This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 35 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

The graph below is a cumulative plot of the length of reigns of British kings or queens from 1066 to the present. The vertical axis shows the number of monarchs who had reigned for  less than the number of years plotted on the horizontal axis.

1. How many monarchs reigned for 20 years or more but less than 40 years?
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## Explanation

Looking at the part of the graph between x=20 years and x=40 years, we can see that these positions on the x-axis correspond to values of 20 and 35 monarchs respectively. As the y axis shows the cumulative frequency, the number of monarchs who reigned for 20 years or more but less than 40 years can be calculated by 35-20=15

Post Comment

2. The above issue, presented as it is, implies which one of the following?
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## Explanation

The advertisement above states that ‘the debate amongst feminists over whether childbirth should take place away from the hi-tech environment of the labour ward or surrounded with as much pain relief and medical intervention…’, implies that pain relief and medical intervention are only available in high tech medical environments rather than at home. Therefore statement B is correct.

Statement D is incorrect because it is not explicitly stated that feminists are strongly opposed to the medicalisation of childbirth.

Statements A, C & E are incorrect as there is no mention of any such information in the issue above.

Post Comment

I recently asked four members of my class to draw bar charts of some data that we collected. Every student managed to produce a bar chart, but they all drew exactly two bars at the wrong height on their graph. I drew the correct bar chart from the data. Unfortunately, I didnít label any of the charts so I now donít know which one is the correct one.

3. Which graph correctly represents the data that we collected? (All of the graphs are drawn to the same scale.)
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## Explanation

All the charts except E have 6 blocks in their first bar, so E is not the correct graph. Both charts B and D have 4 blocks in their 3rd bar, but charts A and C do not, so A and C must not be correct. 3 of the 5 charts have 3 blocks in the final bar, including chart D but not chart B, therefore chart D must be the correct graph.

Post Comment

Last winter, heavy snowfalls prompted criticism of the Government for failing to ensure that the country is prepared for severe weather. Billions of pounds were lost to businesses through workers being unable to make their journey to work during a week of heavy snowfall. Others felt that these costs should be accepted philosophically. Given that the likelihood of a prolonged period of heavy snow in the UK is very low, it could be said that the high cost of investing in preventative measures would be unreasonable. Governments have to make an assessment of the probability of the event occurring, the cost of preventative measures and the cost of the event happening. In some cases the cost of preventative measures is too high when the risk is low. The recent severe weather is one such case. One might also consider the threats of pandemics such as bird flu, or asteroids hitting the earth, both of which might be considered ‘low risk but high cost.’

4. Which of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the argument above?
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## Explanation

Statement B is correct because the paragraph explains that the costs of preventative measures against heavy snowfall in the UK is not justifiable because it happens so infrequently. This is summarised in the highlighted sentence which is synonymous with statement B.

Statement A presents as evidence to the conclusion, rather than being the main conclusion itself.

Post Comment

On a recent train journey I was drawn into a conversation by an elderly couple who were keen to tell me all about their grandchildren.

Although proud of them all, their one complaint was the constant expense of buying birthday presents. There is at least one birthday amongst the grandchildren every calendar month, and April is particularly expensive for them because it sees the birthdays of three of the five pairs of twins.

I remember them saying that they have exactly twice as many granddaughters as grandsons, but after they had left the train I realised that they hadn’t told me how many grandchildren they have in total.

5. Assuming that any pair of twins would share the same birthday, what is the minimum number of grandchildren they have?
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## Explanation

There are 3 of 5 pairs of twins’ birthdays in April. In the other 11 months, there must be at least 1 birthday, so at least 11 children in addition to the 3 pairs of twins. But we know that there must be at least 2 birthdays in 2 different months due to the remaining 2 pairs of twins, so there must be at least 11+2=13 children in addition to the 3 pairs of twins, so 13+(2×3)=19 children. However we are also told that there are exactly twice as many girls as boys, so the number of grandchildren must be divisible by 3. The closest number above 19 that is divisible by 3 is 21, so there must be at least 21 grandchildren.

Post Comment

There has been far too much fuss about the dangers of young people using the drug ecstasy. We need to get things in proportion. The use of ecstasy causes only 30 deaths per year in Britain, whereas horse riding causes 100 deaths per year. Thus campaigns over recent years to discourage young people from using ecstasy are not necessary. As the comparison with horse riding clearly shows, taking ecstasy is nowhere near as dangerous as many people believe.

1. More young people may use ecstasy if there were no campaigns about its dangers.

2. The argument assumes that horse riding should not be considered too dangerous.

3. There may be fewer young people using ecstasy than engaging in horse riding.

6. Which of the following identify/indentifies a weakness in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The passage concludes that ecstasy is not as dangerous as horse riding and therefore it is not necessary to have campaigns that discourage young people from using ecstasy.

