This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 35 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

The ratio of seabirds to people on Gannet Island is 80:1. However, during the last twenty years the seabird population has fallen by 60 %, whilst the human population has increased by 25 %.

1. What approximately was the ratio of seabirds to people on Gannet Island twenty years ago?
0
0

## Explanation

If the seabird population  has fallen  by 60%, it is now 40% of its original value: 80/0.40=200. If the human population has increased by 25%: 1/1.25=0.8. Therefore the ratio of seabirds to humans 20 years ago was 200:0.8, dividing both sides by 0.8 gives 250:1.

Post Comment

“Freedom of speech is generally considered to be a key element of a democracy. But when that freedom is used to incite hatred of minority groups, another key feature of democracy – tolerance – is lost. So while it is true to say that freedom of speech is very desirable, it has to have limits put upon it if democracy is to be sustained.”

2. Which of the following best expresses the conclusion of the passage?
0
0

## Explanation

The conclusion in this paragraph states that freedom of speech needs to be controlled in order to achieve democracy, which is synonymous to statement E.

Post Comment

A square conference table is made up of four smaller tables as shown below:

3. Which two of the following table shapes could be made up using these four smaller tables?
0
0

## Explanation

Tables 1 and 3 can be divided as shown below:

Post Comment

“The media have an important role to play in a democracy, since a democracy requires that voters are well informed about the political issues. However, whenever a government minister makes a serious mistake, journalists seize on it as the only topic worth reporting in the political sphere. They focus on it to the exclusion of all other important political issues. Moreover, the particular story itself has its own dramatic requirements, which means that every detail that supports claims of a minister’s incompetence is included, whereas details that would support an alternative view are omitted. A good story is not the same thing as the truth. So it is clear that political journalists are not doing their job properly.”

4. Which of the following is an unstated assumption upon which the above argument is based?
0
0

## Explanation

The conclusion here is that political journalists are not doing their job properly and the reason given is that they exclude political issues. Therefore, we are assuming that it is the role of political journalists to allow voters to be informed on political issues. A, B, D and E are not required for the conclusion to be held.

Post Comment

A railway tunnel is 615 metres long. There is a strict speed limit of 45 kilometres per hour inside the tunnel and within 500 metres of either end.

The front of a train, whose length is 80 metres, has just entered the tunnel. The front of another train, of length 120 metres and travelling towards the tunnel in the opposite direction on a parallel track, is 40 metres away from the other end.

5. If both trains travel at the speed limit, how many seconds will it be before both trains have completely emerged from the tunnel? (Give your answer to the nearest second.)
0
0

## Explanation

The first train would have to travel 615m for the front of it to reach the end of the tunnel, and another 80m for its back-end to reach the end of the tunnel. The second train would have to travel 40m to reach the tunnel, and then 615m for its front end to reach the end of the tunnel, and another 120wm for its back-end to exit the tunnel. Given that both trains travel at the same speed, we only need to consider how long it would take for the seconds train to exit the tunnel as the first train would leave the tunnel first.

Converting the speed in km/h to m/s: 45×1000/3600=450/36=12.5 m/s.

So, from when the first train enters the tunnel, the second train would take: (40+615+120)/12.5=775/12.5=62 seconds to emerge from the tunnel completely

Post Comment

“Despite a growing problem of eating disorders among young women, the print media still contribute to the problem by featuring photographs of models far thinner than most ‘ordinary’ people. On the one hand they publish articles about the dangers of anorexia and bulimia, but on the other hand they use images of excessively thin models to promote the latest fashions.”

6. Which one of the following could be drawn as a conclusion of the passage above?
0
0

## Explanation

Statement C is correct because of the way that the final sentences weigh up how magazines discuss the dangers of anorexia and bulimia but simultaneously exclusively continue to use images of thin models to promote the latest fashions. Therefore it can be deduced that print media seems to be inconsistent with their approach to eating disorders amongst young women.

Post Comment

The table below shows one measure of pupils’ achievements in all GCSE subjects in England broken down by ethnicity, gender and whether they have English as a first language. The measure shown is the percentage of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE passes at grades A* to C. The columns labelled ‘KS 2-4 VA Measure’ give a measurement of the pupils’ improvement between Key Stage 2 (typically aged 11) and Key Stage 4 (typically aged 16). This is commonly known as ‘Value Added’.

Table 43: Achievements at GCSE at Equivalents for pupils at the end of Kay Stage 4, in maintained schools, in 2005, by ethnicity and English as a first Language

7. To the nearest 1%, by how many percentage points do Asian students out perform white students at GCSE?
0
0

## Explanation

Using data from the rightmost column in the bottom row of the table:

(10.21.1-984.9)/984.9=0.0368=3.68%.

