This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 35 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

The table below shows ‘audience numbers’ and ‘time per visit’ for a number of popular social networking sites. A comparison of figures for the month of February is shown for two consecutive years.

1. How many sites had an increase in both ‘audience numbers’ and ‘time per visit’ from 2007 to 2008?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    For this question, take care to read the table in an L shape to identify little tricks such as the fact that the right column is 2007, and the left is 2008. This is deeply counterintuitive, and a horrible way to make a table, but such is the BMAT. Then, check the websites which have had both an increase in audience and time per visit. It is sensible to eliminate and put a cross next to those which do not have an increase in one or the other as you go, to keep track. We see that MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn, Meetup.com and Last.fm all had increases in both parameters, so D is the correct answer.

    Top tip!
    Read tables in an ‘L’ shape to identify the headings and not fall into traps of layout! 

    Post Comment

    There is a tendency to think that carnivores, given their precarious place at the top of the food chain, are the most at risk from extinction. Yet over the course of history it is likely that the opposite has been the case. Herbivores are often more specialist – evolved to suit a particular environment, to eat a particular plant. Carnivores, on the other hand, have tended to retain a more general set of attributes: teeth that could cut as well as chew; physical agility and acute senses, making them less vulnerable to changes in environment. After all, meat remains meat through even the most dramatic of environmental upheavals; whereas grassland might be converted to forest – with serious consequences for the herbivores that are grazing specialists.

    2. Which one of the following best expresses the conclusion of the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The passage starts by discussing how carnivores were previously thought to be the most at risk from extinction. It then provides evidence to show that herbivores are more vulnerable to becoming extinct than carnivores. The final highlighted sentence in the paragraph insinuates the possibility of herbivores become extinct with the phrase ‘serious consequences for the herbivores that are grazing specialists.’ This makes statement C the best conclusion for the above passage.

    Statement A is a plausible conclusion, however, it is more focused on how environmental changes are causing herbivores to become extinct over carnivores.

    Whereas the passage generally discuss

    Post Comment

    A password to open the safe in a hotel room uses an array of five names in a particular order selected from the names of the members of the owner’s family. They are:

    Rick, Betty, Oscar, Gavin, Yasmin, Graham and Bertha.

    In any password a name can only be used once and no two names with the same starting letter are allowed.

    Jeremy is trying to remember the password he set and tries:

    Betty Rick Oscar Gavin Yasmin

    The safe doesn’t open because whilst the second, fourth and fifth names are correct, the first and third names are wrong.

    3. Which of these could be the correct combination to open the safe?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    I enter this question optimistic; my first car was called Bertha and she was majestic before her untimely demise at the hands of a pothole. 

    We should approach this question with elimination, as it’s the quickest way to do it. First, check that all of the options have Rick, Gavin and Yasmin in the correct place as it would be an easy elimination if they weren’t. They all are, so next we should consider our rules one at a time. First, no two names with the same first letter can be used so we can eliminate B, C and D. Second, we know that Jeremy’s initial attempt at the passcode was wrong, so Oscar cannot be in third position and Betty cannot be in first position. This leaves us only with option E, as option A has Oscar in the third position. Therefore, E is the right answer.

    Post Comment

    Since the late 1990s wolves have been seen in the Haute-France region of the Alps. This places them once again in conflict with the shepherds who farm this region. Due to the protected status of the European wolf, French farmers are awarded a compensation payment for the loss of any of their sheep to a wolf. This payment amounts to considerably more than the livestock value of the animal. In addition to this, it is very difficult to distinguish between evidence of a wolf attack and dog attack. France has a population of 8 million dogs; 8 000 of these are estimated to be wild compared to only 200 wolves.

    4. Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    Statement B can be concluded from this paragraph as in the last two sentences it discusses how there is a much greater population of dogs in France compared to wolves (8000 wild dogs compared to 200 wolves). Additionally, it states that it is ‘very difficult to distinguish between evidence of a wolf attack and dog attack.’ Therefore, any sheep that has been supposedly thought to be attacked by a wolf could have been attacked by a dog. Therefore any such claim should be taken with caution, as summarised in statement B.

    Statement A is incorrect because it does not best summarise the conclusion of the paragraph how wolf bites could have potentially been confused for a dog’s bite.

    Statement C is incorrect because it is not the main conclusion of the paragraph despite being partially correct to assume as the second sentence states that the shepherds in the region of the Haute-France region of the Alps have faced conflicts with the wolves there.

    Statement D is incorrect because it is too bold and does not capture the full essence of the paragraphs conclusion that dog bites could be potentially causing the deaths of sheeps as well as wolves.

    Post Comment

    This is part of a tiled floor in my house, surrounding a space where I have removed a broken tile.

    Each tile has a pattern of sixteen smaller squares, three of which are black. On each tile, one of the black squares is a corner square, one is an edge square and one is an inner square. No two black squares touch, either edge to edge or corner to corner.

    Although I laid the tiles to produce an apparently random pattern, I made sure that no two black squares touched anywhere, either edge to edge or corner to corner.

    5. Which one of the eight different tiles that are available must I use to replace the broken one? (Tiles may be rotated.)
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is G.

    The first step for questions such as these should always be to see if we can eliminate any options based on the criteria given which for this question are that there is a corner square, an edge square and a central square with none touching. All our options meet this criteria, so we move on to simple visualisation. 

    A quick fix here is to realise that the corner black square must be placed on the bottom left in order to not border other squares, so we only need to visualise each option in this orientation. Checking each one gives us G as the correct answer.

