This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 35 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

The INCO company switchboard is covered by three operators, exactly two being on duty on any day. Bob works on the switchboard for a maximum of three days a week. None of the operators work for four consecutive days in a week.

The manager is preparing a new rota and, due to other constraints, has filled it in as far as shown below:

1. Which days will Carla work?
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## Explanation

If Carla worked Tue, Wed and Thu, Bob worked Mon, Tue and Fri and Amy worked Mon, Wed, Thu and Fri, this would satisfy the requirements that exactly 2 operators are on duty per day and none of the operators work for 4 consecutive days

.

Post Comment
- Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 31 Oct 2021 14:01:48

I don't know if I'm missing something, but surely only one person would then be on duty on Thursday?

Cosmologists have suggested new criteria for the boundaries of the ‘habitable zone’ – e. the region around a star, such as the Sun, in which liquid water can theoretically exist. This zone is     also called the Goldilocks zone, because temperatures are ‘just right’ for life there. The new criteria make many planets look too hot for liquid water. One example is Kepler-22b, which was once deemed the most habitable world  outside our solar system. Surprisingly Earth, which by the old criteria used to be in the middle of our sun’s habitable zone, is now much closer to the warm edge, so that it seems to be almost too hot for liquid water. Of course, we know that Earth is robustly life- friendly. The mismatch is probably because neither set of criteria accounts for clouds, which reflect sunlight away from Earth.

2. Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?
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## Explanation

Statement C is correct here because the ‘habitable zone’ is not a reliable criteria to asses whether a planet is habitable or not because it only considers whether liquid water can exist based on the planet’s temperature. However, this measure not take into account clouds for example, as stated in the last sentence of the paragraph. This illustrates that this criteria has not taken into account other confounding factors that could make a planet habitable. Therefore only statement C can be correct.

Statement A is incorrect as it is too bold of a statement and does not fully encompass the conclusion of the entire passage.

Statement B is also incorrect because it cannot be inferred that it was previously believed that fewer planets were thought to be habitable simply because they have come up with a new criteria. There could have previously been another criteria that would have made less/more planets habitable and so therefore cannot be inferred as correct.

Statement D is incorrect because it is too bold to assume that clouds would be the sole additional factor needed for life to exist on Kepler-22b.

Post Comment

My four grandchildren are called Ben, Maria, Adam and Tara. Their birthdays are on the 128th, 182nd, 218th and 281st days of the year respectively (except in leap years).

3. Which two of my grandchildren have their birthdays on the same day of the week as each other every year?
0
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## Explanation

If two grandchildren have their birthdays on the same day of the week every year, they must have a certain number of full weeks (7 days) between their birthdays each year. Therefore the difference between them in days must be a multiple of 7. Going through each of the answer options A-F, subtracting the lower number day of the year from the higher number for each pair given. For A: 218(Adam)-128(Ben)=90, which is not a multiple of 7, so A is not the answer. For B: 218-182=36, which is not divisible by 7 either. For C: 281-218=63, which is divisible by 7. Therefore C is the answer.

Post Comment

It seems that, no matter how obvious the connection between eating too much and gaining weight, we are all looking for a simple way to cheat our biology and eat more than we need. Although there is a great deal that we do not understand about the individual differences in calorie burn and fat storage in the body, we do know that our bodies burn calories in relation to our level of physical activity. Effectively, our bodies are like vehicles: if we are using fuel quickly we need to put more in, but if we hardly use any fuel up it is a mistake to keep adding more. Therefore, the secret to losing weight is painfully simple – do more and/or eat less.

4. Which one of the following is the best expression of the main conclusion in the above argument?
0
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## Explanation

Statement C is correct here as the paragraph generally explains that increased levels of activity coupled with lower calorie consumption are key to losing weight. This is aided using the vehicle analogy. The final conclusion is stated in the final sentence: ‘Therefore, the secret to losing weight is painfully simple – do more and/or eat less’. This is synonymous with statement C.

Statement A is incorrect because vehicles are used as an analogy rather than stating that our bodies are like vehicles.

Statement B is incorrect because the paragraph explains that although not everything is understood surrounding calorie consumption in the body, it explains that calorie burn is related to the level of physical activity.

Statement D is incorrect because there is no mention how individuals burn calories at different rates.

Statement E is incorrect because the conclusion states that calories can be burnt either by increasing physical activity or eating less.

Post Comment

Jason had 240 Spruggles that he wanted to sell, so he rented a market stall for two days.

He set the price at £12 each, and was disappointed when he sold less than a quarter of them on the first day.

He decided that he would reduce the price by 25% for the second day.

On the second day he sold exactly twice as many, and took £342 more than the previous day, leaving him with less than one third of his original stock.

