This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 35 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

Hugh painted a room 60% pink and 40% orange.

Before he began he had three full 1.5 litre pots of paint: one red, one yellow and one white. He mixed equal amounts of red and yellow to create the orange paint and he mixed red and white in the ratio 1:3 to create the pink paint.

He made exactly the amounts of orange paint and pink paint that he needed. After doing so, he had 900 ml of the yellow paint left.

1. How much of the red paint did Hugh have left?
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## Explanation

In a deeply questionable interior design choice, 60% of the paint was pink and 40% was orange. Using the ratios therefore, our 40% of orange can be represented as 20% of red and 20% of yellow. Similarly, our 60% pink is equal to 15% red and 45% white. We are told that 900ml of yellow paint was left, so 600ml overall must have been used. This represents 20% of the overall paint used, so 1% must be 30ml. We know that 20% + 15% of red paint was used overall to total 35%. If 1% is 30ml, we can calculate 35 x 30 to tell us 1050ml of red paint was used.

Therefore, 450ml was left over.

Post Comment

There were 61 million prescriptions for antidepressant drugs in the UK in 2015. This was double the number of prescriptions in 2005. In 2014, there were 1.1 million mental health disability claimants. This was double the number in 1995.

2. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above information?
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## Explanation

Statement D provides the best conclusion for the given passage. It is correct to say that despite an increase in prescription for antidepressants from 2005 to 2015 as well as the increase in mental health disability claimants there is no evidence to support that these antidepressants is helping people with mental health conditions. This is synonymous with statement D.

Statements A, B & C are incorrect because there is no mention of any of this information in the passage.

Post Comment

Mr and Mrs Joelson and their twin sons intend to move house. They have a budget of \$900 000.

Ideally, they would like a house with at least four bedrooms, a double garage and a medium or large size garden. They would also like to be no more than 2 km from the nearest grocery store and within 6 km of sports facilities. They realise that their wish list may not be met in full, so they decide that they will be happy with a house, within budget, that satisfies at least four of their five wishes. If more than one house satisfies at least four of their wishes, then they will choose the one for which dividing the cost of the house by the number of bedrooms gives the lowest price.

The Joelson family have found five houses which satisfy at least some of their wishes.

3. Which house should the Joelson family buy?
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## Explanation

Immediately, we can eliminate Chestnuts which is \$30,000 over budget for the Joelsons. Moreover, Bellavista has too few rooms and a single garage and Everglade lacks a garage as well as having a small garden so these houses do not meet at least 4 requirements. We are left between Dayview and Acorns – so must calculate accordingly.

1. Dayview – \$640,000/4 = \$16,000
2. Acorns – \$825,000/5 = \$16,500

Therefore, Dayview is the correct answer.

Top tip!
Active reading is really important for questions like these. Every piece of information will be placed there for a reason, so make sure you’re not just skim-reading and that you are retaining the information given to quickly answer the question!

Post Comment

Nuclear power is often suggested as a ‘cleaner’ or ‘greener’ alternative to power production using fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Nuclear power may be less air-polluting than fossil fuels, but it still poses an unacceptable risk to the environment and to humanity. The expansion of all nuclear power production should therefore be stopped and existing plants shut down. Despite what the nuclear industry tells us, building enough nuclear power stations to make a meaningful reduction in greenhouse gas emissions would create tens of thousands of tons of lethal, high-level radioactive waste. Instead, we need an energy system that can fight climate change, based on a mix of renewable energy sources (such as wind, solar and tidal) and energy efficiency. Nuclear power already delivers less energy globally than renewable energy.

4. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The passage concludes that nuclear power plants should no longer function (‘expansion of all nuclear power production should therefore be stopped and existing plants shut down.’) as it would ‘create tens of thousands of tons of lethal, high-level radioactive waste.’

Statement A outlines that there are ‘established procedure for managing and safely storing nuclear waste.’ This therefore means that the tons of lethal waste that would be created would be safely stored, thereby weakening the main conclusion.

Statements B-D are irrelevant to the main conclusion, as it does not directly challenge the link between nuclear energy being banned because the waste it produces is unsafe and lethal.

Post Comment

A piece of a puzzle is shown below.

5. Which one of the following blocks could fit onto this piece to make a solid cube?
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## Explanation

Post Comment

Researchers have found that middle-aged men with bigger waist measurements have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. They found that, for every extra ten centimetres a man had on his waist, his risk of developing the most aggressive form of prostate cancer was raised by 13 per cent. Early results suggest the increased risk is linked with the disruption to testosterone and other hormones that occurs with weight gain. This shows that middle-aged men can prevent the development of prostate cancer by eating a healthy diet and taking regular exercise.

6. Which one of the following best expresses a flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument gives a very narrow line of reasoning, focussing only on preventing weight gain. However, it doesn’t consider that the weight gain could be a result of other things such as genetics etc. The argument also suggests that losing weight is sufficient in the prevention of cancer. A and B are irrelevant. Other forms of cancer aren’t discussed here, so it cannot be D.

Post Comment

The chart below shows the results of a survey of the favourite sport of each child in a school.

An equal number of girls and boys took part in the survey.

No girls chose swimming and no boys chose rounders.

Equal numbers of girls and boys chose running.

7. How many girls chose football?
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## Explanation

For this question, it is really useful to draw out a brief table. Here is an example below. The number in brackets corresponds to the hint on how to fill this section of the table.

1. We can add up the bars to find the totals for each section.
2. We are told that no girls chose swimming, so this must all be boys
3. We are told that no boys chose rounders, so this must all be girls
4. We are told that equal numbers of boys and girls chose running, so this must be 14 each
5. We are told that an equal number of boys and girls answered the survey.

Finally, we must make the boys and girls column equal 72. There are 42 boys accounted for (28 + 14), so 30 boys must be playing football. There are 54 girls accounted for (40 + 14), so 18 girls must be playing football.

Top tip!
Your table doesn’t need to be even bordering on as neat as this. Use abbreviations (eg: B and G for boys and girls) and certainly don’t bother drawing lines! Just note down what’s necessary to organise your thoughts.

Post Comment

The following set of data is from a nine-year study of reoffending and reconviction rates in the UK. The study followed a cohort of 42,721 offenders who were released from prison in 2000 or given a non-custodial sentence in 2000.

All figures are cumulative and relate only to offences that resulted in a conviction. No adjustment was made for factors that might account for a decline in the rate of reconvictions over time.

