of other bird species nests. It then explains that convergent evolution is where ‘unrelated groups with similar ways of their life evolve similar adaptations that help them thrive.’ The similar adaptation discussed in the text is how these species have developed thicker shells to their advantage in comparison to other species. Therefore, it is fair to say that ‘brood parasitism’ is an example of convergent evolution.

    Statement A & C are both pieces of evidence rather than the overarching conclusion.

    Statement D is incorrect because this too does not represent the overarching conclusion. It is also too definitive in the way it states that convergent evolution can ‘only’ occur if there is a clear benefit to the species, given their change in life adaptation. However, this can neither be assumed for certain, despite the example given shown to be beneficial for the survival of the three species provided

    Post Comment

    Venus bars cost 30p each, Whizz bars cost 40p each and Flaky bars cost 50p each. Nicola spends exactly £2.40 on chocolate bars.

    1 She must have more than one type of bar.

    2 She must have at least one Flaky bar.

    3 She must have 5, 6 or 7 bars altogether.

    4 She cannot have an equal number of each of the bars.

    25. Which of the following statements are incorrect?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    Here, we are looking for the incorrect statement about the very definitely-not-proprietary chocolate bars. 

    Statement 1 is not true because by buying 8 Venus bars Nicola would spend £2.40.

    Statement 2, for the same reasoning as above, is not true. If Nicola bought 8 Venus bars, she would not need to purchase any Flaky bars.

    Statement 3 is, for the same reason as the other 2, not correct. Once again, 8 Venus bars would break this rule. 

    Statement 4 is untrue because with 2 of each bar, the total would come to £2.40 (60p+80p+£1 = £2.40)

    Therefore, none of the above statements are true. E is the correct answer.

    Top Tip!

    Always check what you’re being asked. By reading it incorrectly, you sacrifice marks  from an otherwise very easy question!

    Post Comment

    People often comment on the fact that the sport of swimming has had a relatively high number of new world records set over the past few decades. Many other developments have occurred in the sport during that time, including the manufacture of swimsuits that create less resistance as swimmers move through the water, and improvements in the design of the starting blocks used in races. Even the engineering of swimming pools has evolved. Engineering advancements make it easier to maintain an optimal water temperature and other conditions in the pools where top competitions are held and the time records set. Most recently, computer software was developed that allows elite swimmers to analyse the tiniest part of their movement in the water in order to keep adjusting their swimming strokes.

    1. Swimming is likely to have a relatively high number of new world records set over the next few decades.

    2. Natural ability no longer matters all that much in determining what swimmers can achieve in their sport.

    3. Technological progress has played a role in swimmers being able to set new world records.

    26. Which of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
  • 0
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The paragraph explains that technological advancements in the sport of swimming, such as improved swimsuits to evolved swimming pool environments, have ultimately enabled top competitors to set new time records. This is the overarching conclusion which is summarised in statement 3.

    Statement 1 is incorrect because we cannot assume that not many world records will be broken over the next few years. On the contrary, given the increase in technological evolvement, it is likely that more world records will be broken. But this too, does not represent the overarching conclusion.

    Statement 2 is incorrect because there is no mention of natural ability in the text.

    Post Comment

    George enjoys reading newspapers and is considering whether he should take out any subscriptions.

    Details of the daily cost and subscription tariffs for each of the five newspapers he reads are as follows:

    George decides he will read at least three different newspapers in one format or the other each week. One of these must be the Times but it doesn’t matter which the other two are. He wants to read a printed newspaper twice a week.

    27. What is the minimum George will need to spend in a year on his newspaper access?
  • 0
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    We should start with the requirements – we know that George wants at least one of his newspapers to be The Times, he wants a printed newspaper twice a week and we are looking for the minimum. Going down the table, we see that the prices for printed and online/tablet subscriptions increase so apart from The Times, we should select Dispatch and The Express as well. 

    George wants a printed newspaper twice a week, so it is a good idea to check whether the subscription or buying the printed papers outright once a week will cost more. We can tell simply by eyeballing the figures that we should not bother with a printed subscription, so George should buy the papers once a week and the costs for these are below.