5. How many Spruggles did Jason sell altogether during the two days?
0
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## Explanation

On the first day he sold the spruggles at £12 each, and on the second day at 12×0.75=12×3/4=£9 each. On the second day he sold twice as many, and if we let y= the number of spruggles he sold on the first day. On his second day he took £342 more than the previous day, so

12y+342=9(2y)

12y+342=18y

342=6y

y=342/6=57 spruggles sold on the first day.

On the second day he sold 2y spruggles, so over the 2 days in total he sold y+2y=3y=3×57=171 spruggles.

Post Comment

Though it has now been contested, it is still believed by many archaeologists that the first inhabitants of the Americas were a group of people from Asia who walked across from Siberia to Alaska and headed south. They were the Clovis, accomplished toolmakers and hunters who subsisted on big game killed with their characteristic flint spears. Around 13,500 years ago, near    the end of the last ice age, a brief window of opportunity opened up for humans to enter North America. The sea level was lower than it is today and Siberia and Alaska were connected by a now-submerged land As the world began to warm, the huge ice sheets that blocked entry into North America began to retreat, leaving an ice-free corridor to the east of the Rockies. The Clovis walked right in before the sea rose again. The presence of distinctive stone tools throughout the US and northern Mexico supports the ‘Clovis-First’ theory, as does the timing of an extinction  that wiped out more than 30 groups of large mammals, including mammoths, camelids and sabre- toothed cats.

6. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously challenge the Clovis-First theory?
0
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## Explanation

The passage explains that the Clovis people had managed to migrate from the top of Siberia to Alaska around 13,500 years ago, which is equivalent to 11.500 BC, when there was a ‘brief window of opportunity’ when the sea level was low enough for the Clovis people to cross a now-submerged land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. Therefore, statement C most challenges the Clovis-First theory because if human settlement in America was dated to around 12,000 BC, then it is unlikely that the first settlers were the Clovis people from Siberia.

Post Comment

Simon, Liam, Ian, Dylan and Eric make up the boy band Their surnames are Doyle, Floyd, Hyde, Rush and Shore, but I can’t remember which surname goes with which first name.

My friend tells me that no letter of the alphabet appears twice in any of the boys’ full names (first name and surname combined) and the surname of each boy has a different number of letters from his first name.

7. What is Ian’s surname?
0
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## Explanation

The boys’ full names would be: Simon Hyde, Liam Rush, Ian Doyle, Dylan Shore and Eric Floyd

Post Comment

It’s one of those pieces of research I love. Like ‘chocolate makes you happy’ or ‘blondes have more fun’. Now it’s ‘childhood is less carefree than it used to be’. No, really?

Studies have shown for some time that we’re not getting happier as we get richer − though I realise, if you’ve just lost your job, you might think a spot of dosh might come in pretty handy for cheering you up. Nevertheless, the evidence is sound. Over the last half century we’ve acquired twice as much money and a lot more misery. Children in particular exemplify this. Their depression and anxiety have increased alongside their material well-being. At first it seems counter-intuitive. Wealth should bring ease and security. But psychologist Daniel Kahneman, in this programme on Saturday, made the link between success and stress. Presumably the better you’re going to be at your job, the more time and energy you must invest in it − which is bound to leave you less elsewhere. Which is going to affect your children.

I remember our history teacher describing a cruel experiment in an eighteenth-century French orphanage. A hundred babies were fed and kept warm and clothed. But they were not picked up or cuddled or spoken to, she told us. Every one died. I’ve never been able to trace the account, but I’ve never forgotten it.

Children need their basic physical needs met: of course they do. But after that, what they care about   most is relationships. I saw this eloquently demonstrated in a family I’m intimately involved with. They suddenly found they had nowhere to live, and were scattered hundreds of miles from each other, moving from friend to friend: what was described recently as ‘middle-class homeless’. The adults and older children were deeply traumatised by the experience. The one who seemed unscathed was the two-year- old. There was never a day when she wasn’t with someone she loved and trusted, and that was enough. What did it matter to her whose roof was over her head or where she would be tomorrow? Today, she was hugged and kissed and tucked up in bed.

So what is important to very young children? They neither know nor care whether their parents are top earners with houses in Park Lane, or unable to afford a mortgage on the Old Kent Road. What they need, which lasts their life long, is to be loved unconditionally, preferably by two people who also love each     other enough to stay together forever.

BBC Radio 4: ‘Thought for the Day’, 3 February 2009, Anne Atkins

8. The first paragraph ends with the sarcastic comment: ‘No, really?’ In the context of the whole article, which one of the following best expresses the point the author is making by this comment?
0
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## Explanation

A is incorrect as this point is stated explicitly by the previous sentence in the article.

Chocolate is used as a comparison and is irrelevant in the context of the whole article so B is also wrong.

The ‘No, really?’ is in response to ‘childhood is less carefree than it used to be’ and not in response to ‘blondes have more fun’ , so C is also incorrect.

Hence D expresses the point made by the author.