Additional data was collected on offenders who had served custodial sentences and who were released from prison in 2000. Offenders who received longer sentences (four years and over) formed 2.3 per cent of the cohort. Offenders who received shorter sentences (less than twelve months) formed 24.2 per cent of the cohort, but committed 39 per cent of all offences that led to a conviction in the first year of the follow-up.

8. According to the data in the table, what was the average number of reconvictions per re-offender by the end of the nine year follow-up period?
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## Explanation

Questions like this give you stats you’ve never thought about before and try to intimidate you with them. Try to simply take them as they are instead of reading too much into the context. Ultimately, we have been asked how many offences on average were committed by offenders at the end of the period. By this time, 74% of offenders had actually re-offended (first column), committing 1,057.5 crimes per 100. Because the offences are per 100, we can simply divide 1,057.5 by 74% to give us 14.3.

Post Comment
tutor Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 26 Jan 2022 03:21:10

This kind of question beats me

The following set of data is from a nine-year study of reoffending and reconviction rates in the UK. The study followed a cohort of 42,721 offenders who were released from prison in 2000 or given a non-custodial sentence in 2000.

All figures are cumulative and relate only to offences that resulted in a conviction. No adjustment was made for factors that might account for a decline in the rate of reconvictions over time.

Additional data was collected on offenders who had served custodial sentences and who were released from prison in 2000. Offenders who received longer sentences (four years and over) formed 2.3 per cent of the cohort. Offenders who received shorter sentences (less than twelve months) formed 24.2 per cent of the cohort, but committed 39 per cent of all offences that led to a conviction in the first year of the follow-up.

Which of the following statements is supported by the table and accompanying information?

1 Over 77 per cent of all offenders who were reconvicted within the two year follow-up period were actually reconvicted in the first year.

2 Of all offences resulting in a reconviction in the nine year follow-up period, at least one third occurred in years 2 and 3.

3 In the first year of the follow-up period there were at least 77,000 reconvictions.

9. Which of the following statements is supported by the table and accompanying information?
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## Explanation

Statement 1 is correct, because it wants us to work out how many of the 55.3% of total reconvictions at 2 years were convicted in the first year. We see from the table that 43% of this total were convicted in the first year, which corresponds to 43/55.3 = 0.779, or 77.9%.

Statement 2 is incorrect, and the key to understanding this is to see that the column for reconvictions is cumulative. Therefore, to find out how many convictions occurred in years 2 and 3 we need to subtract those in year 1 (43%) from the total in year 3 (61.9%). This gives us 18.9% of arrests in years 2 and 3, which is 18.9/74 = 22.5% of total arrests.

Statement 3 is correct, because we are looking at the reconviction frequency rate to find the true number of reconvictions. If, for every 100 offenders in the cohort of 42,471 , 185.1 offences were committed which resulted in reconviction, then we can work out the number of offences with: (42721/100) x 185.1 = 79,076.57 = 70,077 reconvictions.

Top tip!

We cannot simply use the proportion of offenders reconvicted, because any individual offender may have been convicted more than once for different offences.

Post Comment
tutor Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 26 Jan 2022 03:22:39

Can someone tell me how to score this type of long question in a short duration or without figure out the whole passage, thanks.

The following set of data is from a nine-year study of reoffending and reconviction rates in the UK. The study followed a cohort of 42,721 offenders who were released from prison in 2000 or given a non-custodial sentence in 2000.

All figures are cumulative and relate only to offences that resulted in a conviction. No adjustment was made for factors that might account for a decline in the rate of reconvictions over time.

Additional data was collected on offenders who had served custodial sentences and who were released from prison in 2000. Offenders who received longer sentences (four years and over) formed 2.3 per cent of the cohort. Offenders who received shorter sentences (less than twelve months) formed 24.2 per cent of the cohort, but committed 39 per cent of all offences that led to a conviction in the first year of the follow-up.

10. In the first year of the follow-up period, approximately how many offences leading to a reconviction were committed by prisoners who had served sentences less than 12 months?
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## Explanation

For this question, we need to understand:

A. How many offenders were reconvicted in the first year (we calculated this in question 9, remember)

B. How many of these prisoners had served less than 12 months (this is given to us in the final paragraph – these prisoners committed ’39% of all offences which led to a reconviction in the first year’

Therefore, we can find 39% of 70,077 to give us 30,840, which is closest to 31,000.

Top Tip!
This question gives the keyword ‘approximately’ in the question stem, so it is ok to round up our true value to 31,000. Remembering this will stop you being discouraged when you don’t see your answer amongst the options.

Post Comment

The following set of data is from a nine-year study of reoffending and reconviction rates in the UK. The study followed a cohort of 42,721 offenders who were released from prison in 2000 or given a non-custodial sentence in 2000.

All figures are cumulative and relate only to offences that resulted in a conviction. No adjustment was made for factors that might account for a decline in the rate of reconvictions over time.

Additional data was collected on offenders who had served custodial sentences and who were released from prison in 2000. Offenders who received longer sentences (four years and over) formed 2.3 per cent of the cohort. Offenders who received shorter sentences (less than twelve months) formed 24.2 per cent of the cohort, but committed 39 per cent of all offences that led to a conviction in the first year of the follow-up.

Which of the following factors might feasibly account for a decline in the year-on-year rate of reconvictions as indicated by the study?

1 substantial numbers of re-offenders being sent to prison

2 normal mortality rate over a decade

3 a deterrent effect created by harsher sentencing

11. Which of the following factors might feasibly account for a decline in the year-on-year rate of reconvictions as indicated by the study?
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## Explanation

Statement 1 is certainly a possible explanation – imprisonment excludes offenders from public life to a place where they are unable to re-offend. Therefore, the reconviction rate may have declined.

Statement 2 is also possible – if we assume with a normal mortality rate in any cohort that some people will die, these people will no longer be able to re-offend.

Statement 3 is possible – If sentencing becomes harsher this could very well deter people from reoffending.

Post Comment

The theatre show called Gracie’s World needs 8 characters to be performed. Gracie, Sarah and Rose are characters who must be played by female performers and Teddy, Graham and Carl must be played by male performers. There are two guards in the show who can be played by either a male or female performer. Each performer can play more than one character but each character can only be played by one performer. The performer who plays the role of Gracie cannot play any other characters. The table below shows the characters involved in each scene:

In this year’s production, the performer who plays Rose also plays Guard 1.

