Now that we’ve gone through the theory on scientific/factual passages questions, it’s time to see if you have learned what we have taught you – Let’s now tackle some questions together. 

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, chromosomal abnormalities detected under the light microscope revealed that a type of massive genome instability resulting in an abnormal number of chromosomes occurs in certain types of cancer. Not long after, the biochemist Otto Warburg observed that tumour cells tend to use pathways of glucose and energy metabolism that are distinct from those used by normal cells. We now know that genome instability and altered metabolism are two common characteristics of most tumour cells. Genome instability has been investigated continuously since its discovery; altered metabolism was rediscovered as a research area only recently. But not much crosstalk between these two processes in cancer has been reported so far. Writing in Nature, Sulkowski et al. reveal how several metabolites that accumulate to high levels in tumour cells suppress DNA repair, thus revealing a direct link between altered metabolism and genome instability caused by DNA damage.

Mutations targeting the genes encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) result in cells accumulating high levels of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes fumarate hydratase and succinate dehydrogenase cause cells to accumulate high levels of the molecules fumarate and succinate, respectively. These three small molecules are often referred to as oncometabolites because their accumulation boosts tumour development, and they are structurally similar to the molecule α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). This is an intermediate in the Krebs-cycle pathway that also serves as a component, called a co-substrate, needed for the function of a family of enzymes called α-KG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases.

(Adapted from Nature, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01569-1)

Which of the following is the most common feature of most tumour cells, according to the passage?
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    Explanation

    This is type 1 specific question about the common features of tumour cells according to the passage. Remember that in these scientific/factual passages, the keywords will be very important and synonyms to a lesser degree, because you are not expected to know synonyms for the technical language used. Scan the text for any mention of common features of tumour cells, and if you are struggling you can use keywords from the statements themselves to find mention.

     Statement A is the correct answer, which is clear if you managed to find the section which lists genome instability and altered metabolism as the two most common characteristics of tumour cells. If you couldn’t find that, don’t panic and search for the statement itself in the text. This would also lead you to the part of the passage discussing common changes.

     Statement B has the excellent keyword IDH1, which should quickly draw your eye to the opening of the second paragraph. This mentions that such mutations can cause chemical accumulation, but because the text does not mention how common such mutations are you could safely skip this and assume it is untrue.

     Statement C has the key phrase ‘Krebs cycle’. This is found late in the second paragraph, but it is mentioned offhand as part of a different explanation of a chemical pathway. Therefore, you can assume that it is not discussed as part of the topic in the question stem.

     Statement D has the keyword ‘oncometabolite’, which is to be found in the second paragraph. Again, this is not discussed in the all-important context of the question stem, so it is not the correct answer.

    Factual passage tip!

    Remember that factual passages have excellent keywords and are often not designed for you to fully understand. When reading any scientific passage, you will usually have your own questions that you want to answer so what you are doing here is no different. Seek out the section answering your question, and assess the statements.

    Post Comment

    Towards the end of the nineteenth century, chromosomal abnormalities detected under the light microscope revealed that a type of massive genome instability resulting in an abnormal number of chromosomes occurs in certain types of cancer. Not long after, the biochemist Otto Warburg observed that tumour cells tend to use pathways of glucose and energy metabolism that are distinct from those used by normal cells. We now know that genome instability and altered metabolism are two common characteristics of most tumour cells. Genome instability has been investigated continuously since its discovery; altered metabolism was rediscovered as a research area only recently. But not much crosstalk between these two processes in cancer has been reported so far. Writing in Nature, Sulkowski et al. reveal how several metabolites that accumulate to high levels in tumour cells suppress DNA repair, thus revealing a direct link between altered metabolism and genome instability caused by DNA damage.

    Mutations targeting the genes encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) result in cells accumulating high levels of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes fumarate hydratase and succinate dehydrogenase cause cells to accumulate high levels of the molecules fumarate and succinate, respectively. These three small molecules are often referred to as oncometabolites because their accumulation boosts tumour development, and they are structurally similar to the molecule α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). This is an intermediate in the Krebs-cycle pathway that also serves as a component, called a co-substrate, needed for the function of a family of enzymes called α-KG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases.

    (Adapted from Nature, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01569-1)

    Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
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    Explanation

    This is a difficult type 2 statement question, which presents some serious time pressure. Remember to understand the first couple of sentences in order to get what the article is talking about, then assess statements starting with the best keywords. Assess the statements by finding the keyword in the text, then carefully reading the passage surrounding them.

     Statement A has the keyword ‘Otto Warburg’, which is a name found in the first paragraph. Immediately, you can see that he observed tumour cells using distinct glucose pathways from other cells, whereas nothing is said about genome instability. This is therefore not the correct answer.

     Statement B has 3 good keywords – fumarate, succinate and a-KG. It is recommended to use a-KG, because it has capital letters so can be more easily identified. We see in the text that fumarate and succinate ‘are called oncometabolites…. because they are structurally similar to a-KG’. This therefore directly contradicts the passage and is not true.

     Statement C again requires careful reading of the passage, using the excellent keyword IDH1. The passage says that dysfunction here results in 2-HG accumulation, not fumarate. Therefore, this statement is incorrect.

    Statement D requires careful reading of the passage around the keywords ‘genome instability’ and ‘altered metabolism’. The passage says that genome instability has been continuously studied, however altered metabolism has recently re-emerged. Therefore, it is true that genome instability has been more frequently studied.

    Post Comment

    Towards the end of the nineteenth century, chromosomal abnormalities detected under the light microscope revealed that a type of massive genome instability resulting in an abnormal number of chromosomes occurs in certain types of cancer. Not long after, the biochemist Otto Warburg observed that tumour cells tend to use pathways of glucose and energy metabolism that are distinct from those used by normal cells. We now know that genome instability and altered metabolism are two common characteristics of most tumour cells. Genome instability has been investigated continuously since its discovery; altered metabolism was rediscovered as a research area only recently. But not much crosstalk between these two processes in cancer has been reported so far. Writing in Nature, Sulkowski et al. reveal how several metabolites that accumulate to high levels in tumour cells suppress DNA repair, thus revealing a direct link between altered metabolism and genome instability caused by DNA damage.