Post Comment

It’s one of those pieces of research I love. Like ‘chocolate makes you happy’ or ‘blondes have more fun’. Now it’s ‘childhood is less carefree than it used to be’. No, really?

Studies have shown for some time that we’re not getting happier as we get richer − though I realise, if you’ve just lost your job, you might think a spot of dosh might come in pretty handy for cheering you up. Nevertheless, the evidence is sound. Over the last half century we’ve acquired twice as much money and a lot more misery. Children in particular exemplify this. Their depression and anxiety have increased alongside their material well-being. At first it seems counter-intuitive. Wealth should bring ease and security. But psychologist Daniel Kahneman, in this programme on Saturday, made the link between success and stress. Presumably the better you’re going to be at your job, the more time and energy you must invest in it − which is bound to leave you less elsewhere. Which is going to affect your children.

I remember our history teacher describing a cruel experiment in an eighteenth-century French orphanage. A hundred babies were fed and kept warm and clothed. But they were not picked up or cuddled or spoken to, she told us. Every one died. I’ve never been able to trace the account, but I’ve never forgotten it.

Children need their basic physical needs met: of course they do. But after that, what they care about   most is relationships. I saw this eloquently demonstrated in a family I’m intimately involved with. They suddenly found they had nowhere to live, and were scattered hundreds of miles from each other, moving from friend to friend: what was described recently as ‘middle-class homeless’. The adults and older children were deeply traumatised by the experience. The one who seemed unscathed was the two-year- old. There was never a day when she wasn’t with someone she loved and trusted, and that was enough. What did it matter to her whose roof was over her head or where she would be tomorrow? Today, she was hugged and kissed and tucked up in bed.

So what is important to very young children? They neither know nor care whether their parents are top earners with houses in Park Lane, or unable to afford a mortgage on the Old Kent Road. What they need, which lasts their life long, is to be loved unconditionally, preferably by two people who also love each     other enough to stay together forever.

BBC Radio 4: ‘Thought for the Day’, 3 February 2009, Anne Atkins

9. Consider the ‘evidence’ that the author cites: ‘Over the last half century we’ve acquired twice as much money and a lot more misery’ (3rd sentence, paragraph 2). Assuming this is correct, which of the following does it most reliably support?
0
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## Explanation

The ‘evidence’ cited is saying that as we have gained more money, we have become sadder or less happy. Therefore as we are getting richer, we are not getting happier, which is stated by A and is hence the correct answer.

Post Comment

It’s one of those pieces of research I love. Like ‘chocolate makes you happy’ or ‘blondes have more fun’. Now it’s ‘childhood is less carefree than it used to be’. No, really?

Studies have shown for some time that we’re not getting happier as we get richer − though I realise, if you’ve just lost your job, you might think a spot of dosh might come in pretty handy for cheering you up. Nevertheless, the evidence is sound. Over the last half century we’ve acquired twice as much money and a lot more misery. Children in particular exemplify this. Their depression and anxiety have increased alongside their material well-being. At first it seems counter-intuitive. Wealth should bring ease and security. But psychologist Daniel Kahneman, in this programme on Saturday, made the link between success and stress. Presumably the better you’re going to be at your job, the more time and energy you must invest in it − which is bound to leave you less elsewhere. Which is going to affect your children.

I remember our history teacher describing a cruel experiment in an eighteenth-century French orphanage. A hundred babies were fed and kept warm and clothed. But they were not picked up or cuddled or spoken to, she told us. Every one died. I’ve never been able to trace the account, but I’ve never forgotten it.

Children need their basic physical needs met: of course they do. But after that, what they care about   most is relationships. I saw this eloquently demonstrated in a family I’m intimately involved with. They suddenly found they had nowhere to live, and were scattered hundreds of miles from each other, moving from friend to friend: what was described recently as ‘middle-class homeless’. The adults and older children were deeply traumatised by the experience. The one who seemed unscathed was the two-year- old. There was never a day when she wasn’t with someone she loved and trusted, and that was enough. What did it matter to her whose roof was over her head or where she would be tomorrow? Today, she was hugged and kissed and tucked up in bed.

So what is important to very young children? They neither know nor care whether their parents are top earners with houses in Park Lane, or unable to afford a mortgage on the Old Kent Road. What they need, which lasts their life long, is to be loved unconditionally, preferably by two people who also love each     other enough to stay together forever.

BBC Radio 4: ‘Thought for the Day’, 3 February 2009, Anne Atkins

10. Also in paragraph 2: which (if either) of the following is an assumption required by the argument attributed to the psychologist Daniel Kahneman? 1. People who work shorter hours will give more time to their children. 2. Failing to achieve wealth and success does not cause stress.
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## Explanation

Read carefully, these are assumptions required in paragraph 4 but not for the argument in paragraph 2.