    • Dispatch – £1 x 52 = £52
    • Express – 80p x 52 = £41.60 
    • Times – £1.50 x 52 = £78

    Regarding the format of the papers, The Times online and tablet format costs more than both Dispatch and Express together but it is a required paper, so The Times should be in print at £78. George wants one more paper in print, and Express is the cheapest at 80p, so this is our other printed paper at £41.60.

    Finally, we need whatever is the cheapest version of Dispatch which is the online and tablet form at £30. Altogether, this equals £149.60 which is answer D

    Post Comment

    Many countries are experimenting with legalising previously illegal substances, including marijuana and heroin. The rationale for the legalisation movement includes concerns about the financial and social burden of the so-called ‘war on drugs’, which is widely considered to be a failure, anyway. But what drug legalisation advocates forget is why certain substances were made illegal in the first place: taking them leads to behaviours that are harmful both to users and to the people around them. For evidence of such effects, we only need to look to Colorado in the USA. Following the state’s recent legalisation of marijuana, the rates of murder and of violent crime overall increased. This example shows that the drug legalisation movement is as dangerous as it is misguided.

    1 It assumes that because the crime rise in Colorado occurred after marijuana was legalised, the rise was caused by this change in law.

    2 It fails to acknowledge the problems associated with other substances which are already legal and more socially acceptable.

    3 It concludes that drug legalisation has negative effects based just on the evidence from one place.

    28. Which of the following describe(s) flaws in the reasoning of the above argument?
  • 0
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    The main argument of this passage is quite simple – the legalisation of illicit substances is a bad idea because the use of these substances is harmful, a point illustrated by the fact that drug legalisation preceded a rise in crime in Colorado.

    Statement 1 does undermine the argument, because it rightly points out the fallacious assumption in the argument that the increase in crime was caused by drug legalisation in Colorado. Remember, correlation does not equal causation

    Statement 2 does not undermine the argument. It mentions legal substances, whereas the argument is specifically focused on illegal substances.

    Statement 3 does undermine the argument, by correctly identifying that one location (Colorado) is not a representative sample for everywhere else. 

    Therefore, E (statements 1 and 3 only) is the correct answer.

    Top tip!
    When considering which statements undermine an argument, think about relevance. A perfectly valid point which does not address the argument directly is less likely to undermine it.

    Post Comment

    A survey at a leisure centre has found that 70% of members use the swimming pool regularly and only 40% use the climbing wall.

    The following statements have been made:

    1.  At least 10% of members swim and climb.

    2. All members either swim or climb or do both.

    3. At least half of those who climb never swim.

    29. Based only on the information given, which of the statements, taken independently, could be true?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is A.

    This question is a case study in reading the question. Read carefully, the question asks us which of the statements could be true, not which ones are definitely true. 

    Statement 1 could be true because if 30% only climb, 60% only swim and 10% do both then it would be true.

    Statement 2 could be true if the statistics were spread as in statement 1.

    Statement 3 could be true because if 40% of members climb, then if half of these did not swim then 20% would not swim. With 70% of members swimming, this leaves 30% who don’t swim and since 30% is greater than 20% this statement is possible.

    Therefore, all of the statements could be true.

    Post Comment

    A recent study found an association between the number of self-help books new mothers read about caring for their baby and the well-being of those mothers – and it goes in the wrong direction. The more books women had read claiming to show how to put babies into feeding and sleeping schedules, the worse they reported feeling. The number of depressive symptoms they reported correlated positively with the number of books they had read. Most of the mothers in the study had used routine-led baby manuals that advise mothers to implement routines of feeding and sleeping, implying that such routines are easy to establish. One in six of the mothers in the study said the books made them feel like a failure.

    30. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The passage discusses self-help books about motherhood, largely concluding that the implication in such books that it is easy to get babies into a routine leaves mothers who are unable to do this feeling like failures, leading to more depressive symptoms. 

    Statement A cannot be concluded from the passage because no mention is made of the mothers of mothers and whether or not help is sought here. 

    Statement B may sound reasonable, however it cannot be drawn from the passage, as it does not talk about any association between difficulty in raising a baby and buying self-help books.

    Statement C can be concluded. The passage talks about these books implying it is easy to get babies into routines, and this implication leaves mothers feeling like failures. It is a reasonable assumption from this that mothers struggle to get babies into routines. 

    Statement D cannot be concluded from the passage. Although it details a problem with self-help books, it does not talk about the other side of the argument.