    Mutations targeting the genes encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) result in cells accumulating high levels of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes fumarate hydratase and succinate dehydrogenase cause cells to accumulate high levels of the molecules fumarate and succinate, respectively. These three small molecules are often referred to as oncometabolites because their accumulation boosts tumour development, and they are structurally similar to the molecule α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). This is an intermediate in the Krebs-cycle pathway that also serves as a component, called a co-substrate, needed for the function of a family of enzymes called α-KG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases.

    (Adapted from Nature, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01569-1)

    Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 2 question, so remember to choose which statements to assess carefully using the Medic Mind shortcuts. All the statements have good keywords because this is a scientific passage, so you may have time to simply assess all of them.

     Statement A has the keyword ‘Sulkowski’ which is found at the end of the first paragraph. Here, it says that his lab revealed how accumulation of several metabolites can suppress DNA repair, and it can be reasonably inferred that this represents a link between toxic metabolites and DNA dysfunction.

     Statement B has the keyword ‘a-ketoglutarate’ which can be found in the second paragraph. This statement is a direct match with the passage, so can be eliminated quickly.

     Statement C appears to be an extreme statement, but actually asks about definitions which are more likely to be extreme. In fact, the passage explains that oncometabolites are so named because their accumulation boosts tumour development. Therefore, this statement is true despite being extreme.

     Statement D requires careful reading of the passage which says that fumarate hydratase and succinate dehydrogenase mutations can cause build-up of fumarate and succinate respectively. Therefore, fumarate hydratase mutations actually cause fumarate build-up so this statement is false and the correct answer.

    Top tip!

    Definitions commonly include extreme statements, because a noun always or necessarily meets certain conditions to be considered the described thing. In this case, oncometabolites are named as such because their accumulation boosts tumour development, so the extreme statement is correct.

    Post Comment

    Life on Earth is adapted to the rotation of our planet. For many years we have known that living organisms, including humans, have an internal, biological clock that helps them anticipate and adapt to the regular rhythm of the day. But how does this clock actually work? Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young were able to peek inside our biological clock and elucidate its inner workings. Their discoveries explain how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronized with the Earth’s revolutions.

    Using fruit flies as a model organism, this year’s Nobel laureates isolated a gene that controls the normal daily biological rhythm. They showed that this gene encodes a protein that accumulates in the cell during the night and is then degraded during the day. Subsequently, they identified additional protein components of this machinery, exposing the mechanism governing the self-sustaining clockwork inside the cell. We now recognize that biological clocks function by the same principles in cells of other multicellular organisms, including humans.

    With exquisite precision, our inner clock adapts our physiology to the dramatically different phases of the day. The clock regulates critical functions such as behavior, hormone levels, sleep, body temperature and metabolism. Our wellbeing is affected when there is a temporary mismatch between our external environment and this internal biological clock, for example when we travel across several time zones and experience “jet lag”. There are also indications that chronic misalignment between our lifestyle and the rhythm dictated by our inner timekeeper is associated with increased risk for various diseases.

    (Adapted from nobelprize.org, https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2017/press-release)

    Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question, so use the Medic Mind shortcuts to find the best statement to start with. Here, statement B is an extreme statement so should be treated with caution, whereas statements A and C have decent keywords for you to search for.

     Statement A has the keywords ‘plant’ and ‘animal’, which are found together in the first paragraph. Although it seems likely that the mechanisms vary, the text actually does not explicitly say this, rather saying that the discovery explains how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythms.

     Statement B is an extreme statement, that proteins always accumulate at night and break down in the day. The text says that the discovered gene encodes a protein which breaks down in the day and accumulates at night, but not that all proteins do this. Therefore, this is not the correct answer.

     Statement C has the keyword ‘flies’, which is found at the beginning of the second paragraph. It says that the gene was discovered ‘using fruit flies’ as a model, therefore this statement is true.

     Statement D has the keyword ‘misalignment’, which is found in the last paragraph. Although the text says this misalignment is responsible for various diseases, and you may have heard of a link with cardiovascular disease, this is not mentioned in the text so you cannot infer it.

    Post Comment

    Life on Earth is adapted to the rotation of our planet. For many years we have known that living organisms, including humans, have an internal, biological clock that helps them anticipate and adapt to the regular rhythm of the day. But how does this clock actually work? Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young were able to peek inside our biological clock and elucidate its inner workings. Their discoveries explain how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronized with the Earth’s revolutions.

    Using fruit flies as a model organism, this year’s Nobel laureates isolated a gene that controls the normal daily biological rhythm. They showed that this gene encodes a protein that accumulates in the cell during the night and is then degraded during the day. Subsequently, they identified additional protein components of this machinery, exposing the mechanism governing the self-sustaining clockwork inside the cell. We now recognize that biological clocks function by the same principles in cells of other multicellular organisms, including humans.

    With exquisite precision, our inner clock adapts our physiology to the dramatically different phases of the day. The clock regulates critical functions such as behavior, hormone levels, sleep, body temperature and metabolism. Our wellbeing is affected when there is a temporary mismatch between our external environment and this internal biological clock, for example when we travel across several time zones and experience “jet lag”. There are also indications that chronic misalignment between our lifestyle and the rhythm dictated by our inner timekeeper is associated with increased risk for various diseases.

    (Adapted from nobelprize.org, https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2017/press-release)

    Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question, so use the Medic Mind shortcuts to choose statements which are easy to find in the text and assess. Here, statement B has the easiest keywords of 3 names, therefore is a good place to start.

     Statement A has the keyword ‘fruit flies’ which is found in the second paragraph, where it states that the work on circadian rhythms was done in fruit flies. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that these are a useful model because work on them has won the Nobel Prize.