Statement 1 is correct because if more young people start using ecstasy in the absence of campaigns about its dangers then it is fair to assume that the campaigns help may to deter people from using ecstasy.

Statement 2 is correct because the passage only compares ecstasy to horse riding. If horse riding is not considered that dangerous then it weakens the argument that ecstasy is nowhere near as dangerous as horse riding.

Statement 3 weakens the argument because the passage only includes how many deaths per year rather than consider the proportion of people that have died as a result of the activity i.e. the proportion of young males killed from ecstasy may be be higher than horse riding.

Post Comment

I have three choices for my membership of the local sports club. The details of the memberships are as follows:

I currently have a Bronze membership and I know the number of times that I will need to hire equipment in the coming year. I am considering changing to either Gold or Silver membership. If I did, the total cost for either would be the same.

7. How much can I save in the coming year by changing my membership?
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## Explanation

If we know the total cost of silver or gold membership would be the same, we can form the equation 100+0.5y=80+y, where y=the number of times equipment is hired. Solving this equation:

100=80+0.5y

20=0.5y

y=20/0.5=40

So the member hires equipment 40 times a year.

The cost of gold or silver membership when hiring equipment 40 times would be 80+y=80+40=£120.

The cost of bronze membership hiring equipment 40 times a year would be 70+(40×3)=£190.

So 190-120=£70 would be saved by choosing gold or silver membership instead of bronze.

Post Comment

UNREPORTED CRIME
A survey by Lynne Featherstone

On the basis of both anecdotal and documented evidence that many crimes are not reported to the police, I undertook a survey to provide a snapshot of the level of the non-reporting of crime. In doing so I was particularly interested in why people did not report crimes to the police and what these reasons show about the level of public confidence in the police service.

Survey
The questions on the reporting of crime were included in a wider survey on crime and disorder that was sent out to residents in a single north London borough during the second half of last year.

Respondents were asked whether they had been a victim of or witness to a crime in the last year, and if they answered ‘yes’, whether they reported it to the police. Those who answered ‘no’ were asked why they did not report the crime to the police. Those who answered ‘yes’ were asked whether they were satisfied or not with the speed of the police response and the follow-up work by the police afterwards.

2093 replies were received, according to which the following findings were recorded:

• Of those who responded, 1119 experienced or witnessed a crime in the last year (54%).

• Of these, 421 did not report the crime to the police (38%).

• Of those who did not report the crime, 215 did not do so because they lacked confidence in the police for one reason or another.

• Of those who did not report the crime, 133 did not do so because they thought the crime concerned was not important enough.

• Of those who did report it, 224 were not satisfied with the speed of the police response while 324 were not satisfied with the work of the police to follow up the report.

Base your answers on the assumption that the respondents in the survey are and remain representative of the resident population of the borough, and that they respond to questions truthfully.

8. If a typical resident experienced or witnessed a crime but did not report it, the probability that he or she thought it was insufficiently important would be:
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## Explanation

1119 experienced or witnessed a crime in the last year and of these 421 did not report the crime to the police. Of those who did not report the crime, 133 did not do so because they thought the crime concerned was not important enough.

Given that someone experienced/witnessed a crime but did not report it (421), the probability that he or she thought it was insufficiently important would be: 133/421~130/420=0.31, which is greater than 0.25 but less than 0.33.

Post Comment

UNREPORTED CRIME
A survey by Lynne Featherstone

On the basis of both anecdotal and documented evidence that many crimes are not reported to the police, I undertook a survey to provide a snapshot of the level of the non-reporting of crime. In doing so I was particularly interested in why people did not report crimes to the police and what these reasons show about the level of public confidence in the police service.

Survey
The questions on the reporting of crime were included in a wider survey on crime and disorder that was sent out to residents in a single north London borough during the second half of last year.

Respondents were asked whether they had been a victim of or witness to a crime in the last year, and if they answered ‘yes’, whether they reported it to the police. Those who answered ‘no’ were asked why they did not report the crime to the police. Those who answered ‘yes’ were asked whether they were satisfied or not with the speed of the police response and the follow-up work by the police afterwards.

2093 replies were received, according to which the following findings were recorded:

• Of those who responded, 1119 experienced or witnessed a crime in the last year (54%).

• Of these, 421 did not report the crime to the police (38%).

• Of those who did not report the crime, 215 did not do so because they lacked confidence in the police for one reason or another.

• Of those who did not report the crime, 133 did not do so because they thought the crime concerned was not important enough.

• Of those who did report it, 224 were not satisfied with the speed of the police response while 324 were not satisfied with the work of the police to follow up the report.

Base your answers on the assumption that the respondents in the survey are and remain representative of the resident population of the borough, and that they respond to questions truthfully.

1 If a resident who reported a crime in the past year witnesses or experiences a crime in the coming year, there is at least a 50% chance that they will not report it to the police.