Post Comment

The table below shows one measure of pupils’ achievements in all GCSE subjects in England broken down by ethnicity, gender and whether they have English as a first language. The measure shown is the percentage of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE passes at grades A* to C. The columns labelled ‘KS 2-4 VA Measure’ give a measurement of the pupils’ improvement between Key Stage 2 (typically aged 11) and Key Stage 4 (typically aged 16). This is commonly known as ‘Value Added’.

Table 43: Achievements at GCSE at Equivalents for pupils at the end of Kay Stage 4, in maintained schools, in 2005, by ethnicity and English as a first Language

8. Which ethnic group, not having English as a first language, achieves the greatest improvement between Key Stages 2 and 4?
0
0

## Explanation

Using data from the leftmost major column in the bottom row of the table, we can see that the K2-4 VA measure is the greatest, out of the ethnic groups listed, for Chinese at 1028.5. Therefore E is the answer.

Post Comment

The table below shows one measure of pupils’ achievements in all GCSE subjects in England broken down by ethnicity, gender and whether they have English as a first language. The measure shown is the percentage of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE passes at grades A* to C. The columns labelled ‘KS 2-4 VA Measure’ give a measurement of the pupils’ improvement between Key Stage 2 (typically aged 11) and Key Stage 4 (typically aged 16). This is commonly known as ‘Value Added’.

Table 43: Achievements at GCSE at Equivalents for pupils at the end of Kay Stage 4, in maintained schools, in 2005, by ethnicity and English as a first Language

9. Which one of the following statements is best supported by the data shown?
0
0

## Explanation

The opposite trend to A is suggested by the data: looking at the rightmost minor column for all pupils for both boys and girls shows that the measure for girls actually exceeds the measure for boys (997.3 and 977.5 respectively). So the data contradicts A.

The proportion of Asian pupils with English as not their first language (~30000/35000=0.86) exceeds that for Chinese pupils (~1800/2300=0.78), so the proportion of Chinese pupils that have English as a second language is not higher than every other group and B is also incorrect.

There are many measurements of performance given in the table so it would be hard to make a conclusion as general as C.

Compare the ‘% with 5 A-C’ columns from ‘English as a first language’ with ‘Other than English as a first language’ for each ethnic group. You will see that the percentage is higher for each ethnic group for those with English as a first language except for those of mixed ethnicity. Therefore D is supported by the data.

Post Comment

The table below shows one measure of pupils’ achievements in all GCSE subjects in England broken down by ethnicity, gender and whether they have English as a first language. The measure shown is the percentage of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE passes at grades A* to C. The columns labelled ‘KS 2-4 VA Measure’ give a measurement of the pupils’ improvement between Key Stage 2 (typically aged 11) and Key Stage 4 (typically aged 16). This is commonly known as ‘Value Added’.

Table 43: Achievements at GCSE at Equivalents for pupils at the end of Kay Stage 4, in maintained schools, in 2005, by ethnicity and English as a first Language

10. The KS 2-4 VA Measure shows that, for all ethnic groups, girls improve more between the ages of 11 and 16 than boys. Which one of the following could not be a possible explanation for this?
0
0

## Explanation

D is not a possible explanation because comparing the rightmost minor column in the table for both boys and girls shows that the KS 2-4 measure is higher for girls when each ethinic group is compared like-for-like with that of boys. This means the average is not biased by Asian girls, but rather represents a trend across all ethnic groups.

Post Comment

“A recent study compared the mental abilities of cannabis smokers with those of people who had never smoked cannabis. There were three groups of subjects: group 1, those who had smoked cannabis for 15 years; group 2, those who had smoked cannabis for 7 years; group 3, those who had never smoked cannabis. Because it is known that smoking cannabis has an immediate effect on brain activity, none of the subjects had smoked for 24 hours before the test. All subjects were asked to memorise and recall a list of 15 words. On average, those in group 1 recalled 7 words, those in group 2 recalled 9 words, and those in group 3 recalled 12 words.”

1. Long-term smoking of cannabis impairs one’s ability to learn and remember.

2. Cannabis can affect brain activity for more than 24 hours after smoking it.

3. Before they started using cannabis, subjects in groups 1 and 2 had lower IQs than those in group 3.

11. Which of the following could help to explain the results of the study?
0
0

## Explanation

The results of the study show that those who smoked cannabis remembered fewer words than those who did not, and that those who had smoked cannabis for longer remembered fewer words than those who had smoked cannabis for a shorter period of time. Statement 1 could explain the results of this study as the data suggests a positive correlation between the length of time having smoked cannabis and memory impairment. However, an alternative explanation for the results are the short-term effects of cannabis: those who remembered fewer words may have smoked cannabis last most recently, so statement 2 could also be correct. Another possible explanation is that the differences in the number of words remembered in each group was not due to smoking cannabis, but poorer short term memory anyway in the members of the groups scoring less. Hence statement 3 could also be an explanation.