    Top tip!
    Practice visualisation, but also practice being quick and not expending time unnecessarily. After a cursory glance here, we see that the corner square must be in the bottom left so don’t bother rotating the square in your head to other orientations.

    Post Comment

    Perfect pitch – the ability to identify any note of music without inferring it from a reference note – is usually found to be a characteristic only of people who were taught music before the age of 6. So teaching music to children under the age of 6 should become a priority in primary schools. This could mean that in the future the majority of the population would have perfect pitch.

    6. Which one of the following describes a flaw in the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    Structurally, this is a very straightforward argument. It only contains three claims, and the second one, clearly signalled with ‘So’, is evidently a conclusion. (As previously stated, words like ‘however,’ ‘so’, ‘therefore’, ‘hence’ or ‘consequently’ and phrases such as ‘as a result of this’ often indicate that a conclusion is being drawn.)

    The passage assumes that being taught music before the age of 6 is the only necessary factor in order to have a perfect pitch. The argument however fails to recognise the possibility of other factors that may be necessary for acquiring a perfect pitch. This is summarised in statement B, representing a suitable flaw for the above argument.

    Statement A is incorrect because the passage argues that in order to acquire a perfect pitch, music must be taught before the age of 6. Therefore, it does not assume adults could acquire a perfect pitch if they were taught music.

    Statement C is incorrect because there is no mention of the success of musicians.

    Statement D is irrelevant as there is no mention of children enjoying the music and how this could affect the acquisition of a perfect pitch.

    Post Comment

    When I buy my favourite brand of coffee from the supermarket I normally have a choice of three jar sizes, as follows:

    small – 100 g

    medium – 200 g

    large – 400 g

    At present, all three jars contain 25% extra for the normal price and, in addition, customers who buy a large jar get a small jar free.

    7. For customers who buy a large jar of coffee, what is the total extra percentage of coffee for the normal price of the large jar?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    This question can be done reassuringly quickly with the right logic. First, forget the medium jar because it’s not mentioned in the question so it’s not important. Then calculate that the small jar will have 100 + 25 = 125g of coffee. The large jar will have 400 + 100 = 500g of coffee. Therefore, someone buying the large jar will get 625g of coffee for the price of a large jar originally containing 400g. This is a jittery increase of 225g, which we can calculate as a (225/400) x 100 = 56.25% or a 56¼% increase.

    Post Comment

    A new research study shows that general anaesthesia increases the risk of developing dementia in later life by 35%, regardless of lifestyle. Research from France being presented at a conference of anaesthetists identifies postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common delirium-like complication of major surgery in older people, as a likely cause of dementia that develops some years later.

    The study examined the health of 9 294 people aged 65 or over in three French cities from 1999 in order to assess the risk of dementia and decline in cognitive function linked to vascular risk factors. Participants were checked two, four, seven and 10 years later. Each time the 7 008 patients originally without dementia were asked if they had had either a general or local anaesthetic since the last check-up. After two years, 2 309 (33%) had undergone one in that time, of which 1 333 (19%) were general and 948 (14%) local. In total 632 participants developed dementia over the eight-year follow-up period.

    The statistical model used in the study suggests that if a smoker has undergone general anaesthesia then they have a 27% likelihood of developing dementia in later life, compared to a 19% likelihood for a non-smoker. These results further support previous research findings about the effects of smoking on health.

    A summary of the findings, which are being unveiled at the annual meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, states: “After adjustment, participants with at least one general anaesthesia over the follow-up had a 35% increased risk of developing a dementia compared with participants without anaesthesia.” That risk is for general anaesthesia, not all anaesthesia, they stressed.

    Dr Sztark, one of the authors of the study, said that “[t]hese results are in favour of an increased risk for dementia several years after general anaesthesia.” Health professionals should, he said, be aware of the possibility of POCD when deciding how to manage elderly patients who are being fully anaesthetised.

    Dementia organisations responded cautiously. Dr Eric Karran, director of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “This is early data and given the complexity of the findings we need to await the full peer-reviewed publication before fully interpreting the results. Research into the impact of anaesthetics on dementia is challenging because it can be very difficult to tease out cause and effect. Dementia is caused by several brain diseases, many of which arise from a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors.”

    Dr Doug Brown, director of research at the Alzheimer’s Society, said: “The early results from this study support the view that anaesthesia may increase risk of developing dementia but questions still remain about why this is the case and whether other factors could also have a role to play.”

    8. If the cohort is typical of the population aged 65 or over, what are the chances of someone without dementia developing it during the eight-year follow-up period?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    Usually, it is good form to quickly scan the passage for percentages to check that none are mentioned. While some such as 35% are mentioned, none correlate to the chances of someone without dementia developing it over the study period. So, with a more careful scan of the paragraph, we see in the second paragraph that of 7,008 patients without dementia, 632 of them developed it in the study period. This can be calculated as (632/7,008) x 100 = 9.03%, or rounded down 9%. 

    Post Comment

    A new research study shows that general anaesthesia increases the risk of developing dementia in later life by 35%, regardless of lifestyle. Research from France being presented at a conference of anaesthetists identifies postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common delirium-like complication of major surgery in older people, as a likely cause of dementia that develops some years later.

    The study examined the health of 9 294 people aged 65 or over in three French cities from 1999 in order to assess the risk of dementia and decline in cognitive function linked to vascular risk factors. Participants were checked two, four, seven and 10 years later. Each time the 7 008 patients originally without dementia were asked if they had had either a general or local anaesthetic since the last check-up. After two years, 2 309 (33%) had undergone one in that time, of which 1 333 (19%) were general and 948 (14%) local. In total 632 participants developed dementia over the eight-year follow-up period.