2 The majority of residents in the borough are dissatisfied with the police response to reported crime, and/or lack confidence in the police.

3 Of those who reported a crime in the past year, over 120 gave more than one reason for saying they were dissatisfied with the police response.

9. Which of the following can reliably be inferred from the figures, and from the responses and reasons given by the residents?
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## Explanation

‘1119 experienced or witnessed a crime in the last year (54%). Of these, 421 did not report the crime to the police (38%).’ So statement 1 is incorrect as less than 50% did not report the crime to the police.

Statement 2 cannot be inferred from the data because not everyone in the borough responded to the survey, so we cannot make conclusions about the entire population.

We do not know the extent of the overlap between the 224 who were not satisfied with the speed of the police response and the 324 who were not satisfied with the work of the police to follow up the report. So statement 3 cannot be inferred.

So none of the 3 statements can be reliably inferred from the information given.

Post Comment

UNREPORTED CRIME
A survey by Lynne Featherstone

On the basis of both anecdotal and documented evidence that many crimes are not reported to the police, I undertook a survey to provide a snapshot of the level of the non-reporting of crime. In doing so I was particularly interested in why people did not report crimes to the police and what these reasons show about the level of public confidence in the police service.

Survey
The questions on the reporting of crime were included in a wider survey on crime and disorder that was sent out to residents in a single north London borough during the second half of last year.

Respondents were asked whether they had been a victim of or witness to a crime in the last year, and if they answered ‘yes’, whether they reported it to the police. Those who answered ‘no’ were asked why they did not report the crime to the police. Those who answered ‘yes’ were asked whether they were satisfied or not with the speed of the police response and the follow-up work by the police afterwards.

2093 replies were received, according to which the following findings were recorded:

• Of those who responded, 1119 experienced or witnessed a crime in the last year (54%).

• Of these, 421 did not report the crime to the police (38%).

• Of those who did not report the crime, 215 did not do so because they lacked confidence in the police for one reason or another.

• Of those who did not report the crime, 133 did not do so because they thought the crime concerned was not important enough.

• Of those who did report it, 224 were not satisfied with the speed of the police response while 324 were not satisfied with the work of the police to follow up the report.

Base your answers on the assumption that the respondents in the survey are and remain representative of the resident population of the borough, and that they respond to questions truthfully.

10. Which of the following possible explanations of why people didnít report crime would be best supported by the results of the survey?
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## Explanation

‘Of those who did report it, 224 were not satisfied with the speed of the police response while 324 were not satisfied with the work of the police to follow up the report.’ ‘Of those who did not report the crime, 215 did not do so because they lacked confidence in the police for one reason or another. ‘ This may be due to ‘failure by the police to deal with many crimes reported in previous years’, so answer A is supported by the results of the survey.

Post Comment

The Penguin Theatre Group is designing a brochure to publicise their new production. The brochure will be made from a single sheet of paper which will be folded exactly in half twice, the final shape being a right angled triangle as shown below:

11. Which one of the following shapes could be the piece of paper from which the brochure is folded?
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## Explanation

The first fold line is represented in blue and the second fold line is represented in red below:

Post Comment

A magic pill that makes you slim with no side effects would be the 21st century’s ‘goose that laid the golden egg’. With 13 million people forecast to be obese by 2010, the market for a miracle cure is huge. Consumer groups are concerned, however, that “slimming pills” are at best expensive and useless, as they will not have any effect unless people also reduce their intake of food. At worst they can cause side effects and be addictive. People who are worried about their weight often fail to be cautious about what looks like a miracle cure. So why are manufacturers allowed to sell these pills and make grand claims for their effectiveness? Because most slimming pills are not licensed as medicines and so are not subject to strict controls: they are controlled by food regulations. The government should act now to protect people from their own ignorance, and make slimming pills subject to the same strict controls as medicines.

12. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument in the passage above?
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## Explanation

The passage concludes that the government should protect people from slimming pills by imposing the same strict controls that exist for medicines.

Statement B implies that the government is already introducing legislation for slimming pills. Therefore this weakens the argument that the government should ‘act now’.

All other statements do not directly relate to main conclusion and therefore do not weaken it.

Post Comment

I have two bags of marbles. I know that at least one of the bags contains marbles of only one colour.

I take one marble from the left hand bag, and put it into the right hand bag. I then take a marble from the right hand bag and put it into the left.

I then tip the marbles out of the right hand bag and see that half the marbles are green and half of them red.

1 The left hand bag started off with more than two marbles in.

2 The right hand bag started off with more than two marbles in.

3 The left hand bag started off with marbles of only one colour in.

4 The right hand bag started off with marbles of only one colour in.

13. Which two of the following statements could not both be true?
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## Explanation

If the right hand bag started with more than 2 marbles in of only one colour, let’s say green, then when the marbles are tipped out of the right hand bag there would be predominantly green coloured marbles, as at least 2 of the marbles tipped out would be originally from the right hand bag (which are all green) and there would be only 1 from the left hand bag. Therefore statements 2 and 4 could not both be true.