12. Which of the following pairs of characters could be played by the same person in this year’s production?
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## Explanation

Here, we can start by eliminating based on the rules at the top to narrow down our possibilities. A cannot be correct, because the performer who plays Gracie cannot play anybody else, so could not play Sarah as well. E cannot be correct per the rules, because Sarah must be played by a female, and Graham by a male.

Then, some options can be eliminated based on the logic of who appears in scenes together. B cannot be correct, because Teddy and Guard 1 both appear in scene 1, therefore (barring some pretty amazing live special effects/comedy) the two cannot be played by the same person.

Finally, the information that Rose and Guard 1 are played by the same performer eliminates C because the performer playing Guard 1 also plays Rosie, and Sarah and Rose appear together in scene 10 so the performer cannot play both Rose and Sarah. Moreover, F can be eliminated because Rose already also plays Guard 1, and since Guard 1 and Guard 2 appear in scene 1 Rose cannot play all 3.

Therefore, we are left with D as a possible combination.

Post Comment

In the history of the Earth there have been three extinctions of marine animals, which as yet we cannot explain. Earlier this year, researchers discovered that periods when the oceans had high levels of trace elements, such as zinc, copper, manganese and selenium, seemed to overlap with periods when most groups of living animals first appeared. These minerals are called essential trace elements because without them we die. Now new research has shown that drops in selenium levels in the oceans correlate well with each of the extinction events at the end of the Ordovician, Devonian and Triassic periods. Thus the level of selenium in the oceans …

13. Which one of the following most logically completes the last sentence in the above passage?
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## Explanation

Statement B is the best statement that most logically completes the overarching conclusion. The previous sentence informs us that when there was a previous drop in selenium levels in the ocean, an extinction event occurred. Thus, the fall in selenium could have been a contributing reason in the three incidences of the extinction of marine animals.

Statement A is incorrect because it is too bold when it states that this ‘must be the explanation.’ The passage does not explicitly state that the fall in selenium is the primary or sole reason for the extinction of the three marine animals.

Statement C is incorrect because it cannot be assumed that selenium is a more important element than the other elements, as this is not explicitly stated.

Statement D is incorrect because, much like statement A, it is too definitive in saying that selenium is solely responsible for the extinction of the three species.

Post Comment

There are three political parties in Xanthia: the Citron Party, the Jonquil Party and the Saffron Party. Before last month’s General Election the Jonquils held 126 of the 240 seats in the Xanthian Parliament, the Citrons held 80 and the Saffrons held 34.

In last month’s General Election:

• the Citrons gained 47 seats from the Jonquils and 10 seats from the Saffrons;

• the Jonquils gained 11 seats from the Citrons and 15 seats from the Saffrons;

• the Saffrons gained 18 seats from the Citrons and 33 seats from the Jonquils.

14. Which one of the following pie charts, suitably labelled, shows the current state of the parties in the Xanthian Parliament?
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## Explanation

It is worth here just working out how many seats each party holds in Xanthia (I support the Citrons, they sound lemon-y fresh). You can do this maths quite quickly and mentally for each party as so:

1. Citron: Started with 80. Gained 57 seats overall (47 + 10), lost 29 seats overall (11 + 18), for a total gain of 28 seats. Ended with 108.

2. Jonquil: Started with 126. Gained 26 seats overall (11 + 15), lost 80 seats overall (33 + 47), for a total loss of 54 seats. Ended with 72 seats.

3. Saffron: Started with 34. Gained 51 seats overall (18 + 33), lost 25 seats overall (10 + 15), for a total gain of 26 seats. Ended with 60 seats.

With a resounding victory for the Citrons and thunderous applause, we can use the 108, 72, 60 split to assess the pie charts. Since 108 is less than half of 240, no single section of the pie chart can be larger than half which eliminates A, C and D. Now, the Jonquil and Saffron party have relatively similar numbers of seats at 72 and 60, so the two smaller boxes cannot be too wildly different as they are in A and E. Therefore, the answer must be B.

Post Comment

How did Earth get its water? It seems it had it all along. There are two possible sources for our water: either bombardment by meteorites soon after Earth’s formation, or it was present in the dust from which our planet formed. So a team from the University of Glasgow looked at the ratio of heavy hydrogen – an isotope known as deuterium – and normal hydrogen in water trapped for 4.5 billion years in volcanic rock. They found little sign of deuterium, which rules out meteorites since they have much more of this isotope. Instead the water must have originated in the dust cloud from which the solar system, including Earth, condensed.

15. Which one of the following most closely matches the reasoning in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument in the passage is constructed such that there are two possible variables that could be the final outcome. The two variables in the passage are 1.)

dust which formed the earth and 2.) bombardment by meteorites and the outcome of the argument is the source of water on earth. Deuterium is a measure of variable 2.). Given that not much deuterium was found, variable 2.) is ruled out as a possible outcome. Therefore, the only plausible source of water on this earth is through dust that condensed to form earth.

Statement A follows the same reasoning. There are two variables, an outcome and a measure of a variable to prove or disprove one of those variables. Variable 1.) is

acidic soil and variable 2.) is alkaline soil. The outcome is ability to grow flowers, in this case it is camellias.  Given that camellias cannot tolerate alkaline soil, the soil onwhich camellias exist must therefore be acidic.

Post Comment

I have two credit cards, each of which has a four-digit PIN. Together the two PINs consist of eight different non-zero digits, whilst the four digits of each of them individually add up to 19.

16. Which non-zero digit does neither of the two PINs contain?
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## Explanation

The easiest way to manage this question is to consider the credit cards together with a total of 38 when adding 8 numbers, rather than as 2 separate cards. Since there are only 9 non-zero digits available to us, and only 5 answer options, we can simply add the numbers eliminating one option each time to find the answer. Moreover,  because the answers always vary by 2, we can infer the answer from just calculating when eliminating 1 as follows:

2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 44.

We know that eliminating 3 will give us an answer of 42, eliminating 5 will give 40 and eliminating 7 will give the desired 38. Therefore, D is the correct answer.

Post Comment

We often hear about childhood stars having breakdowns in later life. Celebrity gossip magazines regularly feature stories revelling in the decline of a once innocent and adored child actor into a troubled twenty-something going through painful relationship break-ups and battles with drug addictions. Their fate is inevitable given the moral bankruptcy of show business: the industry is steeped in sex, alcohol and drugs. Parents choosing to expose their children to these evils at such a vulnerable age must take the blame for their struggles with them in later life. Given the lasting damage, I would argue that it is actually child abuse to place a minor into such an environment. As part of our policy of child protection, it should be illegal to let your child work in show business.