     Statement B has the best keywords, the three names. These can be found in the first paragraph, which states that the 3 elucidated the workings of the biological clock. However, it does not say that their work was on anything other than fruit flies. It is therefore not reasonable to infer that they showed specifically that the biological clock functions by the same mechanism in anything other than fruit flies. This is confirmed at the end of the second paragraph, saying that ‘we now recognise’ that the clock functions by a similar mechanism.

     Statement C has the keyword body temperature, which is listed in the final paragraph as something regulated by the circadian rhythm.

     Statement D is a common-sense statement but watch out! Just because this may be obviously true, there is a chance it cannot be inferred from the passage alone. Search for the keyword jetlag to verify in the final paragraph that this is something you can tell from the passage alone.

    Common trap

    Statement D here is a common-sense statement. Remember that the question is not asking ‘which is true’, but which can be inferred from the passage. You need to verify that the passage tells us the cause of jetlag before continuing.

    Post Comment

    Enceladus orbits Saturn at a distance of 148,000 miles between the orbits of two other moons, Mimas and Tethys. Enceladus is tidally locked with Saturn, keeping the same face toward the planet. It completes one orbit every 32.9 hours within the densest part of Saturn’s E Ring. Also, like some other moons in the extensive systems of the giant planets, Enceladus is trapped in what’s called an orbital resonance, where two or more moons line up with their parent planet at regular intervals and interact gravitationally. Enceladus orbits Saturn twice every time Dione, a larger moon, orbits once. Dione’s gravity stretches Enceladus’ orbit into an elliptical shape, so Enceladus is sometimes closer and other times farther from Saturn, causing tidal heating within the moon.

    Parts of Enceladus show craters up to 22 miles in diameter, while other regions have few craters, indicating major resurfacing events in the geographically recent past. In particular, the south polar region of Enceladus is almost entirely free of impact craters. The area is also littered with house-sized ice boulders and regions carved by tectonic patterns unique to this region of the moon. 

    In 2005, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft discovered that icy water particles and gas gush from the moon’s surface at approximately 800 miles per hour (400 meters per second). The eruptions appear to be continuous, generating an enormous halo of fine ice dust around Enceladus, which supplies material to Saturn’s E-ring. Only a small fraction of the material ends up in the ring, however, with most of it falling like snow back to the moon’s surface, which helps keep Enceladus bright white.

    Which of the following statements is true regarding the orbit of Enceladus?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question solely regarding the orbit of Enceladus, which is discussed in the first paragraph of the passage. Orient yourself here before searching for keywords, which should be very good in scientific passages!

     Statement A has the key phrases ‘orbital resonance’ and ‘E-ring’. You can see that this statement has two parts – that Enceladus exhibits orbital resonance which means it moves in and out of the E-ring. Both of these facts must be verified for the statement to be true on the whole. Therefore, you may have to examine both keywords. If you started with ‘E-ring’, you would find nothing discussing orbital resonance. If you started with orbital resonance, you would find the definition as interacting with other moons, so this statement is false on the whole.

     Statement B has the keyword ‘distance’, so you should search for words involving ‘closer’ and ‘further’ to resolve this. You will find at the end of the paragraph in focus that Enceladus has an elliptical orbit, so is not always the same distance from Saturn.

     Statement C has the good keyword ‘Dione’, when you find this in the text you will see that Enceladus orbits twice for every once Dione orbits, which is twice as often. Therefore, this statement is true and the correct answer.

     Statement D asks about an Earth day, 24 hours. In the text, we see that the orbit is every 32.9 hours, or less often than once per Earth day.

    Post Comment

    Enceladus orbits Saturn at a distance of 148,000 miles between the orbits of two other moons, Mimas and Tethys. Enceladus is tidally locked with Saturn, keeping the same face toward the planet. It completes one orbit every 32.9 hours within the densest part of Saturn’s E Ring. Also, like some other moons in the extensive systems of the giant planets, Enceladus is trapped in what’s called an orbital resonance, where two or more moons line up with their parent planet at regular intervals and interact gravitationally. Enceladus orbits Saturn twice every time Dione, a larger moon, orbits once. Dione’s gravity stretches Enceladus’ orbit into an elliptical shape, so Enceladus is sometimes closer and other times farther from Saturn, causing tidal heating within the moon.

    Parts of Enceladus show craters up to 22 miles in diameter, while other regions have few craters, indicating major resurfacing events in the geographically recent past. In particular, the south polar region of Enceladus is almost entirely free of impact craters. The area is also littered with house-sized ice boulders and regions carved by tectonic patterns unique to this region of the moon. 

    In 2005, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft discovered that icy water particles and gas gush from the moon’s surface at approximately 800 miles per hour (400 meters per second). The eruptions appear to be continuous, generating an enormous halo of fine ice dust around Enceladus, which supplies material to Saturn’s E-ring. Only a small fraction of the material ends up in the ring, however, with most of it falling like snow back to the moon’s surface, which helps keep Enceladus bright white.

    According to the text, which of the following was discovered by Cassini?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question, so you should start by reading the statements then finding the keywords from the question stem. You can find discussion of Cassini in the final paragraph. Although all of the statements may be mentioned in the text, your task here is to find which of these was discovered by Cassini.

      Statement A is found in the third paragraph, which says that Cassini discovered in 2015 that icy water particles and gas gush from the surface as eruptions. Therefore, this statement is the correct answer.

    Statement B has the keyword 22 miles, which can be found in the second paragraph. Although the passage acknowledges these craters on the surface of Enceladus, they are not linked to Cassini, so this is not the answer.

     Statement C has the keyword ‘south polar’, which is also found in the second paragraph. Again, the south polar reason is free of craters, but this is not linked to Cassini. Therefore, these is not the correct answer.

     Statement D has the keyword ‘ice boulders’, found in the second paragraph. Again, this is not linked with Cassini so not the correct answer.