Post Comment

A Welsh police station has incorporated ‘colour psychology’ into the design of its cells with the intention of improving the success of interrogation. As well as glass doors thought to reduce claustrophobia, a particular shade of yellow has been used which is said by psychologists to have a positive, calming, mood enhancing effect. Similarly royal blue has been used, as evidence suggests that it enhances communication.

14. What assumption underlies the police’s decision to use this colour scheme?
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## Explanation

The first sentence summarises that the police has incorporated the change in colour scheme in order to improve the success of interrogation. The purpose behind police interrogations are to reveal the truth behind crimes being discussed. Therefore, statement A is correct as it states that with a change in the colour of the walls, it could be that people feel more at ease. This may result in revealing the truth.

Statement B is incorrect as there is no mention of psychologists knowledge of the interrogation process. We are only made aware that the psychologists are merely aiding the Welsh police to incorporate new methods to improve their interrogation process.

Statement C is incorrect because we cannot assume that colour psychology is the best method to calm suspects for interrogation just because it is the only method discussed in the passage.

Statement D is incorrect because it is irrelevant to the overarching argument that colour psychology is presumed to help in interrogation processes.

Statement E is incorrect because colour psychology is portrayed as a technique in itself.

Post Comment

Today is our village’s fund-raising Fun Day. This is the current state of the “Treasure Hunt”, in which entrants put their initials in their chosen square(s).

I have just paid for two squares. I will choose two squares that do not touch each other or any of the squares already taken, either horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

15. How many different pairs of squares are available to me?
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## Explanation

There are 18 possible pairs. Each pair is represented by the same colour dot in both squares in the pair:

Post Comment

In the Beijing Olympics, in 2008, China claimed to have come out top of the medal rankings on the basis that it won the most gold medals.

Fig 1: Top five nations: gold medals only

The USA contested this on the grounds that it won the most medals, gold, silver and bronze counting one each.

Figure 2: Top five nations: all medals equally weighted

But arguably neither of the above methods of counting gives an accurate picture of relative achievement. The fairest system would be weighting the medals, as follows, and/or comparing the medals won against population or national wealth.

Fig 3: Medals weighted: gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1

Fig 4: Medals weighted (gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1) per million population

16. How many silver and bronze medals respectively did the USA win in the 2008 Olympics?
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## Explanation

The correct answer is B (S:38, B:36).

From figure 3, the US scored 220 when medals were weighted: gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1. From these, we can write the following equations:

b+s+g=110 and b+2s+3g=220.

We also know, from figure 1, that the US won 36 gold medals. From figure 2, the US won 110 medals (gold, silver or bronze) in total. So we can substitute 26 for g:

b+s+36=110 and b+2s+3(36)=220

b+s=74 and b+2s=112.

Solving this pair of simultaneous equations:

(b+2s=112)-(b+s=74)

= s=38.

b+38=74

b=36.

Therefore the USA won 38 silver and 36 bronze medals.

Post Comment

In the Beijing Olympics, in 2008, China claimed to have come out top of the medal rankings on the basis that it won the most gold medals.

Fig 1: Top five nations: gold medals only

The USA contested this on the grounds that it won the most medals, gold, silver and bronze counting one each.

Figure 2: Top five nations: all medals equally weighted

But arguably neither of the above methods of counting gives an accurate picture of relative achievement. The fairest system would be weighting the medals, as follows, and/or comparing the medals won against population or national wealth.

Fig 3: Medals weighted: gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1

Fig 4: Medals weighted (gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1) per million population

17. Using the information given, what was the minimum number of silver medals that could have been won by Australia?
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## Explanation

The correct answer is B (13).

From figure 2, Australia won 46 medals in total. From figure 3, Australia scored 89 when its medals were weighted.

To minimise the number of silver medals Australia could have won, we need to maximise the number of gold and silver. We know Australia must have won less than 16 gold medals because it was not in the top 5 (figure 1) so it must have won fewer gold medals than Germany. Therefore the maximum number of gold medals Australia could have won is 15. This would mean the remaining 46-15=31 medals they won were either bronze or silver: b+s=31. The 15 gold medals would have represented 15×3=45 of the 89 points scored on figure 3, so the remaining 89-45=44 points must have been due to silver and bronze medals: b+2s=44. Now we can write and solve a pair of simultaneous equations:

b+s=31 and b+2s=44

(b+2s=44)-(b+s=31)

= s=13.

So Australia must have won at least 13 medals.

Post Comment

In the Beijing Olympics, in 2008, China claimed to have come out top of the medal rankings on the basis that it won the most gold medals.