1 Break-ups and mental breakdowns do not occur only to childhood stars; they can happen to anyone.

2 Being adored as a child is not an adequate explanation for addictions or broken relationships in later life.

17. Which of the following expresses a flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

Statement 1 does not present a flaw. Whilst it is a valid point, it is not directly linked to the argument made in the passage.

Statement 2 is the same as statement 1.

A feasible flaw in the argument would be that the lives of some celebrities are being used to represent all young celebrities in that industry.

Post Comment

I need to do some baking for my son’s birthday party. I am going to bake a chocolate cake and some chocolate biscuits, and then after that I would like to make some pancakes.

The ingredients required for each of these are as follows:

In my kitchen I have the following provisions available:

500 g tin of cocoa powder

12 eggs

600 g bag of sugar

5 lemons

2.5 litre carton of milk

600 g of butter

1 kg bag of flour

18. After baking the cake and making 60 chocolate biscuits, how many pancakes can I make with what I have left?
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## Explanation

This remarkably healthy parent is keen to do only the most mathematically sensible baking, so we simply need to subtract the resources required for the baking from what is available and assess the extent of the pancake crisis accordingly. Remember to only calculate for the ingredients which are actually required for pancakes to save yourself time! It is probably easiest to note down next to each ingredient how much you will be left with as you work.

1. Flour – 625g required for cake and biscuits, leaving 375g of the original 1kg (1000 – 625)
2. Eggs – 2 required for cake, leaving 10 of the original 12.
3. Milk – 250ml required for cake, leaving 2,250L of the original 2.5L
4. Butter – 550g required for cake and biscuits, leaving 50g of original 600g.
5. Sugar – 530g required for cake and biscuits, leaving 70g of original 600g.
6. Lemon – No lemons required for cake and biscuits, leaving all 6 of original 6.

Calculating this, we see that the only truly limiting ingredient is the butter, which only allows the parent to make 8 pancakes in total. A catastrophe of unfathomable proportion.

Top tip!
Always be careful how much maths you do – there is no need to calculate how much cocoa powder remains here as it’s not needed for the pancakes.

Post Comment

A fifth of genomics papers between 2005 and 2015 contained errors in spreadsheets

A recent study in the journal Genome Biology looked at papers published in 18 genomics journals between 2005 and 2015, and found spreadsheet-related errors in 20% of articles that provided supplementary data alongside their text. Although the quality of the papers was not necessarily affected, such errors can create complications for other scientists trying to replicate or build on previous work. The charts and the table below summarise the findings.

The syntax of genomics makes it particularly difficult for off-the-shelf software to digest. For example, spreadsheets often mistake gene symbols for dates. The authors found that Microsoft Excel would often interpret ‘SEPT2’, which corresponds to the gene Septin 2, as ‘September 2nd’. Such hiccups can be quickly resolved, but they are easy to overlook.

The paper’s most worrying finding is that mistakes seem to be proliferating. The authors found that the number of genomics papers packaged with error-ridden spreadsheets increased by 20% a year over the period, far above the 10% annual growth rate in the number of genomics papers published. If we extrapolate current trends indefinitely into the future, soon every spreadsheet attached to a genetics paper will have an error.

19. Which one of the following, if true, weakens the support that the data gives to the claim made in the headline?
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## Explanation

It may sound obvious, but always remember for these questions to take a second to digest what the headline is really saying before proceeding. Try to focus only on this, rather than statements which may improve the situation in future or don’t address it at all.

Statement A does not weaken the argument, because it is not really relevant. The headline tells us that genomics papers have quite a lot of spreadsheet issues – other fields don’t matter here.

Statement B does effectively weaken the argument. This is a valid reason why errors may have been overestimated, so the conclusion of the headline which is based on this number of errors is weakened.

Statement C does not weaken the argument, because it does not change the fact that there are a lot of errors in spreadsheets. Although the results may have been replicated, spreadsheet errors could still be just as high.

Statement D does not weaken the argument because these papers may have been written using old versions of Excel, and although this change may reduce the problem in future, the article’s conclusion still stands.

Post Comment

A fifth of genomics papers between 2005 and 2015 contained errors in spreadsheets

A recent study in the journal Genome Biology looked at papers published in 18 genomics journals between 2005 and 2015, and found spreadsheet-related errors in 20% of articles that provided supplementary data alongside their text. Although the quality of the papers was not necessarily affected, such errors can create complications for other scientists trying to replicate or build on previous work. The charts and the table below summarise the findings.

The syntax of genomics makes it particularly difficult for off-the-shelf software to digest. For example, spreadsheets often mistake gene symbols for dates. The authors found that Microsoft Excel would often interpret ‘SEPT2’, which corresponds to the gene Septin 2, as ‘September 2nd’. Such hiccups can be quickly resolved, but they are easy to overlook.

The paper’s most worrying finding is that mistakes seem to be proliferating. The authors found that the number of genomics papers packaged with error-ridden spreadsheets increased by 20% a year over the period, far above the 10% annual growth rate in the number of genomics papers published. If we extrapolate current trends indefinitely into the future, soon every spreadsheet attached to a genetics paper will have an error.

Which of the following is supported by the information given?

1 In 2015, at least half of the journals observed published a paper whose supplementary files contained spreadsheet errors.

2 In 2011, the number of files with gene name errors was more than twice as high as in 2009.

3 During the observed period, Nature published twice as many papers with spreadsheet errors as BMC Bioinformatics.

20. Which of the following is supported by the information given?
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## Explanation

Statement 1 is not supported by the information given. We are only told that around 170 papers had supplementary file errors in 2015, but we are asked about the journals themselves. This data is not given, so we cannot draw conclusions.

Statement 2 may seem difficult to assess as we cannot draw exact numbers from the graphs, but we can eyeball these numbers to see that it is true. We see that, in 2009, a little under 50 papers had errors but in 2011, a little over 100 did. Therefore, we can infer that the difference must be at least double.

Statement 3 is tricky because we have 2 sources of information: the percentages on the left and raw numbers on the right. You would be mistaken to use the percentages which suggests Nature did publish double the errors of BMC Bioinformatics, because we do not know the total number of papers published so cannot comment on the actual numbers. Therefore, we need to look on the right to see that Nature published 23 papers with errors whereas BMC Bioinformatics published 21, not half of Nature’s erroneous output.