    Post Comment

    The share price of a company varies each day.

    The graph shows the share price over a period of 10 days:

    I buy £6000 worth of shares in this company in a single purchase during this period, and then sell them again on a later day in the period.

    There are no costs associated with buying and selling the shares.

    31. What is the difference between the largest and smallest amount I could sell my shares for?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is F.

    This question doesn’t require you to be the Wolf of Wall Street! Think simply – for the largest value we need to buy as many shares as possible with the £6,000 and sell them as expensively as possible and for the smallest we need as few shares as possible and to sell them as cheaply as possible. 

    1. For the largest amount, we need to buy at the cheapest point and sell at the most expensive; this is buying on day 5 and selling on day 7/8. 
      1. This would allow us to purchase £6,000/0.15 = 40,000 shares and sell them at £0.30 for 40,000 x 0.30 = £12,000
    2. For the smallest amount, we need to buy and sell at the beginning and end of the largest drop – a fall of £0.10 occurs between either days 2 and 5 or 8 and 10 however we will make less money in the former case because everything is at a lower price here.
      1. We purchase £6,000/0.25 = 24,000 shares and sell them for £0.15 to give us 24,000 x 0.15 = £3600.
    3. The difference is £12,000 – £3,600 = £8400 or F.
    Post Comment
    jopper Medicmind Tutor

    Sat, 23 Oct 2021 16:50:25

    F

    Margot Robbie Medicmind Tutor

    Fri, 29 Oct 2021 11:13:34

    Thanks for giving a shoutout to my film xx

    Not drinking in middle age increases the risk of dementia as much as drinking too much, according to a new report. Published in the British Medical Journal, the data showed that abstinence (drinking no alcohol) in midlife was associated with a 45% higher risk of dementia compared with people who consumed between 1 and 14 units of alcohol per week. The risk of dementia increased steadily for higher rates of consumption. However, the report’s authors concluded that the underlying mechanisms leading to dementia for heavy drinkers and those abstaining were probably different. The study did not take into account the subjects’ drinking habits before middle age.

    The study tracked the drinking habits of more than 10 000 London civil servants between the ages of 35 and 55 from 1985 to 1993. They were then monitored for, on average, another 23 years. Of 10 308 baseline participants, a total of 397 cases of dementia were recorded over a mean follow-up period of 23.2 years.

    The findings of the study are summarised in the graph below, which shows how the likelihood of developing dementia later in life depended on the weekly rate of consumption of alcohol (X) during the eight-year period between 1985 and 1993. The ‘hazard ratio’ calculates this risk as the following ratio:

    proportion of participants that consumed X units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia
    proportion of participants that consumed 14 units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia

    The reference point of 14 units per week represents the government’s recommended maximum guideline for weekly consumption (equivalent to 7 glasses of wine or 7 pints of beer on average).

    The graph shows that abstinence was associated with a higher risk of dementia when the reference point was alcohol consumption of 14 units per week. Consumption of more than 14 units per week was also associated with an increased risk of dementia.

    The head of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: ‘As this study only looked at people’s drinking in midlife, we don’t know about their drinking habits earlier in adulthood, and it is possible that this may contribute to their later life dementia risk. People who completely abstain from alcohol may have an earlier history of heavy drinking and this can make it difficult to interpret the links between drinking and health. Future research will need to examine drinking habits across a whole lifetime, and this will help to shed more light on the relationship between alcohol and dementia.’

    32. According to the findings of the study, what level of alcohol consumption in middle age carries the lowest risk of dementia in later life?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    Although there is a lot of information here, notice that you only really need the graph to answer! The lowest hazard ratio on the graph corresponds to the lowest risk of dementia here. This is found at approximately 0.8, which corresponds to around 6 units of alcohol per week.

    Post Comment

    Not drinking in middle age increases the risk of dementia as much as drinking too much, according to a new report. Published in the British Medical Journal, the data showed that abstinence (drinking no alcohol) in midlife was associated with a 45% higher risk of dementia compared with people who consumed between 1 and 14 units of alcohol per week. The risk of dementia increased steadily for higher rates of consumption. However, the report’s authors concluded that the underlying mechanisms leading to dementia for heavy drinkers and those abstaining were probably different. The study did not take into account the subjects’ drinking habits before middle age.