Fig 1: Top five nations: gold medals only

The USA contested this on the grounds that it won the most medals, gold, silver and bronze counting one each.

Figure 2: Top five nations: all medals equally weighted

But arguably neither of the above methods of counting gives an accurate picture of relative achievement. The fairest system would be weighting the medals, as follows, and/or comparing the medals won against population or national wealth.

Fig 3: Medals weighted: gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1

Fig 4: Medals weighted (gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1) per million population

18. Great Britain came 4th in the ranking on all three methods of counting (figs 1 – 3). If the ranking had been based on the proportion of gold medals to all medals, among China, the USA, the Russian Federation and Great Britain, where would Great Britain have ranked?
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## Explanation

The proportions of gold medals to all medals for the countries listed are:

China – 51/100=25.5/50

USA – 36/110=18/55

RF – 23/72~15/50

GB – 19/47

We can see that China would be ranked first, followed by GB, USA and RF in that order.

Post Comment

In the Beijing Olympics, in 2008, China claimed to have come out top of the medal rankings on the basis that it won the most gold medals.

Fig 1: Top five nations: gold medals only

The USA contested this on the grounds that it won the most medals, gold, silver and bronze counting one each.

Figure 2: Top five nations: all medals equally weighted

But arguably neither of the above methods of counting gives an accurate picture of relative achievement. The fairest system would be weighting the medals, as follows, and/or comparing the medals won against population or national wealth.

Fig 3: Medals weighted: gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1

Fig 4: Medals weighted (gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1) per million population

In the 2008 Olympics:

1 Norway won 3 gold and 5 silver medals.

2 Iceland won 3 medals.

3 Slovenia won 6 medals, including one gold.

19. Which of the following is/are possible given the data in Fig 4?
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## Explanation

If Norway won 3 gold and 5 silver medals, its weighted score would be equal to or above (because of additional points due to bronze medals) (3×3)+(5×2)=9+10=19. So its medals weighted per million population would be 19/4.6=4.1. In figure 4 this value is greater at 4.5, so statement 1 is possible.

Iceland’s weighted score would have been 0.3×6.8=2. Therefore it either won 2 bronze or 1 silver medal only, so statement 2 cannot be true.

Slovenia’s weighted score would have been 2.0×4.5=9. If they won 1 gold, their remaining medals would make a weighted score of 9-3=6, which could be due to 1 silver and 4 bronze medals. In this case they would have won 6 medals in total, so statement 3 is possible.

Therefore only statements 1 and 3 are possible.

Post Comment

In the Beijing Olympics, in 2008, China claimed to have come out top of the medal rankings on the basis that it won the most gold medals.

Fig 1: Top five nations: gold medals only

The USA contested this on the grounds that it won the most medals, gold, silver and bronze counting one each.

Figure 2: Top five nations: all medals equally weighted

But arguably neither of the above methods of counting gives an accurate picture of relative achievement. The fairest system would be weighting the medals, as follows, and/or comparing the medals won against population or national wealth.

Fig 3: Medals weighted: gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1

Fig 4: Medals weighted (gold 3, silver 2, bronze 1) per million population

Great Britain’s population is 62 million, the population of the US is 306 million, and the population of the Russian Federation is 142 million.

1 Great Britain rank below Slovenia but above the USA.

2 The Russian Federation won the equivalent of less than 1 bronze medal for every million of its population.

20. If these countries had been added to Fig 4, which of the following would be correct:
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## Explanation

The countries ranks would be:

GB – 98/62=1.6

Slovenia – 4.5

USA – 220/306=0.7

Therefore GB’s rank would be below that of Slovenia but above the USA, so statement 1 is correct.

The RF won 72 medals, 23 of which were gold, so 72-23=49 were either bronze or silver. They scored 139 when medals were weighted, and 23×3=69 of these points were due to gold medals, leaving 139-69=70 points due to bronze and silver medals. We can form and solve a pair of simultaneous equations:

b+s=49 and b+2s=70

(b+2s=70)-(b+s=49)

= s=21

b+21=49

b=28.

28/142 is less than 1, so statement 2 is also correct.

Therefore both 1 and 2 are correct.

Post Comment

Maria, a malnourished patient has a regime which requires her to take a drink with her meal at lunchtime which contains 4.0 Joules in 500ml of solution. The drink is made up by adding a powdered energy supplement to water. The supplement contains 2.0 Joules per 100g powder. The change in volume of the water on adding the supplement is negligible.

Nurse Delgado has, left over from made up drinks from other patients, 200ml of drink containing the same supplement which has an energy value of 1.5 Joules and 400ml with an energy value of 2.0 Joules.