Post Comment

It’s one of those pieces of research I love. Like ‘chocolate makes you happy’ or ‘blondes have more fun’. Now it’s ‘childhood is less carefree than it used to be’. No, really?

Studies have shown for some time that we’re not getting happier as we get richer − though I realise, if you’ve just lost your job, you might think a spot of dosh might come in pretty handy for cheering you up. Nevertheless, the evidence is sound. Over the last half century we’ve acquired twice as much money and a lot more misery. Children in particular exemplify this. Their depression and anxiety have increased alongside their material well-being. At first it seems counter-intuitive. Wealth should bring ease and security. But psychologist Daniel Kahneman, in this programme on Saturday, made the link between success and stress. Presumably the better you’re going to be at your job, the more time and energy you must invest in it − which is bound to leave you less elsewhere. Which is going to affect your children.

I remember our history teacher describing a cruel experiment in an eighteenth-century French orphanage. A hundred babies were fed and kept warm and clothed. But they were not picked up or cuddled or spoken to, she told us. Every one died. I’ve never been able to trace the account, but I’ve never forgotten it.

Children need their basic physical needs met: of course they do. But after that, what they care about   most is relationships. I saw this eloquently demonstrated in a family I’m intimately involved with. They suddenly found they had nowhere to live, and were scattered hundreds of miles from each other, moving from friend to friend: what was described recently as ‘middle-class homeless’. The adults and older children were deeply traumatised by the experience. The one who seemed unscathed was the two-year- old. There was never a day when she wasn’t with someone she loved and trusted, and that was enough. What did it matter to her whose roof was over her head or where she would be tomorrow? Today, she was hugged and kissed and tucked up in bed.

So what is important to very young children? They neither know nor care whether their parents are top earners with houses in Park Lane, or unable to afford a mortgage on the Old Kent Road. What they need, which lasts their life long, is to be loved unconditionally, preferably by two people who also love each     other enough to stay together forever.

BBC Radio 4: ‘Thought for the Day’, 3 February 2009, Anne Atkins

11. ‘What (children) care about most is relationships’ (paragraph 4). Which one of the following best describes the evidence that is offered in the remainder of paragraph 4 for the above conclusion?
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## Explanation

Post Comment

Historically, alchemists associated seven particular metals with the seven bodies of the solar system that are visible to the naked eye. They used the corresponding astrological symbols for these metals. Thus:

The card game Alchemy involves identifying pairs of cards that are equivalent to each other. There are 36 pairs in the pack of 72 cards. Each card contains the name of a metal, the name of a heavenly body and a symbol. A pair consists of two cards that have the same three equivalent  items in the same order, e.g.:

These eight cards have just been laid out in front of the players.

12. How many pairs are there in these eight cards?
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## Explanation

The 3rd card in the top row and the 1st card in the bottom row are a pair. There are no other pairs.

Post Comment

There has been a great deal of research into the use of placebos and, whilst it remains unclear why they work, the research clearly shows that placebos can have a powerful effect. Placebos present in some cases an ideal therapy; they are cheap and have few or no side effects. Those who argue that the prescription of a placebo represents a breach of patient-doctor trust should recognise that whilst placebos may not contain any active ingredients, a doctor may prescribe one in the genuine hope that this will offer their patient a real therapeutic benefit. In the interests of providing the most desirable outcomes, it is clear that placebos should be used as a treatment offered by the NHS.

13. Which one of the following principles can be best used to support the above argument?
0
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## Explanation

The passage concludes by stating that if a treatment provides a desirable outcome to a patient, it should be offered by the NHS even if the treatment prescribed is a placebo medication. Therefore, statement D is correct as it states that treatments should be given to patients based on their outcomes.

Statement A is incorrect because it is too bold in stating that doctors should only use treatments that they know will work. This cannot be assumed to be correct with a placebo treatment, as there is no active ingredient in a placebo medication.

Statement B is incorrect because there is no mention of this in the paragraph.

Statement C is incorrect because this would weaken the above argument rather than supporting it.

Statement E is incorrect as placebo treatments are not explicitly mentioned to be proven. Thus this does not act to strengthen the argument.

Post Comment

The four digits of the PIN for my credit card are all different. When the digits are written as words they are in alphabetical order and the total number of letters is the same as the numerical sum of the digits themselves.

The first digit of my PIN is four and the last digit is zero.

14. What is the total number of letters that make up the other two digits?
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## Explanation

If the middle 2 digits were 2 and 9, the sum of all the digits would be 4+2+9+0=15, and the sum of the number of letters of the digits written as words would be 4+3+4+4=15. Therefore the number of letters that make up the middle 2 digits would be 3+4=7.

Post Comment

Risk of death contradicts the very concept of sport, since sport is generally considered to belong to the less serious side of Sport is what people do to counter the stress and pressure of work, not to increase them. The growth in the popularity of so-called extreme sports, where there is a real risk of death, is therefore puzzling; particularly since the modifications in equipment which are designed to make the sports safer do not lead to fewer accidents but to ever higher performance levels and greater exposure to danger.

15. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

Statement B offers the best option amongst all statements that act to weaken the argument. The paragraph states that people take part in sports in order to ‘counter the stress and pressure of work.’ However, statement B states that people look to escape the safety they experience at work.

Statements A & C strengthen the conclusion that improved performance and more developed equipment both respectively do not decrease the risk of death and encourage risk-taking behaviour. Thus supporting the conclusion that extreme sports and modification in sports gear may lead to an increased risk of death caused by extreme sports.

Statement D is incorrect because there is no mention how the link between the popularity and threat of death may increase with extreme sports.

Post Comment

I have three children. The eldest is Jenny, the middle one is Alice and the youngest is Michael.

They were all born on the 17th of the month, and their names all begin with the first letter of the month in which they were born.

Within the same calendar  year:

• Jenny’s and Alice’s birthdays are 2 months
• Alice’s and Michael’s birthdays are 5 months
16. How far apart are Jenny’s and Michael’s birthdays?
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## Explanation

Michael’s, Jenny’s and Alice’s birthdays must be in March, June and August respectively in order for Jenny’s and Alice’s to be 2 months apart and for Alice’s and Michael’s to be 5 months apart. Therefore Jenny’s and Michael’s birthdays must be 3 months apart.

Post Comment

Lack of sleep is known to adversely affect our attention, alertness, concentration, judgement and problem-solving abilities. Every human faculty deteriorates with age, and the ability to sleep well is no Old people have more difficulty falling asleep, and thus on average have less sleep than young people. This must account for the impairment in memory which often occurs with ageing.

1. Impairment in memory may cause worry which leads to lack of sleep.

2.Individuals may vary in the extent to which they experience memory loss and lack of sleep.

3.Changes in the brain due to ageing may cause deterioration in memory and sleep patterns.

17. Which of the following identify/ identifies a weakness in the above argument?
0
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## Explanation

The passage concludes that ageing increases the difficulty to fall asleep, which leads to memory impairment.

Statement 1 weakens the argument because it states the opposite of the conclusion. If people were worried about memory impairment as they were ageing, this could lead to a lack of sleep.

Statement 3 weakens the argument too because it states that changes in the brain due to ageing cause memory deterioration and sleep patterns to be altered. Therefore, it is not sleep patterns that cause memory deterioration, but rather structural changes in the brain.

Statement 2 is incorrect because the passage does not discuss the extent of memory loss incurred by different individuals.

Post Comment

I have a digital clock that displays the date as well as the Just after 4 p.m. on 25th April I happened to glance at the clock and saw:

It struck me that the four numbers on the clock were all different square numbers. When I thought about it, I realised that this would occur another three times within the next hour, then not again until September.

18. How many times will my clock display four different non-zero square numbers during September?
0
0

## Explanation

The 36 possible clock displays showing 4 different square numbers during september are:

01/09 – 04:16/25/36/49, 16:04/25/36/49

04/09 – 01:16/25/36/49, 16:01/25/36/49

16/09 – 01:04/25/36/49, 04:01/25/36/49

25/09 – 01:04/16/36/49, 04:01/16/36/49, 16:01/04/36/49.

Post Comment

The four colour theorem states that any map in the plane can be coloured using at most four colours such that no edge has the same colour on both sides. The map of an island below shows the simplest configuration which needs four colours: red (R); green (G); yellow (Y) and blue (B):

In order to analyse more complicated maps, it is often convenient to represent them as graphs, where points represent regions and lines joining the points represent edges. The map above becomes:

In this case all points are joined to each other as all regions touch. In more complicated maps there will be more points (areas) with each colour.

19. The following map of an island is only partially coloured. What is the most that can be said about region X?
0
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## Explanation

Post Comment
a Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 27 Oct 2021 14:07:31

could someone explain?

Dalia Medicmind Tutor

Thu, 28 Oct 2021 18:10:57

I believe to answer this question, you must look at the Yellow and Blue on the left corner, both are touching red. So the Blue is touching the RED, YELLOW, therefore both are GREEN. The same could be said for the Yellow, it is touching the BLUE, RED therefore the one is touching must be green. If that is the case, X touchign both greens must either be yellow, blue or red.

The four colour theorem states that any map in the plane can be coloured using at most four colours such that no edge has the same colour on both sides. The map of an island below shows the simplest configuration which needs four colours: red (R); green (G); yellow (Y) and blue (B):

In order to analyse more complicated maps, it is often convenient to represent them as graphs, where points represent regions and lines joining the points represent edges. The map above becomes:

In this case all points are joined to each other as all regions touch. In more complicated maps there will be more points (areas) with each colour.