    The statistical model used in the study suggests that if a smoker has undergone general anaesthesia then they have a 27% likelihood of developing dementia in later life, compared to a 19% likelihood for a non-smoker. These results further support previous research findings about the effects of smoking on health.

    A summary of the findings, which are being unveiled at the annual meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, states: “After adjustment, participants with at least one general anaesthesia over the follow-up had a 35% increased risk of developing a dementia compared with participants without anaesthesia.” That risk is for general anaesthesia, not all anaesthesia, they stressed.

    Dr Sztark, one of the authors of the study, said that “[t]hese results are in favour of an increased risk for dementia several years after general anaesthesia.” Health professionals should, he said, be aware of the possibility of POCD when deciding how to manage elderly patients who are being fully anaesthetised.

    Dementia organisations responded cautiously. Dr Eric Karran, director of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “This is early data and given the complexity of the findings we need to await the full peer-reviewed publication before fully interpreting the results. Research into the impact of anaesthetics on dementia is challenging because it can be very difficult to tease out cause and effect. Dementia is caused by several brain diseases, many of which arise from a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors.”

    Dr Doug Brown, director of research at the Alzheimer’s Society, said: “The early results from this study support the view that anaesthesia may increase risk of developing dementia but questions still remain about why this is the case and whether other factors could also have a role to play.”

    In the second to last paragraph Dr Karran says it can be “very difficult to tease out cause and effect”.

    9. Which one of the following could be an alternative explanation of the finding that anaesthesia increases the risk of dementia?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    Statement A is incorrect. This would not explain the finding, although it may be something to consider about the population if you were analysing the paper on the whole.

    Statement B is incorrect. Again, this would not explain the finding, although it would be important to remember as it means that the sample is not entirely representative of the population.  

    Statement C is correct. If other conditions or lifestyles which increase the need for anaesthesia increase the risk of dementia, then we would see why patients having this anaesthesia would be more likely to develop dementia. 

    Statement D is incorrect. While this may be the case, it does not offer any alternative explanation, just a fact about the study. 

    Post Comment

    A new research study shows that general anaesthesia increases the risk of developing dementia in later life by 35%, regardless of lifestyle. Research from France being presented at a conference of anaesthetists identifies postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common delirium-like complication of major surgery in older people, as a likely cause of dementia that develops some years later.

    The study examined the health of 9 294 people aged 65 or over in three French cities from 1999 in order to assess the risk of dementia and decline in cognitive function linked to vascular risk factors. Participants were checked two, four, seven and 10 years later. Each time the 7 008 patients originally without dementia were asked if they had had either a general or local anaesthetic since the last check-up. After two years, 2 309 (33%) had undergone one in that time, of which 1 333 (19%) were general and 948 (14%) local. In total 632 participants developed dementia over the eight-year follow-up period.

    The statistical model used in the study suggests that if a smoker has undergone general anaesthesia then they have a 27% likelihood of developing dementia in later life, compared to a 19% likelihood for a non-smoker. These results further support previous research findings about the effects of smoking on health.

    A summary of the findings, which are being unveiled at the annual meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, states: “After adjustment, participants with at least one general anaesthesia over the follow-up had a 35% increased risk of developing a dementia compared with participants without anaesthesia.” That risk is for general anaesthesia, not all anaesthesia, they stressed.

    Dr Sztark, one of the authors of the study, said that “[t]hese results are in favour of an increased risk for dementia several years after general anaesthesia.” Health professionals should, he said, be aware of the possibility of POCD when deciding how to manage elderly patients who are being fully anaesthetised.

    Dementia organisations responded cautiously. Dr Eric Karran, director of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “This is early data and given the complexity of the findings we need to await the full peer-reviewed publication before fully interpreting the results. Research into the impact of anaesthetics on dementia is challenging because it can be very difficult to tease out cause and effect. Dementia is caused by several brain diseases, many of which arise from a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors.”

    Dr Doug Brown, director of research at the Alzheimer’s Society, said: “The early results from this study support the view that anaesthesia may increase risk of developing dementia but questions still remain about why this is the case and whether other factors could also have a role to play.”

    10. Which one of the following additional pieces of information, if true, strengthens the case for general anaesthesia increasing the risk of dementia?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    To strengthen the case, we need to gain some information that makes the study design stronger or offers further evidence. 

    Statement A tells us about a different type of anaesthetic but does not discuss general anaesthetic either way. It also tells us nothing new about the study. 

    Statement B actually weakens the argument, it suggests that the secondary factor of the condition being treated contributes to risk of developing dementia, not just general anaesthetic. 

    Statement C does not strengthen the argument, no link is given between the immune system and the development of dementia in the passage.

    Statement D is the only one to strengthen the argument. We see that the study design and cohort selected were appropriate, so any conclusions from the study were stronger. 

    Post Comment

    A new research study shows that general anaesthesia increases the risk of developing dementia in later life by 35%, regardless of lifestyle. Research from France being presented at a conference of anaesthetists identifies postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common delirium-like complication of major surgery in older people, as a likely cause of dementia that develops some years later.

    The study examined the health of 9 294 people aged 65 or over in three French cities from 1999 in order to assess the risk of dementia and decline in cognitive function linked to vascular risk factors. Participants were checked two, four, seven and 10 years later. Each time the 7 008 patients originally without dementia were asked if they had had either a general or local anaesthetic since the last check-up. After two years, 2 309 (33%) had undergone one in that time, of which 1 333 (19%) were general and 948 (14%) local. In total 632 participants developed dementia over the eight-year follow-up period.