    Top tip

    In type 1 statement questions like this, start by finding the keyword in the question stem. In this way, you may be able to immediately identify the correct statement and move on, saving yourself time. If you can’t do this, then find keywords from each statement to assess.

    Post Comment

    Enceladus orbits Saturn at a distance of 148,000 miles between the orbits of two other moons, Mimas and Tethys. Enceladus is tidally locked with Saturn, keeping the same face toward the planet. It completes one orbit every 32.9 hours within the densest part of Saturn’s E Ring. Also, like some other moons in the extensive systems of the giant planets, Enceladus is trapped in what’s called an orbital resonance, where two or more moons line up with their parent planet at regular intervals and interact gravitationally. Enceladus orbits Saturn twice every time Dione, a larger moon, orbits once. Dione’s gravity stretches Enceladus’ orbit into an elliptical shape, so Enceladus is sometimes closer and other times farther from Saturn, causing tidal heating within the moon.

    Parts of Enceladus show craters up to 22 miles in diameter, while other regions have few craters, indicating major resurfacing events in the geographically recent past. In particular, the south polar region of Enceladus is almost entirely free of impact craters. The area is also littered with house-sized ice boulders and regions carved by tectonic patterns unique to this region of the moon. 

    In 2005, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft discovered that icy water particles and gas gush from the moon’s surface at approximately 800 miles per hour (400 meters per second). The eruptions appear to be continuous, generating an enormous halo of fine ice dust around Enceladus, which supplies material to Saturn’s E-ring. Only a small fraction of the material ends up in the ring, however, with most of it falling like snow back to the moon’s surface, which helps keep Enceladus bright white.

    Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question which can be tackled by using the Medic Mind shortcuts – Statement B is an extreme statement whereas statement A has easy keywords, so you could start at A and skip B on your initial readthrough.

    Statement A has the keywords ‘eruptions’ and ‘E-ring’. In the text, it does say that the eruptions supply material but only a small fraction ends up in the ring, so the contribution is probably not significant. This statement is therefore not true.

     Statement B is extreme – that all of Enceladus is densely cratered. Although the text says in the second paragraph that some parts show large craters, this is not true for all of it.

     Statement C is a slight passage adjustment. Using the key phrase ‘tectonic patterns’, found in the second paragraph, we see that the regions are carved by tectonic patterns unique to the South pole, but no mention is made of how unique they are to the moon itself. This statement is therefore untrue.

     Statement D has few useful keywords and requires an inference, so is quite difficult. However, we see that the distribution of craters reveals ‘major resurfacing events in the geographically recent past’. Therefore, we can infer that the surface changes.

    Timing tip!

    Here, statement D is a difficult to assess statement, but it is the last one in the set. If you were able to eliminate the other statements, you could mark D as the correct answer and flag the question to confirm later if you have time. Process of elimination is a valid way to answer!

    Post Comment

    Theophrastus was born in Eresos on the island of Lesbos. His original name was Tyrtamus, but Aristotle changed it to Theophrastus because of the godlike manner of his speech. According to Diogenes Laertius, early in his life Theophrastus was a student of an otherwise unheard of Alcippus in his native city and then of Plato in the Academy, where he met Aristotle with whom he had a relationship of colleagues or associates rather than one of teacher and pupil. After Plato’s death, Theophrastus travelled with Aristotle to Assos, back to Lesbos, and later on to Macedonia, because Aristotle was summoned there as tutor of Alexander. Around 335 BCE they both returned to Athens. Aristotle founded his peripatetic school at the Lyceum, but he had to leave again, when Alexander died in 323 BCE, due to the increasing anti-Macedonian feelings.

     Theophrastus succeeded Aristotle at the peripatetic school, which under his headship, acquired a more institutionalized character. When Demetrius became governor of Athens in 317 BCE in the Macedonian interest, he protected and helped Theophrastus, whose situation had become precarious, as is testified by a prosecution of impiety that was brought against him. After Demetrius’ expulsion in 307 BCE, he was again persecuted, more seriously this time, when a law was passed forbidding anyone to open a school of philosophy without a government license; Theophrastus as well as many other philosophers left Athens, and he returned only when the law was repealed a year later. Theophrastus died around 287 BCE, and, in his will, he left all his books to his disciple Neleus, including the manuscripts of Aristotle’s works, which he had inherited when he took over the Lyceum.

    (Adapted from The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/theophrastus/)

    According to the text, Theophrastus went to Macedonia:
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    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question with a specific stem. Read the statements before reviewing the keyword from the stem in the text – the article is about Theophrastus, so Macedonia is a better keyword here. If you cannot find this in the text, you might go on to review keywords from the statements.

     Statement A has the keyword ‘Demetrius’, which can be found in the second paragraph, which says that Demetrius became governor and protected him but not that this had anything to do with Macedonia.

     Statement B has few good keywords, so you could skip it if pressed for time. The best is probably ‘law’ or related synonyms, found when the passage describes a law forbidding a school of philosophy without a license. However, this is not linked to Macedonia so not the correct answer.

     Statement C has the keyword ‘Alexander’, found in the first paragraph. More importantly, reading around the keyword reveals that Theophrastus went to Macedonia because Aristotle had been hired by Alexander, so this is the correct answer.

     Statement D has the key phrase ‘native city’, which in the text is described as being Eresos in the first line – this highlights the importance of reading the passage opening before proceeding with the question.

    Post Comment

    Theophrastus was born in Eresos on the island of Lesbos. His original name was Tyrtamus, but Aristotle changed it to Theophrastus because of the godlike manner of his speech. According to Diogenes Laertius, early in his life Theophrastus was a student of an otherwise unheard of Alcippus in his native city and then of Plato in the Academy, where he met Aristotle with whom he had a relationship of colleagues or associates rather than one of teacher and pupil. After Plato’s death, Theophrastus travelled with Aristotle to Assos, back to Lesbos, and later on to Macedonia, because Aristotle was summoned there as tutor of Alexander. Around 335 BCE they both returned to Athens. Aristotle founded his peripatetic school at the Lyceum, but he had to leave again, when Alexander died in 323 BCE, due to the increasing anti-Macedonian feelings.