Therefore all 3 statements could help explain the results of the study.

Post Comment

A supermarket always makes 40% gross margin on its cereals. So if it sells a box for \$1, it has paid the supplier 60 c. When items are sold at a special offer price, the suppliers are expected to reduce their prices so that the supermarket still makes the same percentage gross margin.

A particular cereal normally sells for \$1.50 a box. This week there is a special offer which gives the customer 3 boxes for the price of 2.

12. By how much has the supplier of this cereal had to reduce the price of each special offer box?
0
0

## Explanation

For a \$1.50 box of cereal, the supplier is usually paid: 1.50×0.60=\$0.90=90c. If 3 boxes are solid for the price of 2, each box would cost (1.50×2)/3=3/3=\$1. Therefore per box of cereal, the supplier would be paid 1×0.60=\$0.60=60c. So, due to the special offer, the supplier has to reduce its price by 90-60=30c.

Post Comment

The table below shows UK standard postal rates from April 2006.

 Max weight First class Second class 60 g 32 p 23 p 100 g 49 p 37 p 150 g 68 p 50 p 200 g 84 p 62 p 250 g 99 p 75 p 300 g £1.14 88 p 350 g £1.29 £1.00 400 g £1.49 £1.21 450 g £1.70 £1.39 500 g £1.90 £1.55 600 g £2.30 £1.78 700 g £2.69 £2.01 750 g £2.89 £2.12 800 g £3.10 n/a 900 g £3.49 n/a 1 kg £3.89 n/a

Available stamp denominations (below £1) are as follows:

 1 p 2 p 5 p 9 p 10 p 20 p 23 p 32 p 37 p 42 p 44 p 49 p 50 p 72 p
13. What is the lowest standard postal rate which cannot be made up using only one or two stamps?
0
0

## Explanation

Starting from the lowest standard postal rate, each can of 23, 32, 37, 49 and 50 can be made using 1 of the stamps listed. 62 can be made using stamps of 42 and 20. However 68 cannot be made using only 1 or 2 stamps.

Post Comment

“According to scientists who have studied fingerprinting, no one knows whether it is reliable because its accuracy has never been measured, even though it has been used for over a hundred years. But we should not doubt its reliability because fingerprint examiners are the experts in using the technique, and they all agree that it is a completely reliable method of identifying criminals.”

14. Which one of the following identifies a weakness in the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The conclusion of the passage states that fingerprinting as a method used to identify criminals should not be challenged as experts in the field agree that it is a ‘completely reliable method of identifying criminals.’ Therefore, it is assumed that the opinion of experts can be considered the truth for the method to be a reliable method. However, the argument is weakened when the opinion of experts cannot guarantee how reliable

fingerprinting is as a method. This is summarised in statement C.

Statement A is irrelevant because there is no mention regarding how experts apply the method correctly.

Statement B is irrelevant as well because the conclusion discusses the reliability rather than the accuracy of fingerprinting.

Statement D is incorrect because it does not directly weaken the main conclusion concerning experts.

Post Comment

The map below shows an area of Scotland and the relative positions of seven villages and towns. Unfortunately, on the map I have, none of them are named.

I am looking for Windyhill. I ask a local for help, but he can only give me the following information:

Clashandarran is south and east of Aultvaich.

Wellbank is due east of Ruilick.

Beauly is south and west of Windyhill.

Aultviach is due north of Ruilick.

Rheindown is due south of Clashandarran.

15. Which town is Windyhill?
0
0

## Explanation

There is only one piece of information given about Windyhill in reference to Beauly, and the  only way to determine either of their positions on the map is to find the positions of all the other places first. Aultvaich is northwest of Clashandarran and north of Ruilick. Therefore Aultvaich must be A and Ruilick E. Wellbank is due east of Ruilick, so Wellbank must be F. Rheindown is due south of Clashandarran, so they must be D and B respectively. This leaves Beauly as G and Windyhill as C.

Post Comment

“Most scientists now agree that global warming is a major world threat, and that human activity in generating greenhouse gasses is at least a contributory factor, if not the whole explanation. Although many countries in the developed world have set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it is considered unrealistic to expect such restraint by the less developed countries as they attempt to improve their economies and thus reduce poverty. So we are left with a stark choice: is it a priority to act to reduce the long term problems of global warming, or to alleviate current levels of poverty in developing countries?” Which one or more of the following is an assumption of the above argument?