    The statistical model used in the study suggests that if a smoker has undergone general anaesthesia then they have a 27% likelihood of developing dementia in later life, compared to a 19% likelihood for a non-smoker. These results further support previous research findings about the effects of smoking on health.

    A summary of the findings, which are being unveiled at the annual meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, states: “After adjustment, participants with at least one general anaesthesia over the follow-up had a 35% increased risk of developing a dementia compared with participants without anaesthesia.” That risk is for general anaesthesia, not all anaesthesia, they stressed.

    Dr Sztark, one of the authors of the study, said that “[t]hese results are in favour of an increased risk for dementia several years after general anaesthesia.” Health professionals should, he said, be aware of the possibility of POCD when deciding how to manage elderly patients who are being fully anaesthetised.

    Dementia organisations responded cautiously. Dr Eric Karran, director of research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “This is early data and given the complexity of the findings we need to await the full peer-reviewed publication before fully interpreting the results. Research into the impact of anaesthetics on dementia is challenging because it can be very difficult to tease out cause and effect. Dementia is caused by several brain diseases, many of which arise from a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors.”

    Dr Doug Brown, director of research at the Alzheimer’s Society, said: “The early results from this study support the view that anaesthesia may increase risk of developing dementia but questions still remain about why this is the case and whether other factors could also have a role to play.”

    11. If a smoker who is typical of the cohort in this study does not undergo general anaesthetic, what is the probability that they will develop dementia in later life?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    Here, we need 2 pieces of information from the passage. By scanning for the keyword ‘smoker’, we find in the second paragraph that a smoker’s risk of developing dementia after general anaesthetic according to the study was 27%. We are also told in the passage that this is a 35% increase on risk without general anaesthesia, or 135% of our correct answer. We can quickly therefore calculate that (27/135) x 100 = 20, so the correct answer is E.

    Post Comment

    One of the games at a charity fund raising event was ‘Guess How Many Jelly Beans are in the Jar’. Prizes were awarded according to how close the guesses were to the exact number. The results of the game are shown below in the table.

    12. How many jelly beans were in the jar?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    For this question, we can start by defining the maximum that the number can be. There are 15 values between 125 and 140, so for Jessie to be in first place the maximum possible value is 132 which makes a guess of 125 7 different to the true value, and 140 8 different. We can then really quickly construct a table as below to check. 

    129 130 131 132
    Jessie (125) 4 5 6

    7

    Saul (140)

    11 10 9 8
    Imran (142) 13 12 11

    10

    Marie (121)

    8 9 10 11
    Hank (120)  9 10 11

    12

    The numbers in the body of the table represent the difference between the guess and the true value, if the top row is the true value. For the ranking to be correct, these differences must increase. This is only the case if the true value is 132, so D is the right answer. 

    Top tip!

    There’s no need to make notes and tables this neat. Just jot down initials and quick values, rather than getting hung up on precision! 

    Post Comment

    Recorded crime figures – the figures which police authorities produce – have always been a poor way to identify crime trends. They are really a measure of police activity and priorities. A big operation to tackle knife crime, for instance, may uncover and record many more offences involving knives: it does not mean knife crime is rising. Added to that, there is an inbuilt temptation for police officers to ‘adjust’ their crime figures when targets need to be met. As with all recorded activity or performance data, there is always a risk of inaccuracy, confusion and fraud. A much more reliable measure of crime is the Crime Survey of England and Wales which produces figures by asking people if they have been victims of crime.

    13. Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    Statement E is correct here as the final sentences summarises that a better method to find out whether crime rates are increasing is by conducting population surveys by asking if people have been victims of crime. This is summarised in statement E.

    Statement A & B are pieces of evidence rather than summarising the main conclusion of the paragraph, that because of targets set by the police, it is a less reliable form to assess the true crime rate.

    Statement C is incorrect as this is not the overarching conclusion but rather evidence that police crime reports may not be the most reliable due to targets.

    Statement D is incorrect as there is absolutely no mention of how victims are less likely to inform the police of crimes due to retaliation from criminals.

    Post Comment

    The drawing below shows a pictorial view of a model for a house.

    14. Which two of the drawings below show possible side views of the model?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is F.

    This is another visualisation question. With 2 sides of the house obscured from view, we need to consider each one in turn. The two obscured sides are at the back on the right and left.

    Starting with the back right side, the tallest part slopes towards the point of view if we observe it from the back. Directly sloping from the tallest part is another slope towards the left. The only possible matches are 1 and 5, but in 5 the lower portion of roof slopes towards the right so 1 is the correct possible view.

    On the back left, the tallest part of the roof slopes down to the left from our side point of view. The next tallest part is considerably lower than this, and slants down to the right. Therefore, the options are 2, 4 and 6. However, in 2 the second lowest portion of roof is not sufficiently low. In 4, the tallest portion slants to the right, not the left. Therefore, 6 is the correct view.

    The correct answer is therefore F, 1 and 6.

    Post Comment

    Plans to share the medical records held by doctors, on a national database, have had to be shelved as a result of public pressure. Yet the public’s hostility to this proposal is misguided. Of course people’s medical records are personal matters, which they might not want divulged. And yet, while it is in everyone’s interests to maintain a degree of privacy, for their own peace of mind, it is also in their interests for medical science to find new treatments for ill-health. If the data were allowed to be shared, medical researchers would have access to an enormous pool of data, which could advance their understanding of illnesses and how they are caused.

    15. Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is A.

    This kind of question asks you to identify an assumption, or unstated belief or idea, on which the argument depends. In other words, the task is to recognise the step that is missing within an argument. The missing step may be a reason or an intermediate conclusion, but whichever, it will be necessary to – not just helpful for – the given argument.