     Theophrastus succeeded Aristotle at the peripatetic school, which under his headship, acquired a more institutionalized character. When Demetrius became governor of Athens in 317 BCE in the Macedonian interest, he protected and helped Theophrastus, whose situation had become precarious, as is testified by a prosecution of impiety that was brought against him. After Demetrius’ expulsion in 307 BCE, he was again persecuted, more seriously this time, when a law was passed forbidding anyone to open a school of philosophy without a government license; Theophrastus as well as many other philosophers left Athens, and he returned only when the law was repealed a year later. Theophrastus died around 287 BCE, and, in his will, he left all his books to his disciple Neleus, including the manuscripts of Aristotle’s works, which he had inherited when he took over the Lyceum.

    (Adapted from The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/theophrastus/)

    Which of the following cannot be inferred from the text?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 2 negative statement question, so you are trying to eliminate statements which can be inferred. Remember to use the Medic Mind shortcuts to select a good statement to start with or statements you may be able to skip – here statement B does not have any greatly convenient keywords so you could skip it if short on time.

     Statement A has the keyword Plato, which can be found in the first paragraph. They lived at the same time, with Theophrastus a student of Plato, therefore they were contemporaries.

     Statement B, as mentioned, does not have an easily identifiable keyword. If you have time, you can search for references to Theophrastus’ oratory skills, which can be found early in the first paragraph which explains he got his name because of the ‘godlike manner of his speech’.

     Statement C requires some careful reading of the passage, because it states that Alexander died in 323BCE whereas Demetrius became governor in in 317BCE. These dates are BCE, or Before the Common Era, which means they are counting down to the start of the common era. Therefore, although it may seem that Alexander died after Demetrius became governor, in fact 317BCE is after 323BCE.

     Statement D can be inferred because, on finding the keyword ‘Aristotle’, we see that Theophrastus ‘had a relationship more of colleagues or associates’

    Post Comment

    Theophrastus was born in Eresos on the island of Lesbos. His original name was Tyrtamus, but Aristotle changed it to Theophrastus because of the godlike manner of his speech. According to Diogenes Laertius, early in his life Theophrastus was a student of an otherwise unheard of Alcippus in his native city and then of Plato in the Academy, where he met Aristotle with whom he had a relationship of colleagues or associates rather than one of teacher and pupil. After Plato’s death, Theophrastus travelled with Aristotle to Assos, back to Lesbos, and later on to Macedonia, because Aristotle was summoned there as tutor of Alexander. Around 335 BCE they both returned to Athens. Aristotle founded his peripatetic school at the Lyceum, but he had to leave again, when Alexander died in 323 BCE, due to the increasing anti-Macedonian feelings.

     Theophrastus succeeded Aristotle at the peripatetic school, which under his headship, acquired a more institutionalized character. When Demetrius became governor of Athens in 317 BCE in the Macedonian interest, he protected and helped Theophrastus, whose situation had become precarious, as is testified by a prosecution of impiety that was brought against him. After Demetrius’ expulsion in 307 BCE, he was again persecuted, more seriously this time, when a law was passed forbidding anyone to open a school of philosophy without a government license; Theophrastus as well as many other philosophers left Athens, and he returned only when the law was repealed a year later. Theophrastus died around 287 BCE, and, in his will, he left all his books to his disciple Neleus, including the manuscripts of Aristotle’s works, which he had inherited when he took over the Lyceum.

    (Adapted from The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/theophrastus/)

    Which of the following is most likely, according to the text?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question which is not only asking which of the statements is true, but which is most likely. The statements are a collection of causation statements, and you need to decide which is most likely from the text. This is good training for discerning correlation from causation, and this kind of question is an easy place for the examiner to trip you up.

     Statement A has the keywords ‘peripatetic school’ and ‘institutionalised’. In the text, it says at the beginning of the second paragraph that the school became more institutionalised under his headship. Because he led the school as this change occurred, it is likely to be a causative relationship.

     Statement B has the key phrase 307BCE, which is found in the text saying he was persecuted because of the law about schools of philosophy without a license. It is likely that the persecution was partly because of his views, but this is not stated in the text so this is a weaker inference than A.

     Statement C has the keyword Alcippus which is found early on. This statement is a very weak inference because although the text states that Alcippus was relatively unknown, it does not discuss why.

     Statement D requires some comprehension of the sentence structure in which it is discussed. The passage could be accurately reworded to state that Aristotle left due to anti-Macedonian feelings when Alexander died, rather than there being a causative relationship between these feelings and the death of Alexander.

    Top tip!
    Questions such as this require you to evaluate each statement individually and quickly come to a valid conclusion about which is most likely. Therefore, if you think you have the right answer, you should not move on as in other questions because another statement may be more correct. Now is the time to cash in the time you have saved with timing tips from other questions.

    Post Comment

    Maize was domesticated from teosinte, a wild grass growing in Central Mexico, around 9,000 years ago. There is evidence maize was first cultivated in the Maya lowlands around 6,500 years ago, but there is no evidence that maize was a staple grain at that time.

    Today, much of the popularity of maize has to do with its high carbohydrate and protein value in animal feed and sugar content which makes it the preferred ingredient of many processed foods including sugary drinks. Traditionally it has also been used as fermented drink in Mesoamerica. Given its humble beginnings 9,000 years ago in Mexico, understanding how it came to be the most dominant plant in the world benefits from deciphering what attracted people to this crop to begin with.

    To determine the presence of maize in the diet of the ancient individuals, one study measured the carbon isotopes in the bones and teeth of 52 skeletons. The study involved the remains of male and female adults and children providing a wholistic sample of the population. The oldest remains date from between 9,600 and 8,600 years ago and continues to about 1,000 years ago.