Post Comment

A fifth of genomics papers between 2005 and 2015 contained errors in spreadsheets

A recent study in the journal Genome Biology looked at papers published in 18 genomics journals between 2005 and 2015, and found spreadsheet-related errors in 20% of articles that provided supplementary data alongside their text. Although the quality of the papers was not necessarily affected, such errors can create complications for other scientists trying to replicate or build on previous work. The charts and the table below summarise the findings.

The syntax of genomics makes it particularly difficult for off-the-shelf software to digest. For example, spreadsheets often mistake gene symbols for dates. The authors found that Microsoft Excel would often interpret ‘SEPT2’, which corresponds to the gene Septin 2, as ‘September 2nd’. Such hiccups can be quickly resolved, but they are easy to overlook.

The paper’s most worrying finding is that mistakes seem to be proliferating. The authors found that the number of genomics papers packaged with error-ridden spreadsheets increased by 20% a year over the period, far above the 10% annual growth rate in the number of genomics papers published. If we extrapolate current trends indefinitely into the future, soon every spreadsheet attached to a genetics paper will have an error.

21. Consider the journals in which the proportion of papers affected was higher than the average. What percentage of the total number of affected papers were published in these journals?
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## Explanation

Take a systematic approach here and note down the papers on the graph showing % of papers with errors, then note the values for the actual number of papers with mistakes published for each of these as below:

Nature: 23

Genes Dev: 55

Genome Res: 68

Genome Biol: 63

Nature Genet: 9

Nucleic Acids Res: 67

BMC Genomics: 158

Total these (443) and find this as a percentage of the total (704) to find that it represents 63%, or D.

Top Tip!
Use shorthand as much as possible when noting, or just use what’s already on the paper in front of you. You could even write the values for the actual number of papers affected next to the bars on the percentages!

Post Comment

A fifth of genomics papers between 2005 and 2015 contained errors in spreadsheets

A recent study in the journal Genome Biology looked at papers published in 18 genomics journals between 2005 and 2015, and found spreadsheet-related errors in 20% of articles that provided supplementary data alongside their text. Although the quality of the papers was not necessarily affected, such errors can create complications for other scientists trying to replicate or build on previous work. The charts and the table below summarise the findings.

The syntax of genomics makes it particularly difficult for off-the-shelf software to digest. For example, spreadsheets often mistake gene symbols for dates. The authors found that Microsoft Excel would often interpret ‘SEPT2’, which corresponds to the gene Septin 2, as ‘September 2nd’. Such hiccups can be quickly resolved, but they are easy to overlook.

The paper’s most worrying finding is that mistakes seem to be proliferating. The authors found that the number of genomics papers packaged with error-ridden spreadsheets increased by 20% a year over the period, far above the 10% annual growth rate in the number of genomics papers published. If we extrapolate current trends indefinitely into the future, soon every spreadsheet attached to a genetics paper will have an error.

22. Suppose that 80% of all genomics papers published in 2015 were affected. Using the growth rates expressed in the last paragraph to make predictions about the future, what is the first year in which every genomics paper would be affected?
0
0

## Explanation

There are 2 aspects for this question given in the question stem: ‘genomics papers packaged with error-ridden spreadsheets increased by 20% a year over the period, [above the] 10% annual growth rate’. So, we need to know when the number of papers publishing with mistakes exceeds the actual number of papers published. If 80% of papers had errors in 2015, then in 2016 96% of papers would have errors. This would continue as follows:

2016: 96%

2017: 115.2%

2018: 138.24%

You may initially think that, because in 2017 the number of papers with errors exceeded 100%, this is the year that all papers would have errors. However, we know that there is a 10% annual growth rate in papers published so actually, the total number would represent 120% of papers published in 2015. Therefore, it is not until 2018 that the rate of papers with issues (138.24%) exceeds the actual number of papers published (130%).

Top tip!
If a calculation appears suspiciously straightforward, try to take a minute to think about angles you may have missed.

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The following diagram shows how the pieces fit together in a child’s 15-piece jigsaw puzzle:

The area shaded in black indicates where two pieces are missing.

23. Which one of the following pairs could be the missing pieces?
0
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## Explanation

This is a (reasonably) straightforward logical question, or at least as reasonable as it gets in the BMAT. We know that:

One piece must have 2 outward protrusions adjacent to one another and one intrusion opposite to one of these protrusions (on the left, we cannot assess the inner edge as it is blacked out).

One piece must have 2 outward protrusions opposite to one another and at least one intrusion (again, the inner edge cannot be assessed).

The patterns on the inner edge of each piece must be complementary; they must be opposites to fit with one another.

Therefore, pieces A are not correct because they do not meet the requirements for pattern. Pieces B, C and D all have the requirements, but the remaining protrusions are not complementary to one another. This leaves only pieces E as the correct answer.

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Two hundred years ago the average woman in a rich nation could expect to give birth to 8.5 children and to die around her fifty-fifth birthday. By 1920 the birth rate had halved to 4.2 children and women’s life expectancy had risen to almost seventy years. We can conclude, therefore, that the heavy biological toll of childbirth on women means that the more times they give birth, the faster they age and the more likely they are to die early.

24. Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

P1: 200 years ago, a woman would give birth to 8.5 children on average and life expectancy was 55.

P2: by 1920, birth rate was 4.2 and life expectancy is 70.

C1:heavy biological toll of childbirth on women means that the more times they give birth, the faster they age and the more likely they are to die early

This passage suggests a causation link between birth rate and life expectancy which makes the argument flawed.

Post Comment

A bus service runs between the towns of Restler and Soper. The average speed for one journey, including stops, is 30 kilometres per hour. Residents are beginning to move into a new housing development and the Restler–Soper bus service will be re-routed with extra stops. The buses will travel 4 kilometres further per journey than at present. The average speed, including stops, will be reduced by 3 kilometres per hour. The journey time will increase by 25%.

25. How far will the bus travel on its new route from Restler to Soper?
0
0

## Explanation

We are trying to solve for distance (which we are told is increased by 4km in the new route), so let us form an equation calling distance X to solve.

Speed = Distance/Time.

We know that for the original journey, speed is 30km/h and distance is x so time can be represented as x/30 (distance/speed).

We know that for the second journey, speed is 27km/h, distance is x+4 and time can be represented as (x+4)/27.