    Conclusion: People are wrong to oppose the sharing of medical records.

    R : It is in their interests to maintain privacy.

    R2: But it is also in their interests for medical science to arrive at new treatments.

    This line of reasoning means that the conclusion is the result of a balancing of interests – of weighing one thing against the other.

    Since we have been given a reason for thinking it is not in people’s interests to support sharing the information, and a reason for thinking it is, and then used this to draw the conclusion that it is, the argument must be assuming that the reasons for thinking it is are more important/outweigh the reasons for thinking it isn’t. Without assuming A, the argument would not work; the conclusion would not follow. A is therefore an assumption that the argument is making.

    Post Comment

    Ben designs booklets for companies to use for their marketing. The price that he charges is based on the number of pages in the booklet and whether the booklets are black and white or colour. His prices are summarised in the following table:

    Ben also offers a printing service. Printing 100 booklets in black and white costs $20 and printing 100 booklets in colour costs $30.

    16. An 8-page booklet is required. How much more would it cost for the booklet to be designed and 500 copies made if it is in colour rather than black and white?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    For black and white, the design cost would be $90 and the printing 20 x 5 = $100, so the total cost is $190. 

    For colour, the design cost would be $150 and the printing 30 x 5 = $150, so the total cost is $300.

    The difference is $110. 

    Top tip!
    Realistically, the main difficulty in questions like these is keeping your place in the question. It might help to just jot down a table, with BW (black and white) as one heading, and C (colour) as the other. Then, jot the prices under each heading to avoid silly mistakes.

    Post Comment

    We are all becoming used to warnings of a shortage of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) recruits. In a world increasingly dominated by careers that involve these fields, organisations and politicians repeatedly state that we really must train more of these people to secure our prosperity. But STEM training is not the only answer: anecdotal evidence shows that the STEM employees who do best are those most skilled in thinking and communicating. Instead of looking to produce scientists or engineers, we should focus on turning out agile minds. The ability to process, synthesise and communicate information efficiently is the premium skill of the future.

    17. Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the argument above?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    P1: organisations and politicians repeatedly state that we really must train more of these people in STEM subjects to secure our prosperity.

    P2: STEM employees who do best are those most skilled in thinking and communicating

    C1: we should focus on turning out agile minds, instead of engineers and scientists.

    The gap between P2 and C1 is that the argument fails to recognise that STEM training is probably a contributor to producing an ‘agile mind.’

    Post Comment

    The draw for the quarter-finals of the Staveland Cup took place last night.

    Eight balls, numbered from 1 to 8, were drawn, one by one, from a bag. The numbers represented the teams involved, as follows:

    1 Clefs
    2 Crotchets
    3 Flats
    4 Keys
    5 Minims
    6 Quavers
    7 Semibreves
    8 Sharps

    The first two teams drawn out of the bag will play each other, as will the third and the fourth, the fifth and the sixth, and the last two.

    Although the balls were drawn out at random, they alternated between even and odd numbers, and there was always a difference of at least 3 between one ball and the next.

    The first number drawn was 6 (Quavers) and the last number drawn was 5 (Minims).

    18. Which teams will the Quavers and the Minims play in the quarter-finals of the Staveland Cup?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    After the initial draw of 6, the only options are 3 and 1. Because of the number of options and the rules, the 3 can only occur between 6 and 8 to allow for all the options to eventually be chosen. Therefore, the beginning of the sequence is 6, 3, 8. After the 8, the only options are 5 and 1 but we are told that 5 is last, so it must next be 1. 4 must be next, as 6 and 8 are already taken. Following similar logic, the sequence is therefore:

    6, 3, 8, 1, 4, 7, 2, 5. 

    The answer is C.

    Post Comment

    The information below relates to offences dealt with by courts in England and Wales during 2010.

    Table 1: Sentencing rates by region (2010)

    Table 2: Occurrence of offences by type (2010)

    1 London has the highest crime rate in the country.

    2 The number of sentences handed down in Yorkshire was more than twice that of Wales.

    3 In the North West more than 6 out of every 1 000 population have been sentenced in 2010.

    19. Which of the following is a safe inference to draw from the above data?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is F.

    Statement 1 is not a reasonable inference. The question asks about crime rate, and we are only given statistics about sentencing. 

    Statement 2 is a reasonable inference. Through simple calculation we see that the sentences are:

    • Yorkshire – 5mil x 0.64 = 32,000
    • Wales – 3mil x 0.5 = 15,000

    Therefore, there were more than twice the sentences handed down in Yorkshire than in Wales.

    Statement 3 is a reasonable inference. 0.62% is equal to 0.62 in 100, or 6.2 in 1,000 which is more than 6 in 1,000. 

    Post Comment

    The information below relates to offences dealt with by courts in England and Wales during 2010.

    Table 1: Sentencing rates by region (2010)

    Table 2: Occurrence of offences by type (2010)

    20. Which one of the following is the best estimate of the ratio of sentences to population in London?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    0.55% of the population have been sentenced, or a 0.55:100 ratio of sentencing. This is equivalent to (0.55 x 1.818):(100 x 1.818) = 1:181.8. The closest to this is C, or 1:182. 

    Post Comment
    Meriem Medicmind Tutor

    Sat, 30 Oct 2021 19:27:41

    Where did the number 1.818 come from?

    The information below relates to offences dealt with by courts in England and Wales during 2010.

    Table 1: Sentencing rates by region (2010)

    Table 1 shows that there were 25 000 sentences handed down in the South West region in 2010. Table 2 shows that 0.4% of recorded offences were arson attacks, revealing that in the South West exactly 100 arson sentences were given for arson in that year.