1. Less developed countries have not set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

2. Developed countries regard alleviating poverty as a higher priority than reducing global warming.

3. Levels of prosperity in the developing countries are not improving.

4. Developing countries can only improve their economies by activities which generate greenhouse gasses.

16. Which one or more of the following is an assumption of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The conclusion here is that there is a choice between either reducing poverty or decreasing greenhouse emissions and therefore we are assuming there is no way both can be achieved. Looking at the other statements, (1) – we don’t know if this is the case, (2) – there is no mention of what developing countries are prioritising and (3) – we don’t know if this is the case from the passage.

Post Comment

Mrs Watts took her grandson and nine of his school friends to a local theme park as a birthday treat. She had saved £125 to spend on rides, the prices of which are shown below.

 MAIN RIDES Apocalypse £9.00 Armageddon £7.50 OTHERS Dodgems £5.00 Helter Skelter £4.50 Carousel £3.50

All the children want to go on one of the main rides. Mrs Watts decided that the children could have two rides each. If they chose Apocalypse then they had to go on the Carousel for their other ride. If they chose Armageddon then they could choose between the Dodgems and Helter Skelter for their second ride. Two chose to go on Apocalypse.

When she had paid all their rides, she found that she had exactly enough left to buy each of them a 25 p packet of bubble gum.

17. How many went on the Dodgems?
0
0

## Explanation

The 2 which chose Apocalypse also go on carousel, which would cast (9+3.50)x2=12.50×2=£25. So the 8 other children must have chosen Armageddon, which would cost 7.50×8=£60. Each of them got a £0.25 pack of bubblegum, which cost 0.25×10=£2.50 in total. So altogether, this costs 25+60+2.50= £87.50. This means that the amount of money spent on dodgems and helter skelter was 125-87.50=£37.50. As we also know that 8 children chose one of these rides, we can form a pair of simultaneous equations:

5D+4.50H=37.50 and D+H=8,

Where D and H are the number of children who chose dodgems and helter skelter respectively. Solving:

(D+H=8)x5=5D+5H=40

(5D+5H=40)-(5D+4.50H=37.50)

0.50H=2.50

H=5,D=8-H=8-5=3.

Therefore 3 children chose dodgems

Post Comment

“Farmers are often criticised for their heavy use of pesticides, which has had a harmful effect not only on many species of wildlife, but, it is alleged, on people who live near farms where pesticides have been sprayed. And yet the fault does not lie with farmers. People choose supermarkets according to price. Supermarkets compete for our business and so bring prices down to gain our business. Farmers are therefore forced to sell their produce at increasingly lower costs, and therefore need to maximise their yield or make a loss at the prices supermarkets demand. Therefore people do not have the right to complain about farmers’ use of pesticides.”

18. Which of the following is a flaw in the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

Statement C is correct because the last statement assumes that in order for farmers to maximise their yield to avoid making a loss is with the use of pesticides as it summarises that people have to stop complaining about the use of pesticides in farms.

Statement A is incorrect because the passage is clear with how farmers use pesticides in that they are primarily used to increase produce yield.

Statement B is not a flaw of the overarching argument that the only way that yield can increase is through the use of pesticides.

Statement D & E are both incorrect because there is no mention of this in the passage.

Post Comment

Ayesha swims 6 mornings a week, taking Saturday off. She knows that, for each scheduled session she misses, it will take three sessions before her fitness returns to its previous level.

Up to the beginning of April 2006, she had a long uninterrupted run of training and was as fit as she could expect to be. She then had a week’s holiday from 8th April to 15th April inclusive and did not swim while she was on holiday. Two weeks after coming back, she had a sore shoulder and missed four further sessions. The calendar for the relevant period is shown below.

19. If she misses no further sessions, after the session on which date can she expect to be fully fit again?
0
0

## Explanation

During her week’s holiday from 8th April to 15th April inclusive, Ayesha missed 6 training sessions from the 9th to the 14th of April inclusive. So she would require 6×3=18 training sessions to regain her previous fitness level. During the next two weeks she would have 6×2=12 training sessions, so she is 18-12=6 training sessions off her previous fitness level. Now her shoulder made her miss a further 4 sessions from the 30th of April to the 3rd of May, so she is 6+(4×3)=18 sessions from her regular fitness level on the 3rd of May. So she will be fit 18 training sessions after the 3rd of May, which is 18/6=3 weeks after the 3rd of May, which is the 24th of May.

Post Comment

The graphs below relate to the number of General Practitioners (GPs) in practices in England from 1994 to 2004.