20. A chessboard can be coloured with two colours. If a circle is placed somewhere on the chess board, how many possible extra colours might be needed, depending on its size and position?
0
0

## Explanation

Post Comment

The four colour theorem states that any map in the plane can be coloured using at most four colours such that no edge has the same colour on both sides. The map of an island below shows the simplest configuration which needs four colours: red (R); green (G); yellow (Y) and blue (B):

In order to analyse more complicated maps, it is often convenient to represent them as graphs, where points represent regions and lines joining the points represent edges. The map above becomes:

In this case all points are joined to each other as all regions touch. In more complicated maps there will be more points (areas) with each colour.

An island is divided into regions using only straight lines; for example, the island shown below is divided using two lines:

21. If an island is divided using three straight lines in all ways possible and each map is coloured using the minimum number of colours necessary, how many different combinations of colours will be needed?
0
0

## Explanation

Post Comment

The four colour theorem states that any map in the plane can be coloured using at most four colours such that no edge has the same colour on both sides. The map of an island below shows the simplest configuration which needs four colours: red (R); green (G); yellow (Y) and blue (B):

In order to analyse more complicated maps, it is often convenient to represent them as graphs, where points represent regions and lines joining the points represent edges. The map above becomes:

In this case all points are joined to each other as all regions touch. In more complicated maps there will be more points (areas) with each colour.

The net shown below folds to make a pentagonal dipyramid (two pentagonal pyramids stuck together by their pentagonal face).

22. What is the minimum number of different colours required so that no two adjacent faces of the pentagonal dipyramid are the same colour?
0
0

## Explanation

Post Comment

The floor of a room in my house is covered with 121 tiles to form an 11 by 11 square.

23. How many different types of individual tile are there on this floor?
0
3

## Explanation

The 8 types of tile are highlighted below:

Post Comment

Alcohol is relatively cheap, widely available and It is now the world’s third biggest cause of illness and premature death, behind smoking and high blood pressure. According to the World Health Organization (WHO)’s figures, harmful drinking kills 2.5 million people annually, about twice    as many as die in road accidents. To reduce the harm caused by alcohol, it is vital to reduce consumption, which is roughly the same worldwide as it was twenty years ago. Governments    should follow the WHO’s advice on how to treat humanity’s collective drink problem, i.e. make  alcohol more expensive with a minimum price per unit, and make it less appealing by banning advertising. The alcohol industry, of course, suggests a different approach – encouraging  ‘responsible drinking’, targeting problem drinkers and persuading  alcohol  companies  not  to  aim their advertising at children.

24. Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the above argument?
0
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## Explanation

The main conclusion of the passage is that in order to reduce the harmful effects of alcohol consumption, prices of alcohol should be increased. This may be achieved by making ‘alcohol more expensive with a minimum price per unit, and make it less appealing by banning advertising.’

Statement B is correct because it acts to strengthen the conclusion as it states that consumption has increased with a fall in prices. Therefore, it can be assumed that if there was an increase in price that demand and therefore consumption of alcohol may fall.

Post Comment

My neighbour has two 24-hour digital clocks in her living room. One of them is always 25 minutes fast and the other is always 16 minutes slow. Why she keeps them like this I don’t know, but it does mean that once every day, for two successive minutes, the eight digits displayed on the two clocks are all different.

25. What is the only digit that does not appear on either clock during the two successive minutes when all eight digits are different?
0
0

## Explanation

Post Comment
Nawaal Pasha Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 26 Oct 2021 21:30:39

no explanation

bruh Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 27 Oct 2021 14:14:10

plz explain

- Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 31 Oct 2021 14:22:04

I found that the difference between the times must be 41 minutes, and then found the maximum and minimum possible times on the clocks. I.e. one clock could show --:01 and the second clock could show --:50, or one clock could show --:18 and the other --:59. From then on I kind of did process of elimination and tried out a few combinations, writing out the two clocks' current time, time +1 minute, and time +2 minutes. I didn't get an actual answer for what the two clock times were, but after playing around a bit, the number 4 wasn't coming up. Not sure how efficient this method is..!

An octahedral die numbered 1 to 8 is shown below. Opposite faces add up to 9.

It is being rolled on a plane surface covered with equilateral triangles so it rolls over an edge each time, a face of the octahedron exactly covering one of the triangles. As it rolls, its bottom face covers triangles P, Q, R and S in that order, as shown.

26. Which face of the octahedron is in contact with triangle S?
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## Explanation

The face opposite 3 contacts P, which is number 9-3=6. The face opposite 2 contacts Q, which is 9-2=7. Face 4 contacts R and then 1 contacts S.

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Al was looking at Beth (and only at Beth); but Beth was looking at Charles. Al was married; Charles was unmarried.

Dave was given the above information and asked whether, out of these three people, anyone married was looking at anyone unmarried. He was asked to answer: ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘Cannot be determined from the information’; and to give a reason for his answer.