    The analysis shows the oldest remains were people who ate wild plants, palms, fruits and nuts found in tropical forests and savannahs, along with meat from hunting terrestrial animals. By 4,700 years ago, diets had become more diverse, with some individuals showing the first consumption of maize. The results show an increasing consumption of maize over the next millennium as the population transitioned to sedentary farming.

    (Adapted from Science Daily, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200603151158.htm)

    What is maize often used in today, according to the passage?
  • 1
    0

    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question, for which the stem keyword can be found in the second paragraph in the quote. If you are struggling to find this, then the statements are essentially only keywords which makes them very easy to quickly scan for in the text.

     Statement A is the correct answer, as the text explains that maize is the preferred ingredient in many processed foods including sugary drinks.

     Statement B can also be found in the second paragraph but remember to read around the keyword because this says that traditionally maize has been used in fermented drinks, which is not the same as commonly today.

     Statement C has the keyword ‘carbohydrate’ when Prufer mentions that maize is carb-heavy, however there is no mention of it’s routine use in carbohydrate heavy meals.

     Statement D may draw the eye because of prior knowledge, that maize is a cereal crop. However, the text does not mention that it is commonly used in breads and cereals so you cannot deduce this.

    Post Comment

    Maize was domesticated from teosinte, a wild grass growing in Central Mexico, around 9,000 years ago. There is evidence maize was first cultivated in the Maya lowlands around 6,500 years ago, but there is no evidence that maize was a staple grain at that time.

    Today, much of the popularity of maize has to do with its high carbohydrate and protein value in animal feed and sugar content which makes it the preferred ingredient of many processed foods including sugary drinks. Traditionally it has also been used as fermented drink in Mesoamerica. Given its humble beginnings 9,000 years ago in Mexico, understanding how it came to be the most dominant plant in the world benefits from deciphering what attracted people to this crop to begin with.

    To determine the presence of maize in the diet of the ancient individuals, one study measured the carbon isotopes in the bones and teeth of 52 skeletons. The study involved the remains of male and female adults and children providing a wholistic sample of the population. The oldest remains date from between 9,600 and 8,600 years ago and continues to about 1,000 years ago.

    The analysis shows the oldest remains were people who ate wild plants, palms, fruits and nuts found in tropical forests and savannahs, along with meat from hunting terrestrial animals. By 4,700 years ago, diets had become more diverse, with some individuals showing the first consumption of maize. The results show an increasing consumption of maize over the next millennium as the population transitioned to sedentary farming.

    (Adapted from Science Daily, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200603151158.htm)

    Which of the following is untrue, according to the passage?
  • 1
    2

    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question and using the Medic Mind shortcuts we can see that statement C has the best keyword (3,700) so we can assess it quickly, it is recommended you start here before assessing the other statements.

     Statement A has the key phrase ‘hydrogen isotopes’ but in the passage we only find mention of carbon isotopes. Therefore, this statement is a passage adjustment contradicting the text.

     Statement B has the key phrase ‘staple grain’. This can be found in the first paragraph which actually says ‘there is no evidence’ maize was a staple at the time it began being cultivated. This is therefore untrue and the correct answer.

     Statement C has the best keyword, 3,700. Although this is not found in the text, searching for it should draw you nonetheless to 4,700 in the final paragraph. If you read carefully around this, you will find that ‘over the next millennium… [the population transitioned to sedentary farming]. We can therefore infer this statement from the text.

     Statement D has few good keywords, but we can see that Prufer says in the second paragraph that ‘maize came to be the most dominant plant in the world’, and this statement is therefore true. 

    Timing tip – Guessing!

    Use the Medic Mind shortcuts to eliminate options – then if you’re short on time you can always guess with better odds than before!

    Post Comment

    The spacesuit consists of several pieces. The Hard-Upper Torso covers the astronaut’s chest. The arm assembly covers the arms and connects to the gloves. The helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assembly protect the astronaut’s head while still allowing him or her to see as much as possible. The Lower Torso Assembly covers the astronaut’s legs and feet. The flexible parts of the suit are made from several layers of material. The layers perform different functions, from keeping oxygen within the spacesuit to protecting from space dust impacts.

    Underneath the spacesuit, astronauts wear a Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Tubes are woven into this tight-fitting piece of clothing that covers the entire body except for the head, hands and feet. Water flows through these tubes to keep the astronaut cool during the spacewalk.

    On the back of the spacesuit is a backpack called the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). This backpack contains the oxygen that astronauts breathe during a spacewalk. It removes carbon dioxide that astronauts exhale. The backpack also provides electricity for the suit. A fan moves the oxygen through the spacesuit and life support systems, and a water tank holds the cooling water that flows through the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment.

    Also attached to the back of the suit is a device called the Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity Rescue, or SAFER. SAFER has several small thruster jets. If an astronaut became separated from the space station, he or she could use SAFER to fly back.

    (Adapted from NASA.gov, https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/nasaandyou/home/spacesuits_bkgd_en.html)

    Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
  • 2
    3

    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question, so remember to use the Medic Mind shortcuts to assess the best keywords first. Here, statements C and D have acronyms which can be found quickly in the text so it may be best to start with these two.

    Statement A has the keyword ‘fan’, which can be found in the third paragraph, which says a fan moves oxygen through the suit. However, it says that a water tank holds the water that flows through the cooling garment, so the fan is not connected, and this statement is untrue.

    Statement B can be found in the first paragraph, which says the suit is formed from ‘several layers’ of material. This directly contradicts the statement, so it is not the correct answer.

    Statement C has the keyword ‘PLSS’, which is found in the third paragraph. It mentions that within the PLSS, electricity is provided for the suit. Therefore, this is the correct answer.

    Statement D has the keyword ‘SAFER’, which says that this device is attached to the back of the suit. Therefore, it is not within the backpack but on it therefore this is incorrect.