21. If she adds 300ml of the second drink to the first to make it up to 500ml, how much of the supplement powder must she add to make Maria’s drink the correct strength?
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## Explanation

300ml of the second drink contains 300/400×2=3/4×2=1.5J. The 200ml of the first drink also has an energy value of 1.5J. So the total energy value of 200ml of the first drink plus 300ml of the second drink would be 1.5+1.5=3J. The energy concentration of this drink would be 3J per 200+300=500ml. But the desired strength is 4J per 500ml, so we must add 4-3=1J worth of powder. The supplement contains 2J per 100g of powder, so we would need 1/2×100=50g of powder.

Post Comment

Praise is an expression of recognition and a conferment of status. Recognition and status are important factors in our self esteem and well being. No matter how well paid someone is, if their efforts are never acknowledged the cash will not quite compensate. By the same token, someone who feels recognised and appreciated will cheerfully put up with other inconveniences, including a less desirable income. The most valuable kind of praise is that which the recipient knows to be appropriate. Praise should only be given to the extent that it is deserved.

1. People can accurately assess the recognition they deserve.

2. People who give praise can assess the level of praise which is deserved.

3. Promoting others’ self esteem is a duty which we all share.

4. Self esteem produces behaviour which benefits others as well as the individual.

22. Which of the following are assumptions of the argument in the passage above?
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## Explanation

With the statement in blue, it is assuming that people are able to assess what is appropriate and inappropriate praise – matching statement 1.

With the statement in red, it is also assuming that people can measure what the level of praise that is deserved.

Post Comment

Each blood sample taken at a particular private clinic is given an 8-digit reference number.

Example: 12404360

This was the reference number of the 36th sample taken on 4th September 1993 (124 means the 124th month of operation of the clinic, since opening in June 1983 month 001). The final digit is a security check digit, and has the value that makes the sum of the eight digits a multiple of ten.

23. Which one of these reference numbers could not have been assigned to a blood sample taken at this clinic?
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## Explanation

For E, 294 represents the 294th month since opening in June 1983. This is 294/12=24.5 years after it first opened, so it would be in the 6th month after counting June as month 1, meaning this sample was taken in November. The next two digits, which represent the day of the month, are 31. But there are only 30 days in November, so this reference number cannot be correct.

Post Comment

A campaign poster on public transport vehicles recently announced that 40% of teenage girls below the age of 16 who become pregnant were found to have been under the influence of alcohol at the time they had sexual intercourse.

1. Young people who are underage drinkers are more likely to be sexually active than those who do not drink.

2. If there were stricter controls on the sale of alcohol to young people there would be fewer teenage pregnancies.

3. At least 40% of girls have consumed alcohol by the age of 16.

24. Which of the following can reliably be inferred from the above statistic?
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## Explanation

No statements here are correct.

Statement 1 is incorrect because there is no mention of underage drinkers who are not sexually activity. It cannot be assumed that because girls that engage in underage drinking that they are necessarily sexually active too.

Statement 2 is incorrect because it cannot be assumed that if stricter controls were imposed upon younger people that this would reduce the number of pregnancies. It is therefore assuming that underage drinking is more likely to lead to underage underage pregnancies, which is incorrect.

Statement 3 is incorrect to say because there the paragraph only mentions how 40% of 16 year old pregnant females were found to be under the influence of alcohol and not that the total 16 year old female population is therefore consuming alcohol.

Post Comment

The table below summarises GCSE results for five schools in a town.

A graph has been drawn which summarises this data but the graph has not yet been scaled or labelled.

25. Which of the following could be shown on each axis?
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## Explanation

For Absenteeism rate (%), the gaps between consecutive scores ordered from lowest to highest are 7.4-6.6=0.8, 8.3-7.4=0.9, 8.8-8.3=0.6, 9.1-8.8=0.3. So, the gap between the last 2 points on the given axis would be the smallest, and the 2nd gap would be the largest (slightly larger than the first gap). This pattern is seen on the x-axis.

For Percentage achieving 5 or more A* to C grades, the largest gap would be between the first and second points (40-18=22), and the smallest gap between the last two points (76-70=6). This can be seen on the y-axis.

Post Comment

Although it has been known for some time that ants are able to make alarm calls using sound, advances in technology have enabled scientists to discover that ants routinely “talk” to each other in their nests. Using miniaturised microphones and speakers that can be inserted unobtrusively into nests, researchers established that ants have a vocabulary and can talk to each other by rubbing parts of their abdomen together, and the queens can issue instructions to their workers.

But these surprising abilities can be exploited by other parasitic insects, who can mimic the ants to make them their slaves. Rebel’s large blue butterfly ñ an endangered species ñ is a case in point. This species has been found to have learnt to imitate the ants’ sounds so successfully that the butterfly’s caterpillars are carried by ants into the nests where they beg for food and are fed by the worker ants. When a colony is disturbed the ants will rescue the caterpillars before their own broods. They will even slaughter their own young to feed the caterpillars when food is scarce.