27. Dave answered correctly, giving one of the following responses. Which one was it?
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## Explanation

From the information given, representing each person using the first letter of their names, we can write A(M)–>B–>C(U). If B was unmarried, she would be being looked at by A, who is married, therefore someone married (A) would be looking at someone unmarried (B). If B was married, she would be looking at C, who is unmarried, therefore someone married (B) would be looking at someone unmarried (C) in this case as well. Therefore C is the correct response.

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In an effort to make children understand where their food comes from many schools are now keeping chickens and other livestock on school grounds. Whilst this does help children to learn about the realities of the origins of their dinner, this is an unwise policy from which schools should It seems that many children and their parents are unprepared for the harsh, yet obvious reality that this will eventually mean the slaughter of these animals. There have been parental complaints in some cases and reports that some children have opted to become vegetarian when faced so cruelly with this outcome. Whilst some point to the apparent hypocrisy of eating meat yet not wanting to see where it comes from, it seems that many children are simply not ready to face this reality at such a young age without damaging consequences.

28. Which one of the following is a principle that could give support to the above argument?
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## Explanation

The statement summarises that many children are not ready to face the truth about where meat comes from at such a young age, as it may cause damaging consequences to the children. Statement D supports the overarching argument of the passage as children should be protected from harm that may be caused from the reality of where meat comes from.

Statement A is incorrect as this would weaken the argument.

Statement B would weaken the argument but is also irrelevant as there is no mention about parents educating their children about life and death specifically.

Statement C is incorrect because this too would weaken the argument, much like statement A would.

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The net shown below can be folded to make a cube.

29. Which of the following are possible views of the cube that can be made from the net above?
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## Explanation

I have highlighted the face on the net of the cube that faces the front in the views that are possible:

2

4

5

6

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When our hands are soaked in water the skin on them becomes wrinkled. These wrinkles form a pattern of channels (similar to rain treads on tyres) that direct water away from the Research shows that this characteristic must have evolved because it gave human beings a better grip underwater. The researchers timed people as they transferred wet or dry objects from one box to another, either with or without wrinkled fingers. Wet objects were transferred faster with wrinkled fingers than without, but the time it took to transfer dry objects was the same as without wrinkles. This suggests that wrinkled fingers are advantageous to us in that they help us to grip wet objects.

1.It is advantageous for humans to be able to grip objects underwater.

2.Some human characteristics are not advantageous to us.

30. Which of the following is an assumption/are assumptions underlying the above argument?
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## Explanation

The conclusion of this passage is that wrinkled fingers are advantageous as the help us grip wet objects but we have to strip the argument of common sense. Why is this important?

We are assuming that statement 1 is an assumption.

Statement 3 is an assumption because we are using the theory of evolution to support why this is the case.

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Shan Medicmind Tutor

Mon, 18 Oct 2021 17:32:11

A group of ten teenagers attending a party meal are each given a card numbered from 3 to 12 as they arrive at the The card is to be used to find their places at the table when it is time for   the meal. Some of the places at the table already have the numbers showing but the teenagers   have to solve the problem of where the rest of them should sit in order to meet a list of criteria given to them by their host. The partial seating plan is shown below:

The remaining guests must sit in places such that the sum of any four place numbers that fall in a straight row makes 29.

31. What will be the number of the person sitting opposite number 9?
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## Explanation

The arrangement would be as shown below:

Therefore number 3 would be sitting opposite number 9.

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Cannabis increases risk of psychotic illness later in life

Evidence that using cannabis could increase the risk of developing a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia subsequently is revealed in a study published in The Lancet.

Cannabis, or marijuana, is the most commonly used illegal substance in most countries. About 20% of young people now report using cannabis at least once per week.

The study analysed 35 studies dated up to 2006. They assessed the strength of evidence for a causal relationship between cannabis use and the subsequent occurrence of psychotic or other mental health disorders.

The study found that individuals who used cannabis were 41% more likely to have any psychosis than those who had never used the drug. The risk increased relative to dose, with the most frequent cannabis users more than twice as likely to have a psychotic outcome.

Professor Glyn Lewis from the University of Bristol, and senior author on the paper, said: ‘It is difficult to  be certain about whether cannabis use causes psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia. However, all the studies have found an association and it seems appropriate to warn members of the public about the possible risk.’

The authors estimate that, if cannabis had a causal relationship with psychosis, about 14% of psychotic illnesses in young adults in the UK could be prevented if cannabis were not consumed.

32. In 10,000 typical young people, if 1% of non-cannabis users develop psychosis, how many cannabis users would be expected to develop psychosis?
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## Explanation

‘About 20% of young people use cannabis at least once a week.’  So in 10,000 typical young people, 10000×0.20=2000 would be cannabis users. ‘Individuals who used cannabis were 41% more likely to have any psychosis than those who never used the drug’ and 1% of non-cannabis users develop psychosis, so the percentage of cannabis users that develop psychosis would be 0.01×1.41=0.0141. So the number of cannabis users expected to develop psychosis would be 2000×0.0141=28.2=28 people.