We also know that time for the second journey increased by 25% from the original time (x/30), so we can represent this as 1.25x/30.

Therefore, we can represent these two equations for the time as 1.25x/30 = x+4/27. Now we solve for x.

1.25x/30 = x+4/27

27(1.25x) = 30(x+4)

33.75x = 30x + 120

3.75x = 120

X=32.

Remember, x represents distance for the original journey, so we have to add 4km for the second journey to give us 36km.

Post Comment

Research about a ‘health check’ programme operated by the National Health Service (NHS) is  receiving a lot of attention amongst UK health policymakers. The study found that the ‘health  checks’, dedicated screening appointments offered to everyone in middle age, have uncovered thousands of cases of high blood pressure and other serious health risk factors not previously diagnosed in the people attending the appointments. Government officials have been especially keen to highlight the fact that this level of detection of such risk factors could equate to the prevention of over 2,000 heart attacks and strokes. The researchers did not, however, continue to monitor the health of the individuals identified to have the risk factors or track whether they went on to take the prescribed medications or make the other lifestyle changes recommended to them as a result of their ‘health checks’.

26. Which one of the following can reliably be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
0
0

## Explanation

Statement C is correct because the passage concludes that despite the government having estimated a prevention of 2,000 heart attacks with these new ‘health checks’, it does not consider adherence to medicine or other lifestyle factors. Thus, it is not fair to say for certain that these ‘health checks’ will have led to the prevention of 2,000 heart attacks and strokes. This is summarised in statement C.

Statement A is incorrect because there is no mention how resources were justifiably spent to conduct the ‘health checks’.

Statement B is evidence rather than the overarching conclusion. It is true to say that these screening programmes alone will not change people’s health related behaviours and therefore supports the argument that these health checks will have not amalgamated to 2,000 heart attacks and strokes.

Statement D is incorrect because there is no mention of NHS resource allocation.

Statement E is incorrect because the passage only looks at ‘health checks’ given to middle aged people rather than other age groups and their respective effective response to them.

Post Comment

Charlie is preparing plates of seafood salad for the lunchtime menu. She will put 50 grams of each of prawns, cockles, whelks, squid, and smoked salmon on each plate.

The prawns are available in 400 gram packs, the cockles, the whelks and the smoked salmon are available in 200 gram packs, and the squid is available in 300 gram packs.

All packs of each seafood item cost €4.08, but the wholesaler offers a deal of ‘buy any two packs of one item and get another pack of the same item free’.

27. If Charlie orders the smallest number of packs to prepare whole plates of seafood salad and not have any of the seafood left over, what will be the unit cost per plate of seafood salad?
0
0

## Explanation

Firstly, we need to establish how many packs of each must be bought to have none left over, and the easiest way to do this is to establish that the lowest multiple of all the weights is 1200g, which breaks down as so.

1. Prawns – 3 packs of 400g
2. Cockles, whelks and smoked salmon – 6 packs each of 200g (18 packs overall)
3. Squid – 4 packs of 300g

There are therefore 25 packs of food overall. With this in mind, the final calculation is made easier by the fact that all the packs cost the same. The deal is buy 2, get 1 free, so we can divide our 25 packs of food by 3 to see we will get 8 packs free, and pay for 17 for a total cost of 17 x \$4.08 = \$69.36. Finally, 1200g divided by 50g of each seafood gives us 24 plates overall, so dividing \$69.36 by 24 gives us the unit cost per plate, \$2.89.

Post Comment

Police departments across the world should require the use of body-worn video cameras for their officers. Research has shown that filming policeípublic interactions can lower levels of violence within these encounters because the known presence of the camera encourages police officers to better regulate their own behaviour. While it is now common for bystanders to capture footage of policeípublic encounters on their camera phones or similar devices, police implementation of body-worn video cameras is preferable for a number of reasons. Chief amongst these reasons is the fact that police procedures for body-worn cameras require that an officer issue a clear warning from the start that everyone in an interaction is being filmed.

1. The level of force used by police in some interactions with the public exceeds that which is required by the situation.

2. It is now possible for police departments in different countries to agree on what levels of force are appropriate within policeípublic interactions.

3. In cases where policeípublic interactions have been filmed by bystanders, the individuals involved may not have been aware of the filming.

28. Which of the following are underlying assumptions of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

Statement 1 is needed for the statement in red to be true.

Statement 3 is needed for the statement in purple to be true.

Post Comment
Anonymous Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 19 Oct 2021 08:39:11

The colour coding in the passage isn't visible - the red and purple to indicate which part of the statement requires the statement to be true.

Anonymous Medicmind Tutor

Sat, 30 Oct 2021 16:25:36

The correct answer on the official key is E

The total number of spots on any two opposite faces of conventional dice should always be seven.

Below are two views of a dice that has lost one spot from each of three of its faces.

29. Which one of the following is another view of the same dice?
0
0

## Explanation

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroimaging procedure that maps brain activity by detecting blood flow changes. One recent finding of fMRI research relates to variation amongst individuals with respect to patterns of connectivity across regions of the brain. People with strong brain region connectivity were found more likely to exhibit various ‘positive’ lifestyle traits, including high educational attainment and high levels of life satisfaction. People with weaker connectivity were more likely to exhibit ‘negative’ qualities, including higher levels of mental illness and substance abuse issues. A beneficial use of fMRI technology would be to conduct ‘brain training’ for those with weaker connectivity. If exercises were developed to help people learn to regulate their brain activity so that their brain connectivity was improved, they too could benefit from more ‘positive’ lifestyle attributes.

30. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
0
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## Explanation

The points in the passage show that there is a correlation between brain connectivity and positive/negative lifestyle attributes. However, the conclusion, (‘if brain connectivity was improved, people could benefit from more ‘positive’ lifestyle attributes’) portrays this link as causation – suggesting that strong brain connectivity will always lead to positive attributes. This is the flaw in the argument. A, B and C are irrelevant to this argument.

Post Comment
Anonymous Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 19 Oct 2021 09:04:31

The last sentence in the explanation should read ' A, B and D'.

Six friends are sitting around in a circle discussing which two sports each of them most likes to play.

The table gives the preferences of the friends sitting either side of, and opposite to, each member of the group:

Jess discovers that each of the friends sitting either side of her shares one common interest with her.