20. What, approximately, in 2004 was the percentage of General Practitioners who were female?
0
0

## Explanation

From figure 1, ~12000 practitioners were female in 2004 out of ~32000. So the proportion of female practitioners was: ~12000/32000=38%, which is closest to B.

Post Comment

The graphs below relate to the number of General Practitioners (GPs) in practices in England from 1994 to 2004.

21. Approximately how many female GPs were practising part time in 2004?
0
0

## Explanation

From figure 1, ~120000 practitioners were female in 2004. From figure 2, in 2004 ~48% of female practitioners were working part time. So the number of female practitioners working part-time in 2004 can be estimated as: ~12000×0.50=6000.

Post Comment

The graphs below relate to the number of General Practitioners (GPs) in practices in England from 1994 to 2004.

22. Whilst the number of GPs has risen between 1994 and 2004, the percentage practising part time has also risen. Assuming those practising part time work 50% of normal hours, what, approximately, has been the effect on the total number of GP hours?
0
0

## Explanation

In 1994 the number of GPs was approximately 27500 and approximately 12% of these worked part time. So ~27500×0.12=3300 GPs worked part-time in 1994 and the remaining 27500-3300=24200 worked full-time. If we take each GP working part time as doing half the number of hours as a full time GP, in 1994 there were the equivalent to 24200+(3300/2)=24200+1650=25950 full time GPs. In 2004 the total number of GPs was ~32000 and ~25% of these worked part time. So ~32000×0.25=8000 worked part time and 32000-8000=24000 worked full time. This is equivalent to 24000+(8000/2)=24000+4000=28000 full time GPs.

So from 1994 to 2004 the change in the total number of GP hours worked was approximately an increase of 28000-25950=2050 hours. As a percentage of the GP hours in 1994 this is 2050/25950×100=8%, which is closest to 10% out of the answer options given.

Post Comment

Six friends went to their local agricultural show. They all decided to enter the ‘Guess the Weight of the Bull’ competition. The guesses of the six friends are shown below in hundredweight (cwt).

The average of their guesses was closer than any of their individual guesses. Suzie’s guess is nearer than Wally’s.

23. What, to the nearest cwt, is the weight of the bull?
0
0

## Explanation

The average of their guesses is (40+37+26+19+9+4)/6=22.5. We know that this average is closer than any of their guesses and the two guesses closest to this average are 19 and 26. So the weight of the bull must be closer to 22.5 than 19, so must be 21 or above, and must be closer to 22.5 than 26, so must be 24 or below. So the range of possible weights of the bull is 21-24 inclusive. We also know that Suzie’s guess is nearer than Wally’s, so the weight of the bull must be nearer to 4 than 40, so the only possible answer is 21.

Post Comment

“The World Health Organisation has recorded 184 human cases of the H5N1 strain of bird flu, all of them caused by contact with infected birds. That 103 of these have resulted in death indicates how dangerous this virus is, and no vaccine has yet been developed. For there to be a worldwide epidemic of H5N1 amongst humans, it would have to be possible for the virus to be passed easily from one person to another. Unlike normal influenza, H5N1 can only bind to receptors deep in the lungs. As a result, it cannot multiply in the upper respiratory system and thereby be transmitted by sneezing and coughing. So it cannot be transmitted easily between people. Influenza viruses can mutate, and thus possibly change the way in which they infect victims.”

24. Which of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the passage above?
0
0

## Explanation

Statement C is correct because the passage explains that momentarily the virus cannot spread easily between people as it is not an upper respiratory tract infection (which can be transmitted through sneezing and coughing). However, if the virus mutates it can change the way it infects victims and could potentially become more dangerous resulting in a worldwide epidemic. Thus not unless it mutates to become more dangerous, it is unlikely that with the current virus will a worldwide epidemic ensue, resulting in statement C being correct.

Post Comment

The minute hand of this clock is 8.4 cm long and the length of the hour hand is 6.3 cm.

For this clock, what is the value of the ratio:

area swept out by minute hand : area swept out by hour hand

During any particular period of time?

25.
0
0

## Explanation

The length of each hand represents the radius of each circle that they cover. So the minute hand covers an area of 8.4^2=70.56, and the hour hand covers an area of 6.3^2=39.69. But the hour hand travels 12 times as slow as the minute hand, so the ratio of area covered by the minute hand to area covered by the hour hand is approximately 71×12:40=852:40=64:3

Post Comment

“There is no point in building new nuclear power stations, which would increase the amount of dangerous nuclear waste. The major reason for doing so would be to reduce reliance on fossil fuels as a means to generating electricity, and thereby to reduce carbon emissions.