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Cannabis increases risk of psychotic illness later in life

Evidence that using cannabis could increase the risk of developing a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia subsequently is revealed in a study published in The Lancet.

Cannabis, or marijuana, is the most commonly used illegal substance in most countries. About 20% of young people now report using cannabis at least once per week.

The study analysed 35 studies dated up to 2006. They assessed the strength of evidence for a causal relationship between cannabis use and the subsequent occurrence of psychotic or other mental health disorders.

The study found that individuals who used cannabis were 41% more likely to have any psychosis than those who had never used the drug. The risk increased relative to dose, with the most frequent cannabis users more than twice as likely to have a psychotic outcome.

Professor Glyn Lewis from the University of Bristol, and senior author on the paper, said: ‘It is difficult to  be certain about whether cannabis use causes psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia. However, all the studies have found an association and it seems appropriate to warn members of the public about the possible risk.’

The authors estimate that, if cannabis had a causal relationship with psychosis, about 14% of psychotic illnesses in young adults in the UK could be prevented if cannabis were not consumed.

33. The report states: ‘About 20% of young people now report using cannabis’ ‘… individuals who used cannabis were 41% more likely to have any psychosis’ Given these two figures, and assuming that the incidence of psychosis for reasons other than cannabis use is the same in both users and non-users, what is the percentage of all those with psychosis who have it due to cannabis use? (answer to the nearest 1%).
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## Explanation

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Cannabis increases risk of psychotic illness later in life

Evidence that using cannabis could increase the risk of developing a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia subsequently is revealed in a study published in The Lancet.

Cannabis, or marijuana, is the most commonly used illegal substance in most countries. About 20% of young people now report using cannabis at least once per week.

The study analysed 35 studies dated up to 2006. They assessed the strength of evidence for a causal relationship between cannabis use and the subsequent occurrence of psychotic or other mental health disorders.

The study found that individuals who used cannabis were 41% more likely to have any psychosis than those who had never used the drug. The risk increased relative to dose, with the most frequent cannabis users more than twice as likely to have a psychotic outcome.

Professor Glyn Lewis from the University of Bristol, and senior author on the paper, said: ‘It is difficult to  be certain about whether cannabis use causes psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia. However, all the studies have found an association and it seems appropriate to warn members of the public about the possible risk.’

The authors estimate that, if cannabis had a causal relationship with psychosis, about 14% of psychotic illnesses in young adults in the UK could be prevented if cannabis were not consumed.

34. Which one of the following, if true, would provide a plausible alternative reason for the link between cannabis use and psychotic illness?
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## Explanation

A may actually support the argument given in the text rather than suggest an alternative explanation.

B suggests that the correlation between psychosis and cannabis use may be because those who develop psychosis are more likely to use cannabis, as oppose to the use of cannabis resulting in the development of psychosis. This is a plausible alternative reason for the link between cannabis use and psychotic illness.

C is unlikely because 35 studies were analysed, which means a large cohort overall was involved, which decreases the likelihood of the data being influenced by random events and the impact of any random instances.

D may actually strengthen the original argument by suggesting that many more people with psychotic illnesses have used cannabis but deny having done so, meaning the actually correlation between cannabis use and psychosis should be stronger.

Post Comment

Cannabis increases risk of psychotic illness later in life

Evidence that using cannabis could increase the risk of developing a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia subsequently is revealed in a study published in The Lancet.

Cannabis, or marijuana, is the most commonly used illegal substance in most countries. About 20% of young people now report using cannabis at least once per week.

The study analysed 35 studies dated up to 2006. They assessed the strength of evidence for a causal relationship between cannabis use and the subsequent occurrence of psychotic or other mental health disorders.

The study found that individuals who used cannabis were 41% more likely to have any psychosis than those who had never used the drug. The risk increased relative to dose, with the most frequent cannabis users more than twice as likely to have a psychotic outcome.

Professor Glyn Lewis from the University of Bristol, and senior author on the paper, said: ‘It is difficult to  be certain about whether cannabis use causes psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia. However, all the studies have found an association and it seems appropriate to warn members of the public about the possible risk.’

The authors estimate that, if cannabis had a causal relationship with psychosis, about 14% of psychotic illnesses in young adults in the UK could be prevented if cannabis were not consumed.

35. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion that there is a causal link between cannabis use and psychotic illness?
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## Explanation

A may strengthen the argument but only slightly because the argument refers to people in general, whereas A refers to older people only.

The use of Esctasy may be irrelevant or give an alternative explanation for the incidence of psychosis amongst cannabis users (if they are also using esctasy), therefore B does not strengthen the argument.

C shows a positive correlation between increased cannabis use and rates of psychosis, which directly supports and strengthens the argument.

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