    1 The number of recorded arson attacks in the South West is proportionate to the total number of such attacks across all regions.

    2 The number of recorded offences in each region is the same as the number of sentences in that region.

    Table 2: Occurrence of offences by type (2010)

    21. Which of the following assumptions, if any, are required for this argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    For this question, carefully consider what table 2 tells us. The key lies in the differences between tables 1 and 2: that table 2 is referring to the UK as a whole, not to individual regions, and that it refers to recorded offences, not to sentencing rates. 

    We therefore need to assume that the number of recorded arson attacks in the South West, the region we are referring to, is reflected proportionately in the national statistics. 

    We also need to assume that recorded offences and sentences are the same thing for this calculation to work.

    Post Comment

    There have been various proposals over the years for a system of decimal time.

    Under one system the day would remain the same length of time as it is at present, but would be the basic unit of time, divided into 10 decidays each made up of 100 millidays. Clocks would show the time in decidays and millidays instead of hours and minutes. Midday would be 0:00 and midnight would, therefore, be 5:00.

    22. If this system were ever to be introduced and a new-style digital clock was compared with an old-style digital clock, what would the old clock read when the new clock showed 1:75?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    First, work out how much time these strange units are. A deciday is one-tenth of a day, so each one is 2.4 hours, or 2 hours and 24 minutes. A milliday is one one-hundredth of that, so if we get 2.4 hours in minutes (2.4 x 60 = 144 then divide by 10 we see that one milliday is 1.44 minutes or 1 minute 11 seconds. 

    Then, we can calculate what 1:75 represents. 

    Decidays: 1 = 2hr 24 minutes

    Millidays: 75 = 75 x 1.44 = 108 minutes or 1hr 48 minutes. 

    Overall, this is 4 hours and 12 minutes past midday, or 16.12.

    Post Comment

    Memory loss and growing mental incapacity used to be seen as inevitable consequences of ageing. Now we talk of dementia as an illness that could possibly be cured or prevented. The incidence of new cases of dementia is falling. A survey in the UK in 1994 revealed roughly 650 000 cases of dementia. With a subsequent increase in the average age at death, a survey in 2013 should have found nearly 900 000 cases, but in  fact the total was less than 700 000. Why should this be so? Over the same period rates of heart disease have fallen, and in general the health of the blood vessels of the elderly has improved. Given that brain function requires the supply of oxygen to the brain from blood vessels, the improvement in the health of blood vessels …

    23. Which one of the following most logically completes the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    Statement D is correct here because the passage discusses the fall of ‘incidence of new cases of dementia,’ which has coincided with a fall in heart disease and improved blood vessels in the elderly. Thus it is trying to explain that a fall in incidence of new cases of dementia could be due to an improvement in blood vessels in the brain. This is stated in statement D.

    Statement A is incorrect because it is too bold with the use of ‘must be the explanation.’

    Statement B is also incorrect because it is too bold and because it does not mention that improved blood vessel health could be the reason for a decrease in the incidence of any new dementia cases.

    Statement C is incorrect because it is too bold and is saying for certain that improved blood vessel health in the brain is the reason for a decreased incidence of any new dementia cases.

    Post Comment

    Four friends need to stay in a hotel for one night after a concert. They are working out what it is going to cost them. The prices per room are as follows:

    Single: £40, Double: £65, Family: £90 (This is up to a max of 3 adults)

    Special offers:
    10% discount for four rooms in a single booking
    5% discount for three rooms in a single booking

    One of them has a voucher for £10 which can be used once for a booking of a double room.

    24. What is the cheapest option?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    Questions like these always look daunting, but there’s usually a trick to reduce the number of calculations you need to make! Looking down the options, we see that options A and C involve using 2 single rooms rather than a double. Because a double is already £15 cheaper than 2 singles, the 10% and 5% discounts will not make any difference, so we are left only with options B and D. Both options would be £130, so they should get 2 doubles to make use of the voucher and reduce the price to £120. 

    The answer is B.

    Post Comment

    Next time you feel the flu coming on, you should think twice before reaching for painkillers because they could do more harm than good by increasing the transmission of flu. Obviously painkillers can make you feel better by reducing muscle pains and headaches, but they also lower fever. Fever is thought to be an antiviral weapon, because many viruses find it hard to replicate at temperatures higher than the normal human body temperature. Some studies have shown that lowering fever can prolong viral infections and increase the amount of the virus that can be passed on to others.

    25. Which one of the following, if true, strengthens the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    The main conclusion of the passage is that painkillers should not be used by people experiencing a fever, as it suppresses the body’s natural response of fighting off a viral infection and it may therefore prolong the viral infection.

    Statement B strengthens the argument as it states that those that take painkillers when suffering from a flu, when they return to work, they may still remain infectious. This supports the argument that taking painkillers prolongs a viral infection as workers return to work and may still be infectious (therefore having not recovered).

    Statement A is irrelevant as there is no mention of the significance of reducing headaches.

    Statement C is incorrect because this would act to weaken the argument, as we could not assume that because the studies were shown to support the conclusion in animals, that the outcome would be the same in humans.

    Statement D is incorrect because there is no mention of an anti-flu injection.

    Post Comment

    Most people remember a PIN because it has only four digits and it is used regularly, but few know their bank account number.

    I have no trouble remembering my eight-digit account number, however, because squaring each of the four digits of my debit card PIN in turn produces it.

    26. All the digits of my account number are different, and there is no zero in it. Which other digit does it not contain?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    The author of this question is clearly feeling risky and revealing a great deal about their bank details. Who said BMAT authors were clever?