New developments in green technologies such as wind power have resulted in a huge rise in the amount these technologies add to the worldwide electricity supply. Energy experts predict that by 2010 they will be contributing much more to that supply than will nuclear power. Although there will still be a need in 2010 for large scale fossil fuel generators, the future trend is clear. No new nuclear plants could be completed before 2020, and by then they will not be needed.”

1. In 2020 the worldwide demand for electricity may have increased.

2. The rate of increase in the amount of electricity contributed by green technologies may slow down.

3. By 2020, safe ways of storing nuclear waste may have been developed.

26. Which of the following give(s) a reason why the conclusion of the above argument might be unsafe?
0
0

## Explanation

The paragraph concludes that by 2020, nuclear energy will not be needed as a source of worldwide electricity supply, thus building new ones will not be necessary.

Statement 1 makes the conclusion unsafe because if the world’s demand for electricity increases by 2020, then other forms of energy supplies may not be sufficient to meet the demands, therefore requiring nuclear energy.

Statement 2 also makes the conclusion unsafe because if the rate at which green technology contributes to generating electricity decreases, then nuclear energy may be needed to cover the rest of the energy demand.

Statement 3 is incorrect as the conclusion does not refer to nuclear energy waste storage forms, thus making it irrelevant to the conclusion of not requiring nuclear energy by 2020.

Post Comment

Bill and Asha are on a walking holiday. Today they will walk up a local mountain. This involves some walking on the flat, then a climb to the top. They will reverse their route on the way down. They looked at the map and found that the total distance they plan to walk is 20 km. They walk at 4 km/h on the flat, 3 km/h uphill and 6 km/h downhill.

27. What will their total walking time be (in hours)?
0
0

## Explanation

The correct answer is B (5 hours).

Average speed: (4+3+6)/3=13/3 km/h.

Time=distance/speed: 20/(13/3)=60/13=4.6 hours, which can be rounded to 5 hours.

Post Comment

The population of snaffers on a plain has been studied over a large number of years. The graph below shows the relationship between their numbers in successive years. An individual point on this graph would show, for example, the population in 2005 (along the horizontal axis) against the population in 2006 (along the vertical axis).

28. Which one of the following would best explain the shape of this curve?
0
0

## Explanation

If the number of births each year matched the deaths then the population in year n+1 would be equal to the population in year n for all years, so the graph would be the straight line y=x, so A is incorrect.

B explains the shape of the curve as the initial increase in population between successive years can be explained by free breeding due to sufficient amounts of food, and also explains the subsequent decrease in population size between successive years due to starvation, as the population is now large and exhausts the food supplies.

C would suggest a population increase each year because the number of births per year would exceed the number of deaths. But if this were the case the population in year n+1 would be greater than that in year n for all years, so C is incorrect.

D is incorrect because the graph shows the population change from one year to the next, not the actual population size.

If E was the case, the graph would go up and down and form a wave-like pattern.

Post Comment

Acrylamide is a chemical produced in many foods – for example, potatoes, pastries, bread, toast – during normal cooking processes. Animal studies have shown that when ingested, acrylamide is broken down to produce glycidamide, which can damage DNA and cause cancer. In humans, less glycidamide is produced than in animals when acrylamide is broken down. The only way to avoid production of acrylamide in food during cooking is to cook the food at temperatures lower than 120 °C. However, roasting or frying potatoes at lower temperatures makes them absorb more fat, and eating more fat is bad for one’s health. Also, the lower the temperature during cooking, the more likely it is that bacteria will survive, thus increasing the risk of food poisoning.

1. Ingesting acrylamide may be less dangerous for humans than for animals.

2. To avoid health problems, it is best to cook food at temperatures higher than 120 °C.

3. Eating roast or fried potatoes inevitably involves some health risks.

29. Which of the following can be concluded from the information in the passage above?
0
0

## Explanation

Statement 1 is correct because humans produce less glycidamide compared to animals when acrylamide is broken down. Given that glycidamide can damage DNA and cause cancer, it is therefore correct to say that ingesting acrylamide can be less dangerous for humans compared to animals.

Statement 2 is incorrect because cooking at temperatures higher than 120 degrees celsius means a higher proportion of food that contains acrylamide would break down into glycidamide, which has been shown to be harmful to humans (albeit being more harmful to animals).

Statement 3 is correct because cooking roast or fried potatoes at a lower temperature means that more fat is absorbed into the food as well as a greater chance of bacteria not being killed during cooking. At a higher temperature there will be a greater proportion of glycidamide. Therefore eating them poses some sort of health risk.

Post Comment

This is a wooden puzzle. It consists of three different sizes of wooden cubes (with sides 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm respectively) packed together to make one solid cube.