31. Who is sitting opposite Jess?
1
0

## Explanation

As a start, we know that Jess shares one common interest with the people to either side of her. Considering these people simply Person A and Person B, we know that Person A enjoys cricket and rugby, and Person B enjoys football and golf. Since Jess shares only one interest with each, her interests must be football and cricket, football and rugby, golf and cricket or golf and rugby. Looking at the ‘friend sitting opposite column’, we see that the only pair matching these interests is golf and rugby, sitting opposite George. Therefore, the answer must be D, George.

Post Comment

The London Assembly is investigating how to prevent clogged roads from suffocating the capital

As the London Assembly transport committee investigates what the mayor and Transport for London (the local government body  responsible for the transport system in Greater London) can do to reduce rising levels of road traffic congestion in London, bear in mind that the price of gridlock is not only paid in frustration and pollution. A Transport for London (TfL) analysis of vehicle delays on Greater London’s roads during 2015 estimated the cost of congestion to London’s GVA (Gross Value Added, the increase in the value of the economy due to the production of goods and services) to have been an astonishing £5.5 billion a year.

London’s GVA for 2015 was £364 billion. The Centre for Economics and Business Research think tank put the cost to London’s GVA of the six Underground strikes in 2015 at £10 million each. This was the most conservative calculation – others think it’s higher – but even the Federation of Small Businesses estimate of £300 million is dwarfed by the cost of congestion.

In other words, congestion is doing major damage to the city’s economy. And the frustration and pollution are adding to that cost because they make London less agreeable to function in. Speaking to the transport committee last week, Grant Davis, chairman of the London Cab Drivers’ Club, spoke of more and more of his customers getting out of his taxi before reaching their destinations because his cab was stuck in traffic. Demand for the bus service has started to decline after years of increase because of slower speeds and worse reliability.

Construction works, the proliferation of private hire vehicles and delivery vans, the halving of the congestion charge zone and a long-term loss of road space to bus lanes have all contributed to the growth of the problem over the past two years. This follows a long period of general stability during which London has seen a big shift away from all forms of private transport, principally cars, towards public transport.

TfL’s most recent annual Travel in London statistics show that 34 per cent of ‘journey stages’ in 2000 – the components of an excursion from one place to another – were undertaken on public transport compared with 43 per cent by private vehicles. By 2014, the public transport figure had risen to 45 per cent and the private transport figure had fallen to 32 per cent.

The pattern for ‘trips’ – entire excursions within London – has followed a similar trend. Just 28 per cent were taken by public transport (including taxis) in 2000 and 47 per cent by private vehicle. But by 2014 both measures were running at 37 per cent. All other journey stages and trips were done by bicycle (accounting for 1 per cent in 2000 and 2 per cent in 2014) or on foot.

Car ownership too has been falling, in marked contrast with the rest of England and Wales. So too has the volume of motor vehicle traffic in London as a whole according to both Department for Transport estimates of distances travelled in them and TfL’s own traffic flow data. And yet, for all this progress, the plague of road congestion is now getting worse. The committee’s investigation continues.

Which of the following could account for the increase in the problem of London’s road congestion?

1 interventions to prioritise public transport

2 an increase in road works by utility companies

32. Which of the following could account for the increase in the problem of London’s road congestion?
0
0

## Explanation

In the 4th paragraph, it states: ‘Construction works, the proliferation of private hire vehicles and delivery vans, the halving of the congestion charge zone and a long-term loss of road space to bus lanes have all contributed to the growth of the problem over the past two years’. The ‘loss of road space to bus lanes’ is an intervention to prioritise public transport , therefore statement 1 could account for the increase in congestion. ‘Construction works’ could be an increase in road works by utility companies, therefore statement 2 could also be accountable.

Post Comment

The London Assembly is investigating how to prevent clogged roads from suffocating the capital

As the London Assembly transport committee investigates what the mayor and Transport for London (the local government body  responsible for the transport system in Greater London) can do to reduce rising levels of road traffic congestion in London, bear in mind that the price of gridlock is not only paid in frustration and pollution. A Transport for London (TfL) analysis of vehicle delays on Greater London’s roads during 2015 estimated the cost of congestion to London’s GVA (Gross Value Added, the increase in the value of the economy due to the production of goods and services) to have been an astonishing £5.5 billion a year.

London’s GVA for 2015 was £364 billion. The Centre for Economics and Business Research think tank put the cost to London’s GVA of the six Underground strikes in 2015 at £10 million each. This was the most conservative calculation – others think it’s higher – but even the Federation of Small Businesses estimate of £300 million is dwarfed by the cost of congestion.

In other words, congestion is doing major damage to the city’s economy. And the frustration and pollution are adding to that cost because they make London less agreeable to function in. Speaking to the transport committee last week, Grant Davis, chairman of the London Cab Drivers’ Club, spoke of more and more of his customers getting out of his taxi before reaching their destinations because his cab was stuck in traffic. Demand for the bus service has started to decline after years of increase because of slower speeds and worse reliability.

Construction works, the proliferation of private hire vehicles and delivery vans, the halving of the congestion charge zone and a long-term loss of road space to bus lanes have all contributed to the growth of the problem over the past two years. This follows a long period of general stability during which London has seen a big shift away from all forms of private transport, principally cars, towards public transport.

TfL’s most recent annual Travel in London statistics show that 34 per cent of ‘journey stages’ in 2000 – the components of an excursion from one place to another – were undertaken on public transport compared with 43 per cent by private vehicles. By 2014, the public transport figure had risen to 45 per cent and the private transport figure had fallen to 32 per cent.

The pattern for ‘trips’ – entire excursions within London – has followed a similar trend. Just 28 per cent were taken by public transport (including taxis) in 2000 and 47 per cent by private vehicle. But by 2014 both measures were running at 37 per cent. All other journey stages and trips were done by bicycle (accounting for 1 per cent in 2000 and 2 per cent in 2014) or on foot.

Car ownership too has been falling, in marked contrast with the rest of England and Wales. So too has the volume of motor vehicle traffic in London as a whole according to both Department for Transport estimates of distances travelled in them and TfL’s own traffic flow data. And yet, for all this progress, the plague of road congestion is now getting worse. The committee’s investigation continues.