    Post Comment
    Tinashe Medicmind Tutor

    Wed, 26 Aug 2020 21:55:00

    none of the answers are right

    8 Medicmind Tutor

    Thu, 25 Feb 2021 10:12:48

    Statement D is the wrong answer

    The term ‘tribe’ originated in ancient Rome, where the word tribus denoted a division within the state. It later came into use as a way to describe the cultures encountered through European exploration. By the mid-19th century, many anthropologists and other scholars were using the term to denote particular stages in unilineal cultural evolution.

    Although unilineal cultural evolution is no longer a credible theory, these terms continue to be used as a sort of technical shorthand in college courses, documentaries, and popular reference works. In such contexts, members of a tribe are typically said to share a self-name and a contiguous territory; to work together in such joint endeavours as trade, agriculture, house construction, warfare, and ceremonial activities; and to be composed of a number of smaller local communities such as bands or villages. In addition, they may be aggregated into higher-order clusters, such as nations.

    As an anthropological term, the word tribe fell out of favour in the latter part of the 20th century. Some anthropologists rejected the term itself, on the grounds that it could not be precisely defined. Others objected to the negative connotations that the word acquired in the colonial context. Scholars of Africa, in particular, felt that it was pejorative as well as inaccurate. Thus, many anthropologists replaced it with the designation ethnic group, usually defined as a group of people with a common ancestry and language, a shared cultural and historical tradition, and an identifiable territory. This is a particularly appropriate term within the discussion of modernizing countries.

    (Adapted from Encyclopaedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/tribe-anthropology)

    Which of the following does not describe why the word ‘tribe’ fell from favour?
  • 1
    2

    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question, so you can search for reference to the word tribe ‘falling from favour’ or ‘declining in popularity’ or other statements to this effect. If you can find the reference in the passage, this will answer the question quickly for you and save time. Otherwise, use statement keywords to work out the answer.

     Statement A is seen in the third paragraph, where it says that some anthropologists rejected the term because it could not be precisely defined. Therefore, this statement does describe an aspect of why the word fell out of favour.

     Statement B has the keyword ‘Africa’, seen around the section discussing the word’s fall from favour. However, far from the statement, the text says that African scholars disagreed with the word because they felt it was pejorative. This statement is not an accurate description, so the correct answer.

     Statement C is verified in the text because it says ‘Scholars of Africa felt the term was pejorative’, which is a synonym for an insult, in other words offensive.

     Statement D is verified in the same sentence as statement C, that the term was seen as inaccurate.

    Post Comment
    Azra kirmani Medicmind Tutor

    Wed, 16 Sep 2020 13:10:38

    WHY DO I KEEP IGNORING FLIPPED QUESTIONSSSS? sigh

    The term ‘tribe’ originated in ancient Rome, where the word tribus denoted a division within the state. It later came into use as a way to describe the cultures encountered through European exploration. By the mid-19th century, many anthropologists and other scholars were using the term to denote particular stages in unilineal cultural evolution.

    Although unilineal cultural evolution is no longer a credible theory, these terms continue to be used as a sort of technical shorthand in college courses, documentaries, and popular reference works. In such contexts, members of a tribe are typically said to share a self-name and a contiguous territory; to work together in such joint endeavours as trade, agriculture, house construction, warfare, and ceremonial activities; and to be composed of a number of smaller local communities such as bands or villages. In addition, they may be aggregated into higher-order clusters, such as nations.

    As an anthropological term, the word tribe fell out of favour in the latter part of the 20th century. Some anthropologists rejected the term itself, on the grounds that it could not be precisely defined. Others objected to the negative connotations that the word acquired in the colonial context. Scholars of Africa, in particular, felt that it was pejorative as well as inaccurate. Thus, many anthropologists replaced it with the designation ethnic group, usually defined as a group of people with a common ancestry and language, a shared cultural and historical tradition, and an identifiable territory. This is a particularly appropriate term within the discussion of modernizing countries.

    (Adapted from Encyclopaedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/tribe-anthropology)

    Which of the following can be deduced from the text?
  • 2
    0

    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question, so remember to use the Medic Mind shortcuts to start with the best keywords and eliminate based on extreme statements. Here however, all the statements have decent keywords so the best way to decide how to start is to look for the very best ones and eliminate. You may not find the answer immediately, but if you are short on time then every answer you can eliminate improves your odds of guessing correctly.

     Statement A has the key phrase ‘unilineal cultural evolution’, which is found in the second paragraph and at the end of the first, where it is described as ‘no longer a credible theory’, therefore it is not modern.

     Statement B has the key phrase ‘ethnic group’, which is mentioned less frequently than ‘tribe’ in the text. Therefore, it is a better keyword to search for. Although the passage in the third paragraph says that ethnic group has ‘replaced’ the term tribe, this is not the same as interchangeable use. Rather, the text implies that it has been replaced because the word tribe fell out of favour.

     Statement C is a passage adjustment requiring you to find the word ‘band’ in the text. In fact, the text details that a tribe may be formed from several bands, so this is not the correct answer.

     Statement D requires an inference from your initial reading of the first couple of sentences. The first sentence describes the origin of the term tribe in Ancient Rome, and its slight variation developed in the mid 19th century. We can see that the meaning has changed over time

    Post Comment

    Students of history will find meager resemblance between the medical schools of the 1800s and their modern counterparts. Low standards and practices were rampant in 19th-century medicine. The term “quack doctor” gained common coinage as a pejorative during this period. Even highly ranked Harvard and Yale were forced to reinvent themselves to survive the purge of sub-par medical schools cited as “indescribably foul” in an infamous study. Medical education was about to experience a radical transformation.

    The didactic method was the rage of the day. Instead of hands-on clinical training, students were taught by rote through a series of lectures, four each day, often clocking in at eight hours total. The entire course, from admission to graduation, was two 16-week semesters without a shred of difference; both terms covered the same material. A peek back in time at a sample syllabus reveals core work in biology, pathology, chemistry, obstetrics. But these classes weren’t even graded. A systematic course of study with nominal variation from college to college simply didn’t exist. There was no “medical license” issued or even an exiting exam. During this education blight the American Medical Association was founded at a doctor’s congress in 1847.