    The trick to this question is finding all the possible numbers which could be in the account number, which is all the squares of the numbers 1-9 that give 2 digit numbers (because the total amount of numbers must be 8). Therefore, the possible digits are 16, 25, 36, 49, 64 and 81. All answer options are included in these, except 7 so the answer must be D.

    Post Comment

    Drivers of motor vehicles are not the only threat to the safety of pedestrians. Official road casualty statistics for 2012 show that, per billion kilometres travelled, cyclists seriously injured 21 pedestrians, compared with 24 pedestrians seriously injured by vehicle drivers. Cyclists who ride on the pavement are regarded as a problem by pedestrians, but statistics show that most collisions between pedestrians and cyclists occur when pedestrians step into the road without seeing a cyclist. Analysis of road casualty data shows that cyclists killed 23 pedestrians in the decade to 2012 and seriously injured 585.

    1. A pedestrian is almost as likely to be seriously injured by a cyclist as by a motor vehicle driver.

    2. As a proportion of distance travelled, the risk of a cyclist causing serious injury to pedestrians is almost as great as the risk posed by vehicle drivers.

    3. Pedestrians are less likely to be seriously injured by a cyclist when walking on a pavement than when stepping into the road.

    27. Assuming that 2012 is a representative year, which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above passage?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    Statement 1 is not a reasonable inference, although it very well seems to be. Simply put, this is because there are likely more cars on the road so although per billion miles any given bike is nearly as likely to injure a pedestrian as any given car, because there are more cars on the roads travelling so more billions of miles travelled on the whole.

    Statement 2 is a reasonable inference; essentially it corrects the mistake which makes Statement 1 not reasonable by saying that the risk is as a proportion of distance travelled. 

    Statement 3 is a reasonable inference, it is a direct match with the third sentence.

    Post Comment

    The drawing below shows the outer surface of the net of a hexagonal package with geometric shaped windows in each side. The inner surface is painted black.

    28. Which one of the drawings could represent a correct side view of the assembled package?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is A.

    Although net questions are a good reason to question the meaning of existence, mercifully there is usually only one per exam. Here the trick is realising that, although the inside of the cube is painted black, you will see right through the the cut-out window on the other side which will appear white. Because of the layout of the net, the shape you will see is 2 places around the net. A is the only shape which meets these criteria, and represents the view of the rightmost triangle and square with the diamond and the rectangle visible through the two respectively.

    Post Comment

    Half a million pregnant women are troubled by morning sickness each year in the UK, but this phenomenon is still not fully understood. One theory is that changing levels of hormones act on the brain to heighten an evolutionary adaptive response that helps prevent women from consuming substances that may be harmful. Although less important in the developed world, in the past this would have helped to protect a foetus during the first three months of pregnancy when it is at the most vulnerable stage of development. If the mother eats less, and sticks to simple foods, she is less likely to accidentally ingest something dangerous.

    1. Morning sickness symptoms normally decline after the third month of pregnancy.

    2. Pregnant women sometimes have strange food cravings.

    3. Women with morning sickness tend to eat less and opt for very simple and bland food.

    29. Which of the following would strengthen the theory presented in the above argument?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is E.

    The passage concludes that women tend to experience morning sickness more commonly in the first three months of pregnancy. To prevent morning sickness from occurring, women should try to eat bland simple foods during their first trimester of pregnancy.

    Statement 1 is correct because it supports the conclusion that morning sickness symptoms are more common within the first three months as the symptoms start to decline after the third month of pregnancy.

    Statement 3 is correct because it supports the conclusion that women who experience morning sickness will tend to eat less and more bland and simple foods.

    Statement 2 is incorrect because there is no mention of strange food cravings.

    Post Comment

    There are three stations on a single-track railway. The middle station of Laydon has two platforms and two separate tracks, each capable of taking any size train using the track.

    The Express leaves Singebourne station at 12:00 noon and travels at an average speed of 60 mph between stations. The Post train leaves Snelling station at 12:00 noon and travels at an average of 30 mph between stations. Each train remains at Laydon station for at least 5 minutes.

    30. What is the earliest time of arrival for the Express at Snelling station?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    This is a tricky question where it is important to realise that the single track means the trains can only cross at Laydon station. Because the Express travels faster than the Post, it will arrive at Laydon first and will not be able to progress until the Post is off the single track between Laydon and Snelling. The timings for this first phase of the journey are as follows:

    • Express to Laydon: 10 miles at 60mph = 10 minutes
    • Post to Laydon: 15 miles at 30mph = 30 minutes

    Therefore, the journey of the Express is limited as although it will get to Laydon for 12.10, it cannot leave until 12.30 when the Post arrives. At this point, a 15 mile journey to Snelling will take 15 minutes and it will arrive at 12.45. The answer is D. 

    Post Comment

    The diagram below represents all the ferry routes between the islands in the Kuusi group.

    Each ferry runs a shuttle service between two islands. The journeys between the main central island (Nolla) and each of the outer islands take 30 minutes in either direction and all journeys between two of the outer islands take 45 minutes.

    All journeys on each route and in both directions start at 6 am and no journey starts at or after 9 pm:

    Start times for routes between Nolla and the outer islands: 6:00  6:45  7:30  8:15  9:00 etc. repeating every 3 hours

    Start times for routes between the outer islands: 6:00  7:00  8:00  9:00 etc.

    It takes between 5 and 10 minutes to walk between ferry docking points on all the islands.

    31. What is the smallest number of individual trips needed to visit all the islands, starting and finishing at Nolla?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The major factor here is visiting either Kaksi or Viisi, which will take 4 trips. You can start with either of these, then detour via Kolme on the way to the other to save trips before heading back to Nolla, satisfied with your adventures. Either way, the minimum trips are 9. 