    The study tracked the drinking habits of more than 10 000 London civil servants between the ages of 35 and 55 from 1985 to 1993. They were then monitored for, on average, another 23 years. Of 10 308 baseline participants, a total of 397 cases of dementia were recorded over a mean follow-up period of 23.2 years.

    The findings of the study are summarised in the graph below, which shows how the likelihood of developing dementia later in life depended on the weekly rate of consumption of alcohol (X) during the eight-year period between 1985 and 1993. The ‘hazard ratio’ calculates this risk as the following ratio:

    proportion of participants that consumed X units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia
    proportion of participants that consumed 14 units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia

    The reference point of 14 units per week represents the government’s recommended maximum guideline for weekly consumption (equivalent to 7 glasses of wine or 7 pints of beer on average).

    The graph shows that abstinence was associated with a higher risk of dementia when the reference point was alcohol consumption of 14 units per week. Consumption of more than 14 units per week was also associated with an increased risk of dementia.

    The head of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: ‘As this study only looked at people’s drinking in midlife, we don’t know about their drinking habits earlier in adulthood, and it is possible that this may contribute to their later life dementia risk. People who completely abstain from alcohol may have an earlier history of heavy drinking and this can make it difficult to interpret the links between drinking and health. Future research will need to examine drinking habits across a whole lifetime, and this will help to shed more light on the relationship between alcohol and dementia.’

    The first sentence of the passage proposes a conclusion that the author draws from the information that follows.

    33. Which one of the following is an assumption necessary to reach this conclusion?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is A.

    Although this question refers only to the first sentence of the passage, we actually need more information about the study from which the conclusion was drawn in order to understand the assumptions which underlie it. 

    Statement A is a necessary assumption because later in the passage we see that the study was conducted on 10,308 civil servants. Therefore, we must assume that the relationship does not vary between professions to reasonably draw the conclusion of the first sentence. 

    Statement B is not actually an assumption made by the study, rather we see that drinking too much was defined as more than 14 units per week, not 40. 

    Statement C is not an assumption made by the study – this investigates the relationship between dementia and alcohol use so does not need to think about other risks. 

    Statement D is a limitation of the study which is acknowledged by the authors in the final paragraph – ‘As this study only looked at people’s drinking in midlife, we don’t know about their drinking habits earlier in adulthood, and it is possible that this may contribute to their later life dementia risk.’ Therefore, this is not an assumption made

    Statement E is far from an assumption made by the study, it just examines drinking in midlife and the relative risk changes for dementia based on this.

    Post Comment

    Not drinking in middle age increases the risk of dementia as much as drinking too much, according to a new report. Published in the British Medical Journal, the data showed that abstinence (drinking no alcohol) in midlife was associated with a 45% higher risk of dementia compared with people who consumed between 1 and 14 units of alcohol per week. The risk of dementia increased steadily for higher rates of consumption. However, the report’s authors concluded that the underlying mechanisms leading to dementia for heavy drinkers and those abstaining were probably different. The study did not take into account the subjects’ drinking habits before middle age.

    The study tracked the drinking habits of more than 10 000 London civil servants between the ages of 35 and 55 from 1985 to 1993. They were then monitored for, on average, another 23 years. Of 10 308 baseline participants, a total of 397 cases of dementia were recorded over a mean follow-up period of 23.2 years.

    The findings of the study are summarised in the graph below, which shows how the likelihood of developing dementia later in life depended on the weekly rate of consumption of alcohol (X) during the eight-year period between 1985 and 1993. The ‘hazard ratio’ calculates this risk as the following ratio:

    proportion of participants that consumed X units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia
    proportion of participants that consumed 14 units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia

    The reference point of 14 units per week represents the government’s recommended maximum guideline for weekly consumption (equivalent to 7 glasses of wine or 7 pints of beer on average).

    The graph shows that abstinence was associated with a higher risk of dementia when the reference point was alcohol consumption of 14 units per week. Consumption of more than 14 units per week was also associated with an increased risk of dementia.