26. Which of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the passage above?
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## Explanation

Statement E is correct because the paragraph explains how the large blue butterfly has mimicked and used the ants communication forms to help feed its caterpillars, even if the ants have to slaughter their own young to feed the caterpillars.

Statement A is incorrect because although the paragraph states that these abilities can be ‘exploited by other parasitic insects’ it does not go as far as saying that the harm produced by other parasitic insects could lead to the ants extinction.

Statement B is incorrect as the large blue butterfly is provided merely as an example here rather than being depicted as the main species exploiting ant colonies.

Statement C is incorrect because the ants do not intentionally slaughter their own and therefore do not betray their own species loyalty.

Statement D is incorrect because there is no mention of ants developing abilities to protect themselves from threats posed by other parasites.

Post Comment

Tim works each day from Monday to Friday. At 5pm each day at work Tim receives 7 tokens. At 1pm on any day at work Tim can exchange a certain number of these tokens for a free meal (which always costs the same number of tokens).

On the morning of Monday 1st Tim had 20 tokens. He will take a free lunch on any day that he has enough tokens. The first day that Tim cannot get a free meal is Tuesday 9th.

27. What day of the week will it be on the second time that Tim cannot get a free meal?
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## Explanation

We can form the following inequality: 20+9(7-t)<t, where t=the number of tokens needed for a free meal. Solving the equation:

20+63-9t<t

83<10t

8.3<t

Therefore the number of tokens needed for a free meal is at least 9.

On Monday the 8th he would have 20+8(7-9)=20-16=4 tokens. So on Tuesday, he would not lose any tokens as he is unable to buy a meal with them, but he still would receive 7 tokens at 5pm, so he would end on Tuesday the 9th with 4+7=11 tokens.

Using the equation we used before, we can determine when he will not have enough tokens before lunch to buy a meal:

Wed: 11

Thu: 11+(7-9)=9

Fri:  11+2(7-9)=7

Sat: 11+3(7-9)=5

Sun: 3

Mon: 1

Tue: -1

Therefore the second time he cannot get a free meal will be on a Tuesday.

Post Comment

For there to be life elsewhere in the universe, there would have to be planets similar to Earth, i.e. small, rocky planets orbiting at the right distance from their star to ensure that they are not so hot that water boils and not so cold that it remains frozen. Until now techniques have not been sensitive enough to detect such planets. The new Kepler telescope is so sensitive that for the first time astronomers will be able to see if there are Earth-sized planets in the ‘habitable zone’ of their stars – the region where the temperature is right for liquid water to exist at the surface. So if the Kepler telescope finds that such planets exist, we can at last be confident that there is life on planets other than Earth.

28. Which of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

P1: For there to be life elsewhere, planets need to be similar to Earth.

P2: Kepler telescope is sensitive to detect planets in the habitable zone.

C1: If such a planet is found, we can be sure that there is life on planets other than Earth.

The main flaw here is the gap between P2 and C1 is that being in the habitable zone is the only requirement for life. A is not mentioned. C and D are not assumptions made in the passage. E is false.

Post Comment

A particular company manufactures square floor tiles whose patterns consist of 16 smaller squares of equal size. Two of the smaller square on each tile are black, whilst the rest are white.

When I opened a packet of 12 of these tiles this morning and laid them out as shown below, I thought that they were all different.

On closer inspection, however, I realised that rotation of the relevant tiles would reveal that some are identical to at least one of the others.

29. How many different patterns are there in my packet of 12 tiles?
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## Explanation

Numbering the tiles 1-12 counting from left to right in each row, the following tiles are identical:

2 and 6

3, 5 and 7

9 and 10

11 and 12

This leaves tiles 1, 4 and 8 which are unique patterns.

Therefore the total number of different patterns is 7.

Post Comment

It is human nature to try to explain what we observe occurring around us, a process that people engaged in long before physical, biological or social sciences were established as disciplines. The difference between ‘common sense’ explanations and scientific ones lies in the way the two originate. Everyday observations are haphazard, careless and not systematic, whereas those carried out by scientists endeavour to be specific, objective, well focused and systematic, to the extent that they could be replicated by someone else. While there are few true guarantees, the more systematic and organised the studies we conduct, the more likely they will produce valid explanations that can be used to support decisions.

30. Which of the following best expresses the conclusion of the passage above?
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## Explanation

Statement D is correct because the passage summarises as highlighted above that ‘the more systematic and organised the studies we conduct, the more likely they will produce valid explanations that can be used to support decisions.’ Therefore it is fair to conclude that explanations based on common sense rather than scientific grounding are less valid, as expressed in statement D.

Post Comment

One algorithm for controlling the order in which floors are visited for a lift is called SST or “shortest seek time first”. It keeps a list of all the floors it is currently requested to visit and, after a stop, it will next visit the closest on its list. If two requests are the same distance away, it goes in the direction in which more floors have requested the lift.