All six faces of the puzzle are identical in appearance, and all of the cubes that lie completely below the surface of the puzzle are 2 cm cubes.

30. How many 2 cm cubes are there in this wooden puzzle?
0
0

## Explanation

Post Comment

Internet companies are discovering, as billions of people have before them, that while growing up brings problems, maturity brings more.

For e-Bay, Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft, the internet’s commercial potential is proving bigger than even most early dreamers imagined. To keep expanding at sensational rates, however, players are encroaching on each other’s territory. Competition, which was once sharks against minnows, is becoming a battle of the giants. Corporate manoeuvring is reaching soap opera intensity.

Google, now the dominant online search engine, is making the pace. It snatched a long – term link with AOL Time Warner from under the nose of Microsoft. In the first quarter of 2006 it boosted revenue by 80% to more than \$2 billion (£1.2 billion). That represents a lot of advertising, the common revenue all are chasing.

Yahoo! and Microsoft fret at losing market share. E-Bay, the auction and trading site, fears that Google is pushing its own new consumer trading facility and also threatening e-Bay’s PayPal online payments system with a rival system.

The three, who recently looked down on Google, wonder if they can forge alliances to combat it. Microsoft does not want anyone repeating on the internet what it achieved in computer systems. The jockeying offers rich entertainment and opportunities for consumers, so long as the players do not gang up against them.

31. Which of the following can reliably be inferred from the passage, especially from the last paragraph?
0
0

## Explanation

In the final paragraph it says: ‘The three [IT giants], who recently looked down on Google…’. The past-tense verb ‘looked’ suggests that the 3 IT giants looked down on Google in the past but no longer do. Therefore B can be reliably inferred from the passage.

Post Comment

Internet companies are discovering, as billions of people have before them, that while growing up brings problems, maturity brings more.

For e-Bay, Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft, the internet’s commercial potential is proving bigger than even most early dreamers imagined. To keep expanding at sensational rates, however, players are encroaching on each other’s territory. Competition, which was once sharks against minnows, is becoming a battle of the giants. Corporate manoeuvring is reaching soap opera intensity.

Google, now the dominant online search engine, is making the pace. It snatched a long – term link with AOL Time Warner from under the nose of Microsoft. In the first quarter of 2006 it boosted revenue by 80% to more than \$2 billion (£1.2 billion). That represents a lot of advertising, the common revenue all are chasing.

Yahoo! and Microsoft fret at losing market share. E-Bay, the auction and trading site, fears that Google is pushing its own new consumer trading facility and also threatening e-Bay’s PayPal online payments system with a rival system.

The three, who recently looked down on Google, wonder if they can forge alliances to combat it. Microsoft does not want anyone repeating on the internet what it achieved in computer systems. The jockeying offers rich entertainment and opportunities for consumers, so long as the players do not gang up against them.

32. Which (one or more) of the following can safely be concluded from the data in paragraph three? At the end of 2005 Google’s revenue
0
0

## Explanation

In the first quarter of 2006 it boosted revenue by 80% to more than \$2 billion (£1.2 billion). ‘  So at the end of 2005, Google’s revenue must have been approximately 1.2/1.80=£667 billion, or at least £660 million (to 2sf).

Post Comment

Internet companies are discovering, as billions of people have before them, that while growing up brings problems, maturity brings more.

For e-Bay, Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft, the internet’s commercial potential is proving bigger than even most early dreamers imagined. To keep expanding at sensational rates, however, players are encroaching on each other’s territory. Competition, which was once sharks against minnows, is becoming a battle of the giants. Corporate manoeuvring is reaching soap opera intensity.

Google, now the dominant online search engine, is making the pace. It snatched a long – term link with AOL Time Warner from under the nose of Microsoft. In the first quarter of 2006 it boosted revenue by 80% to more than \$2 billion (£1.2 billion). That represents a lot of advertising, the common revenue all are chasing.

Yahoo! and Microsoft fret at losing market share. E-Bay, the auction and trading site, fears that Google is pushing its own new consumer trading facility and also threatening e-Bay’s PayPal online payments system with a rival system.

The three, who recently looked down on Google, wonder if they can forge alliances to combat it. Microsoft does not want anyone repeating on the internet what it achieved in computer systems. The jockeying offers rich entertainment and opportunities for consumers, so long as the players do not gang up against them.

33. A cartoon on its own can have many interpretations. From the information in the text, which one of the following can most reasonably be inferred?
0
0

## Explanation

The cartoon shows a knight representing Google fighting 3 dragons. From the text we can deduce that the 3 dragons represent the three IT giants (ebay, Microsoft and Yahoo!). This suggests the 3 giants together want to attack Google, and is further emphasised in the final paragraph: ‘The three, who recently looked down on Google, wonder if they can forge alliances to combat it.’  Therefore C is the answer.