33. Using the most conservative estimate how many times greater than the cost of tube strikes was the cost of congestion to London’s GVA in 2015?
1
0

## Explanation

Some aspects of this calculation require verbal reasoning skills to find the cost of congestion to GVA (any financial figures is a good key word to search for here) and the cost of underground strikes (Underground is a good keyword here). We find that the overall cost of congestion is £5.5bn, whereas the cost of the six underground strikes was £10 million each, or £60 million total. We can therefore divide £5.5bn (5,500,000,000) by 60 million (60,000,000) to give 91.666… which rounds to 92, or E.

Post Comment

The London Assembly is investigating how to prevent clogged roads from suffocating the capital

As the London Assembly transport committee investigates what the mayor and Transport for London (the local government body  responsible for the transport system in Greater London) can do to reduce rising levels of road traffic congestion in London, bear in mind that the price of gridlock is not only paid in frustration and pollution. A Transport for London (TfL) analysis of vehicle delays on Greater London’s roads during 2015 estimated the cost of congestion to London’s GVA (Gross Value Added, the increase in the value of the economy due to the production of goods and services) to have been an astonishing £5.5 billion a year.

London’s GVA for 2015 was £364 billion. The Centre for Economics and Business Research think tank put the cost to London’s GVA of the six Underground strikes in 2015 at £10 million each. This was the most conservative calculation – others think it’s higher – but even the Federation of Small Businesses estimate of £300 million is dwarfed by the cost of congestion.

In other words, congestion is doing major damage to the city’s economy. And the frustration and pollution are adding to that cost because they make London less agreeable to function in. Speaking to the transport committee last week, Grant Davis, chairman of the London Cab Drivers’ Club, spoke of more and more of his customers getting out of his taxi before reaching their destinations because his cab was stuck in traffic. Demand for the bus service has started to decline after years of increase because of slower speeds and worse reliability.

Construction works, the proliferation of private hire vehicles and delivery vans, the halving of the congestion charge zone and a long-term loss of road space to bus lanes have all contributed to the growth of the problem over the past two years. This follows a long period of general stability during which London has seen a big shift away from all forms of private transport, principally cars, towards public transport.

TfL’s most recent annual Travel in London statistics show that 34 per cent of ‘journey stages’ in 2000 – the components of an excursion from one place to another – were undertaken on public transport compared with 43 per cent by private vehicles. By 2014, the public transport figure had risen to 45 per cent and the private transport figure had fallen to 32 per cent.

The pattern for ‘trips’ – entire excursions within London – has followed a similar trend. Just 28 per cent were taken by public transport (including taxis) in 2000 and 47 per cent by private vehicle. But by 2014 both measures were running at 37 per cent. All other journey stages and trips were done by bicycle (accounting for 1 per cent in 2000 and 2 per cent in 2014) or on foot.

Car ownership too has been falling, in marked contrast with the rest of England and Wales. So too has the volume of motor vehicle traffic in London as a whole according to both Department for Transport estimates of distances travelled in them and TfL’s own traffic flow data. And yet, for all this progress, the plague of road congestion is now getting worse. The committee’s investigation continues.

Which of the following can be inferred from the information given?

1 The decline of car ownership in London has not reduced the capital’s road congestion problem.

2 Converting traffic lanes into cycle tracks would make London’s congestion problem better.

3 The problem of congestion in London is deterring people from using certain methods of public transport.

34. Which of the following can be inferred from the information given?
0
1

## Explanation

In the third paragraph it is stated that ‘Demand for the bus service has started to decline after years of increase because of slower speeds and worse reliability.’.  This implies that the problem of congestion in London is deterring people from using certain methods of public transport, so statement 3 can be inferred from the information given. Neither 1 or 2  can be reliably inferred, so C is the correct answer.

Post Comment

The London Assembly is investigating how to prevent clogged roads from suffocating the capital

As the London Assembly transport committee investigates what the mayor and Transport for London (the local government body  responsible for the transport system in Greater London) can do to reduce rising levels of road traffic congestion in London, bear in mind that the price of gridlock is not only paid in frustration and pollution. A Transport for London (TfL) analysis of vehicle delays on Greater London’s roads during 2015 estimated the cost of congestion to London’s GVA (Gross Value Added, the increase in the value of the economy due to the production of goods and services) to have been an astonishing £5.5 billion a year.

London’s GVA for 2015 was £364 billion. The Centre for Economics and Business Research think tank put the cost to London’s GVA of the six Underground strikes in 2015 at £10 million each. This was the most conservative calculation – others think it’s higher – but even the Federation of Small Businesses estimate of £300 million is dwarfed by the cost of congestion.

In other words, congestion is doing major damage to the city’s economy. And the frustration and pollution are adding to that cost because they make London less agreeable to function in. Speaking to the transport committee last week, Grant Davis, chairman of the London Cab Drivers’ Club, spoke of more and more of his customers getting out of his taxi before reaching their destinations because his cab was stuck in traffic. Demand for the bus service has started to decline after years of increase because of slower speeds and worse reliability.

Construction works, the proliferation of private hire vehicles and delivery vans, the halving of the congestion charge zone and a long-term loss of road space to bus lanes have all contributed to the growth of the problem over the past two years. This follows a long period of general stability during which London has seen a big shift away from all forms of private transport, principally cars, towards public transport.

TfL’s most recent annual Travel in London statistics show that 34 per cent of ‘journey stages’ in 2000 – the components of an excursion from one place to another – were undertaken on public transport compared with 43 per cent by private vehicles. By 2014, the public transport figure had risen to 45 per cent and the private transport figure had fallen to 32 per cent.

The pattern for ‘trips’ – entire excursions within London – has followed a similar trend. Just 28 per cent were taken by public transport (including taxis) in 2000 and 47 per cent by private vehicle. But by 2014 both measures were running at 37 per cent. All other journey stages and trips were done by bicycle (accounting for 1 per cent in 2000 and 2 per cent in 2014) or on foot.

Car ownership too has been falling, in marked contrast with the rest of England and Wales. So too has the volume of motor vehicle traffic in London as a whole according to both Department for Transport estimates of distances travelled in them and TfL’s own traffic flow data. And yet, for all this progress, the plague of road congestion is now getting worse. The committee’s investigation continues.

35. In an attempt to reduce the loss from London’s GVA, a proposal has been made to restore the original wider boundaries of the congestion charge zone. Which one of the following would explain why this proposal might not have the desired effect?
0
0

## Explanation

B is the correct answer because if the wider congestion charge zone encompassed some of London’s profitable retail areas, people may be deterred from travelling to and hence spending money at these retail areas, which may increase the loss from London’s GVA rather than decreasing it as desired.

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