    The head of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: ‘As this study only looked at people’s drinking in midlife, we don’t know about their drinking habits earlier in adulthood, and it is possible that this may contribute to their later life dementia risk. People who completely abstain from alcohol may have an earlier history of heavy drinking and this can make it difficult to interpret the links between drinking and health. Future research will need to examine drinking habits across a whole lifetime, and this will help to shed more light on the relationship between alcohol and dementia.’

    Approximately 40% of the study cohort consumed alcohol at the recommended rate of 14 units per week during the period 1985 to 1993. Of these, 80 went on to develop dementia in later life.

    34. Based on this information and the findings of the study, what proportion of adults who drink the equivalent of 3 glasses of wine per day in mid-life are likely to develop dementia in later life?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    The answer to this question is found in the numerator of the calculation given for the hazard ratio so we need to know the number of units in 3 glasses of wine a night to calculate the hazard ratio and the proportion of people who consumed 14 units a week who went on to develop dementia to solve for this numerator. 

    1. The study tells us that 7 glasses of wine = 14 units, so 3 glasses of wine a night is 21 a week which must be 42 units.
      1. Reading off the graph, our hazard ratio is therefore 1.5
    2. The study also tells us that 40% of the 10308 participants, or 4123.2, participants consumed 14 units of alcohol a week and 80 of this cohort developed dementia.
      1. Therefore, the denominator is 1.94%
    3. Solving for the numerator, we can multiply 1.5 by 1.94 to give us 2.91%, which rounds to 3%. The answer is B.
    Post Comment

    Not drinking in middle age increases the risk of dementia as much as drinking too much, according to a new report. Published in the British Medical Journal, the data showed that abstinence (drinking no alcohol) in midlife was associated with a 45% higher risk of dementia compared with people who consumed between 1 and 14 units of alcohol per week. The risk of dementia increased steadily for higher rates of consumption. However, the report’s authors concluded that the underlying mechanisms leading to dementia for heavy drinkers and those abstaining were probably different. The study did not take into account the subjects’ drinking habits before middle age.

    The study tracked the drinking habits of more than 10 000 London civil servants between the ages of 35 and 55 from 1985 to 1993. They were then monitored for, on average, another 23 years. Of 10 308 baseline participants, a total of 397 cases of dementia were recorded over a mean follow-up period of 23.2 years.

    The findings of the study are summarised in the graph below, which shows how the likelihood of developing dementia later in life depended on the weekly rate of consumption of alcohol (X) during the eight-year period between 1985 and 1993. The ‘hazard ratio’ calculates this risk as the following ratio:

    proportion of participants that consumed X units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia
    proportion of participants that consumed 14 units per week in midlife who went on to develop dementia

    The reference point of 14 units per week represents the government’s recommended maximum guideline for weekly consumption (equivalent to 7 glasses of wine or 7 pints of beer on average).

    The graph shows that abstinence was associated with a higher risk of dementia when the reference point was alcohol consumption of 14 units per week. Consumption of more than 14 units per week was also associated with an increased risk of dementia.

    The head of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: ‘As this study only looked at people’s drinking in midlife, we don’t know about their drinking habits earlier in adulthood, and it is possible that this may contribute to their later life dementia risk. People who completely abstain from alcohol may have an earlier history of heavy drinking and this can make it difficult to interpret the links between drinking and health. Future research will need to examine drinking habits across a whole lifetime, and this will help to shed more light on the relationship between alcohol and dementia.’

    35. Which one of the following, if true, would most undermine the claim in the report that not drinking alcohol in mid-life causes as much risk of developing dementia as drinking too much?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    We are looking for a fact which challenges the claim given, so ideally something which means drinking moderately in midlife causes as much dementia risk as drinking heavily. 

    Statement A would actually support the claim given – if those who don’t drink in midlife go on to become heavy drinkers then this gives a reason why not drinking in midlife carries more risk than drinking moderately.

    Statement B does not ultimately undermine the claim because it is not reasonable to assume that stopping drinking heavily reverses the damage done – so the risk could still be high.

    Statement C successfully challenges the claim – if more heavy drinkers died before they had the chance to develop dementia then the population with the chance to develop dementia is concentrated with those who abstained from alcohol. 

    Statement D does not challenge the claim because it fails to tell us about the risk of dementia from the behaviour of ‘mentally astute people’ in midlife.

    Post Comment

    BMAT 2019 S1 Review Screen

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    BMAT 2019 S1 Section

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