Post Comment

Internet companies are discovering, as billions of people have before them, that while growing up brings problems, maturity brings more.

For e-Bay, Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft, the internet’s commercial potential is proving bigger than even most early dreamers imagined. To keep expanding at sensational rates, however, players are encroaching on each other’s territory. Competition, which was once sharks against minnows, is becoming a battle of the giants. Corporate manoeuvring is reaching soap opera intensity.

Google, now the dominant online search engine, is making the pace. It snatched a long – term link with AOL Time Warner from under the nose of Microsoft. In the first quarter of 2006 it boosted revenue by 80% to more than \$2 billion (£1.2 billion). That represents a lot of advertising, the common revenue all are chasing.

Yahoo! and Microsoft fret at losing market share. E-Bay, the auction and trading site, fears that Google is pushing its own new consumer trading facility and also threatening e-Bay’s PayPal online payments system with a rival system.

The three, who recently looked down on Google, wonder if they can forge alliances to combat it. Microsoft does not want anyone repeating on the internet what it achieved in computer systems. The jockeying offers rich entertainment and opportunities for consumers, so long as the players do not gang up against them.

1. Google struck a corporate link which might otherwise have benefited Microsoft.

2. Google’s accelerating revenue indicates that it is winning a large share of the advertising market.

3. The internet’s potential is growing faster than even the optimists would have predicted.

34. Which of the following provide reasons for the conclusion in paragraph 3 that ‘Google … is making the pace’?
0
0

## Explanation

Statements 1 and 2 show Google’s advantage over the 3 IT giants, so provide valid reasons for the conclusion in paragraph 3. However statement 3 shows something that may benefit all for of the companies referred to in the passage, rather than justy Google alone, so would not help give Google an advantage over the other companies. Therefore only statements 1 and 2 give valid reasons.

Post Comment

Internet companies are discovering, as billions of people have before them, that while growing up brings problems, maturity brings more.

For e-Bay, Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft, the internet’s commercial potential is proving bigger than even most early dreamers imagined. To keep expanding at sensational rates, however, players are encroaching on each other’s territory. Competition, which was once sharks against minnows, is becoming a battle of the giants. Corporate manoeuvring is reaching soap opera intensity.

Google, now the dominant online search engine, is making the pace. It snatched a long – term link with AOL Time Warner from under the nose of Microsoft. In the first quarter of 2006 it boosted revenue by 80% to more than \$2 billion (£1.2 billion). That represents a lot of advertising, the common revenue all are chasing.

Yahoo! and Microsoft fret at losing market share. E-Bay, the auction and trading site, fears that Google is pushing its own new consumer trading facility and also threatening e-Bay’s PayPal online payments system with a rival system.

The three, who recently looked down on Google, wonder if they can forge alliances to combat it. Microsoft does not want anyone repeating on the internet what it achieved in computer systems. The jockeying offers rich entertainment and opportunities for consumers, so long as the players do not gang up against them.

35. Which of the following is most strongly implied by the author?
0
0

## Explanation

‘The jockeying offers rich entertainment and opportunities for consumers’. Therefore statement A is implied by the author.

The 3 IT giants ‘wonder if they can forge alliances to combat’ Google, but the author does not say that merging is the only way forwards, so B is not the answer.

The author refers to how other companies feel threatened by google but does not suggest that they are unable to compete so C is also incorrect.

The suggestion made by D is not even mentioned in the passage.

E may be the case but we do not know the extent of the threat posed to Microsoft by companies other than Google, so E cannot be inferred from the information provided.

Post Comment

## Instructions

Below is a summary of your answers. You can review your questions in three (3) different ways.

The buttons in the lower right-hand corner correspond to these choices:

2. Review questions that are incomplete.
3. Review questions that are flagged for review. (Click the 'flag' icon to change the flag for review status.)

You may also click on a question number to link directly to its location in the exam.

## Instructions

This review section allows you to view the answers you made and see whether they were correct or not. Each question accessed from this screen has an 'Explain Answer' button in the top left hand side. By clicking on this you will obtain an explanation as to the correct answer.

At the bottom of this screen you can choose to 'Review All' answers, 'Review Incorrect' answers or 'Review Flagged' answers. Alternatively you can go to specific questions by opening up any of the sub-tests below.

x

## When should we call you?

It would be great to have a 15m chat to discuss a personalised plan and answer any questions

## What time works best for you? (UK Time)

Pick a time-slot that works best for you ?

Submit

Submit