A lift using SST has just stopped at floor 7 and its request list contains floors 0, 4, 10, 14 and 16. Just after it starts moving, a new request comes in for floor 7.

31. If no further requests come in, how many stops will it make before it reaches floor 16?
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## Explanation

The lift will visit the next closest floor on the list.

Floors 4 and 10 are both 3 floors away from floor 7, so the lift will go in the direction in which more floors have requested the lift. 2 floors have been requested below 7 (0 and 4) but 3 floors have been requested above 7 (10, 14 and 16). So the lift will move to floor 10 first. This is the 1st stop.

The next closest floor on the list is floor 7, which was requested just after the lift began moving away from floor 7, so the lift will first stop back at floor 7. This is the 2nd stop.

The next closest floor is 4, followed by 0, which are the 3rd and 4th stops respectively.

Now we have only floors 14 and 16 remaining on the list, which represent the 5th and 6th stops respectively. Therefore there are 5 stops before floor 16 is reached.

Post Comment

The table below shows the value of the Scottish agricultural production in four sectors from 1994 to 1998.

Scottish agricultural output 1994-1998

Commentary on 1998 figures

Largely as a result of the strength of the pound at the time, lower prices were experienced due to farmers having to drop their prices for commodities being exported from the UK. Although prices dropped for some inputs, such as fertiliser and animal feed (again as a consequence of the strength of the pound) this was not enough to prevent farming income experiencing a sharp fall. Scottish farm incomes are still above those experienced in 1980, 1985 and 1986.

32. Which of the following items showed the biggest percentage change (up or down) from 1997 to 1998?
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## Explanation

The proportional changes from 1997 to 1998 for the options given are can be approximated as:

Cattle – (440-490)/490=-50/490=-0.10

Pigs – (70-90)/90=-20/90=-0.22

Potato – (80-120)/80=-40/80=-0.5

Wool – (7.4-7.7)/7.7=-0.3/7.7=0.04

Vegetables – (38-35)/35=3/35=0.09

Therefore the greatest percentage change was seen in potato.

Post Comment

The table below shows the value of the Scottish agricultural production in four sectors from 1994 to 1998.

Scottish agricultural output 1994-1998

Commentary on 1998 figures

Largely as a result of the strength of the pound at the time, lower prices were experienced due to farmers having to drop their prices for commodities being exported from the UK. Although prices dropped for some inputs, such as fertiliser and animal feed (again as a consequence of the strength of the pound) this was not enough to prevent farming income experiencing a sharp fall. Scottish farm incomes are still above those experienced in 1980, 1985 and 1986.

33. The vertical scale of the following graph has been omitted, which sector does it show?
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## Explanation

For farm crops, the second smallest bar would be for 1997, but the graph shows the second smallest bar as the 1994 bar, so A cannot be correct.

For horticulture, the smallest bar would be for 1994, but on the graph the bar for 1994 is the second smallest, so B cannot be correct either.

For produce,the smallest bar would be for 1997, but on the graph the smallest bar is for 1998, so D cannot be correct either.

Post Comment

The table below shows the value of the Scottish agricultural production in four sectors from 1994 to 1998.

Scottish agricultural output 1994-1998

Commentary on 1998 figures

Largely as a result of the strength of the pound at the time, lower prices were experienced due to farmers having to drop their prices for commodities being exported from the UK. Although prices dropped for some inputs, such as fertiliser and animal feed (again as a consequence of the strength of the pound) this was not enough to prevent farming income experiencing a sharp fall. Scottish farm incomes are still above those experienced in 1980, 1985 and 1986.

34. Which of the following can safely be concluded from the data given in the table and the commentary?
1
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## Explanation

The output for horticulture has increased from 1994 to 1998 whereas the output for farm crops has decreased. Given that volumes of production have not changed, the decrease in farm crop output must be due to a greater proportion of farm crops being sold overseas compared to horticulture, as ‘lower prices were experienced due to farmers having to drop their prices for commodities being exported from the UK’.

Post Comment

The table below shows the value of the Scottish agricultural production in four sectors from 1994 to 1998.

Scottish agricultural output 1994-1998

Commentary on 1998 figures

Largely as a result of the strength of the pound at the time, lower prices were experienced due to farmers having to drop their prices for commodities being exported from the UK. Although prices dropped for some inputs, such as fertiliser and animal feed (again as a consequence of the strength of the pound) this was not enough to prevent farming income experiencing a sharp fall. Scottish farm incomes are still above those experienced in 1980, 1985 and 1986.

35. If the pound fell by 5% in 1998 and the drop in value of sheep was entirely due to this, approximately what percentage of sheep is exported?
0
0

## Explanation

Post Comment
shush Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 27 Oct 2021 21:30:10

wheres the explanations at

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