    Top tip!
    Read the question! Even when writing the explanation for this one, it took me a while because I got muddled thinking 7 was the answer when I hadn’t adequately read that the trip had to start and finish on Nolla. 

    Post Comment

    The diagram below represents all the ferry routes between the islands in the Kuusi group.

    Each ferry runs a shuttle service between two islands. The journeys between the main central island (Nolla) and each of the outer islands take 30 minutes in either direction and all journeys between two of the outer islands take 45 minutes.

    All journeys on each route and in both directions start at 6 am and no journey starts at or after 9 pm:

    Start times for routes between Nolla and the outer islands: 6:00  6:45  7:30  8:15  9:00 etc. repeating every 3 hours

    Start times for routes between the outer islands: 6:00  7:00  8:00  9:00 etc.

    It takes between 5 and 10 minutes to walk between ferry docking points on all the islands.

    32. What is the longest time one might be on Nelja if arriving from Nolla, then leaving by the next available ferry that same day to Viisi?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is D.

    The journey from Nolla to Nelja will take 30 minutes, and since ferries leave at x:00, x:15, x:30 and x:45 one could also arrive on Nelja at any of these times.  Therefore, if they got the half past ferry at any time they would arrive on the hour, and since the walk between terminals is 10 minutes they could not catch the departing ferry on the hour so would be stuck on Nelja for the full hour. 

    Post Comment

    The diagram below represents all the ferry routes between the islands in the Kuusi group.

    Each ferry runs a shuttle service between two islands. The journeys between the main central island (Nolla) and each of the outer islands take 30 minutes in either direction and all journeys between two of the outer islands take 45 minutes.

    All journeys on each route and in both directions start at 6 am and no journey starts at or after 9 pm:

    Start times for routes between Nolla and the outer islands: 6:00  6:45  7:30  8:15  9:00 etc. repeating every 3 hours

    Start times for routes between the outer islands: 6:00  7:00  8:00  9:00 etc.

    It takes between 5 and 10 minutes to walk between ferry docking points on all the islands.

    33. What is the longest time it could take from Kaksi to Nelja by the most direct route, assuming the next available ferry that same day is always taken?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    The most direct route for this little day excursion would be from Kaksi to Yksi to Nolla to Nelja. It would go as follows:

    1. Kaksi to Yksi. 45-minute journey time, 15-minute wait before the next boat to Nolla. 1hr overall. 

    2. Yksi to Nolla. 30-minute journey time, worst case 45-minute wait before next boat to Nelja. 1hr 15 minutes overall. 

    3. Nolla to Nelja. 30-minute journey time. 30 minutes overall to destination.

    Overall, this journey would take 2 hours and 45 minutes.

    Post Comment

    The diagram below represents all the ferry routes between the islands in the Kuusi group.

    Each ferry runs a shuttle service between two islands. The journeys between the main central island (Nolla) and each of the outer islands take 30 minutes in either direction and all journeys between two of the outer islands take 45 minutes.

    All journeys on each route and in both directions start at 6 am and no journey starts at or after 9 pm:

    Start times for routes between Nolla and the outer islands: 6:00  6:45  7:30  8:15  9:00 etc. repeating every 3 hours

    Start times for routes between the outer islands: 6:00  7:00  8:00  9:00 etc.

    It takes between 5 and 10 minutes to walk between ferry docking points on all the islands.

    1 Journeys from Kolme to Yksi never take less than 1 hour 15 minutes.

    2 Journeys from Kolme to Yksi never take longer than 2 hours.

    34. Which of the following statements is/are true about journeys from Kolme to Yksi, assuming the next available ferry that same day from Nolla is always taken?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is C.

    Statement 1 is true. Each journey takes 30 minutes to total 1 hour of travel time, and one must wait a minimum of 15 minutes on Nolla. 

    Statement 2 is also true. The actual journey time is still 1 hour, however the worst-case waiting time on Nolla would be 45 minutes if you just missed a ferry.  

    Post Comment

    The diagram below represents all the ferry routes between the islands in the Kuusi group.

    Each ferry runs a shuttle service between two islands. The journeys between the main central island (Nolla) and each of the outer islands take 30 minutes in either direction and all journeys between two of the outer islands take 45 minutes.

    All journeys on each route and in both directions start at 6 am and no journey starts at or after 9 pm:

    Start times for routes between Nolla and the outer islands: 6:00  6:45  7:30  8:15  9:00 etc. repeating every 3 hours

    Start times for routes between the outer islands: 6:00  7:00  8:00  9:00 etc.

    It takes between 5 and 10 minutes to walk between ferry docking points on all the islands.

    35. Mikko commutes from Yksi to Nelja each morning starting on the 7:30 am ferry. One day when he arrives at the Yksi terminal, he finds that the Nolla – Nelja ferry is not running. How much later than normal will he arrive at work?
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    Explanation

    The correct answer is B.

    Poor Mikko, he might at the very least have been warned by archipelago authorities that this was the case. I hear they’re very strict about punctuality on Nelja. 

    Starting from Yksi at 07.30, Mikko will take 30 minutes to get to Nolla and find at 08.00 that the ferry to Nelja is not running. Therefore, he will take the 08.15 ferry to Kolme instead as a workaround, arriving at 08.45. Note that he would normally have caught the ferry at this point to arrive on Nelja for 08.45. From Kolme, he can get the ferry from here to Nelja at 09.00 to arrive at 09.45. This is one hour later than his normal arrival time, so B is the correct answer. 

    Post Comment

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