    However, in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Medical School debuted a model that would fundamentally change the way doctors were educated. Rote learning was retired and replaced with laboratory, clinical work and core science classes. The curriculum expanded to four years. The research arm became prominent and integrated into the medical school. The medical school aligned with a research department was replicated across the country.

    (Adapted from The Classroom, https://www.theclassroom.com/medical-schools-1800s-8009587.html)

    Why did Harvard have to reinvent itself as a school?
  • 0
    1

    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question, so remember to try to identify useful keywords in the question stem and read around them. In this case, you can find the word Harvard in the first paragraph where it is explained that a study describing sub-par medical schools as ‘indescribably foul’ threatened its integrity. Therefore, you can see quickly that the answer is B. However, if you are struggling to find the keyword, you can proceed with keywords from the statements themselves.

    Statement A has no useful keywords, but you can see no mention of it in the text on scanning. Therefore, it is relatively safe to skip this statements and come back to it after eliminating others. It is not mentioned in the text, therefore not the correct answer.

    Statement B is the correct answer, as discussed above. The passage describes how the study threatened them as describing sub-par medical schools as ‘indescribably foul’.

    Although the first paragraph addresses Statement C by saying that both Harvard and Yale were forced to reform by the study, and it is likely that the changes were to stick with other schools, the driving force of the change was still the study as without it, the changes would not have occurred.

    Statement D is not mentioned in the text on searching for the key phrase ‘government grants’. Therefore, you could scan for keywords or decide that because you cannot find it, it cannot be true. The latter is best under time pressure.

    Post Comment
    Azra kirmani Medicmind Tutor

    Wed, 16 Sep 2020 13:28:28

    i eliminated a because it had extreme language, was this a good idea?

    Mike Medicmind Tutor

    Fri, 05 Mar 2021 09:40:58

    Makes sense, common sense tells you it couldn't possibly be proved

    Students of history will find meager resemblance between the medical schools of the 1800s and their modern counterparts. Low standards and practices were rampant in 19th-century medicine. The term “quack doctor” gained common coinage as a pejorative during this period. Even highly ranked Harvard and Yale were forced to reinvent themselves to survive the purge of sub-par medical schools cited as “indescribably foul” in an infamous study. Medical education was about to experience a radical transformation.

     The didactic method was the rage of the day. Instead of hands-on clinical training, students were taught by rote through a series of lectures, four each day, often clocking in at eight hours total. The entire course, from admission to graduation, was two 16-week semesters without a shred of difference; both terms covered the same material. A peek back in time at a sample syllabus reveals core work in biology, pathology, chemistry, obstetrics. But these classes weren’t even graded. A systematic course of study with nominal variation from college to college simply didn’t exist. There was no “medical license” issued or even an exiting exam. During this education blight the American Medical Association was founded at a doctor’s congress in 1847.

    However, in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Medical School debuted a model that would fundamentally change the way doctors were educated. Rote learning was retired and replaced with laboratory, clinical work and core science classes. The curriculum expanded to four years. The research arm became prominent and integrated into the medical school. The medical school aligned with a research department was replicated across the country.

    (Adapted from The Classroom, https://www.theclassroom.com/medical-schools-1800s-8009587.html)

    Which of the following can be reasonably inferred from the text?
  • 2
    2

    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question, so use the Medic Mind shortcuts to choose where to start. Statements A and B are extreme statements, so you could skip these. Statements C and D however have excellent keywords, so it is worth starting with C in this question.

     Statement A has the keyword 1847, seen at the end of paragraph 2 as the date that the American Medical Association was founded. However, it is not mentioned in the passage that the didactic method was only popular before this date, so it cannot be inferred. Be wary of the extreme statement!

     Statement B has the keyword ‘exams’, but is extreme so be careful how you approach. When you search for exam, you will find that the text says students before the founding of the Johns Hopkins method did not have to sit exiting exams. So, we cannot infer that students have always had to sit exams.

     Statement C requires you to use the keyword 1847 again to orient yourself. The passage says the AMA was founded in an ‘educational blight’, which is described as the curriculum which was not altered between semesters. This is therefore the correct answer.

     Statement D has the keyphrase ‘didactic teaching’. The text, early on, defines didactic learning as ‘rote learning’ through lectures every day. However, it also says that the Johns Hopkins method ‘retired’ rote learning, so this statement is not true.

    Post Comment

    The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters of floor space – the bulk of the huge room housing the machine. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal “ring counters,” which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage.

    The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This “wire-your-own” instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC). A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC’s basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim.

    (Adapted from The University of Rhode Island, https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/faculty/wolfe/book/Readings/Reading03.htm)

    What took up most of the floor space on the ENIAC computer, according to the passage?
  • 1
    0

    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question requiring you to search for the phrase ‘floor space’. This article is very complex and difficult to understand, so just focus on the key phrase and where it is mentioned in the text, you are not expected to understand the whole article!

     Statement A has the phrase ‘punched-card’ which is hyphenated so may be easier to find. It does not mention how much floor space these took up, so this is not the answer.

     Statement B has the keyword ‘screen’, which is not mentioned in the passage so cannot represent the largest part

     Statement C is the only thing for which size is mentioned, so took up the most space according to the passage. When searching for ‘vacuum tubing’, you will see that the two things in the statement took up over 167 square meters, which the text describes as ‘the bulk of the huge room housing the machine’. This implies that the tubing took up most of the floor space.

     Statement D has a number, 20, which can be found in the text however no mention is made of space so this is not the correct answer.

    Post Comment

    The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters of floor space – the bulk of the huge room housing the machine. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal “ring counters,” which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage.

    The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This “wire-your-own” instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC). A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC’s basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim.

    (Adapted from The University of Rhode Island, https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/faculty/wolfe/book/Readings/Reading03.htm)

    Which of the following is untrue, according to the passage?
  • 0
    1

    Explanation

    This is a type 2 statement question, so remember to assess the statements using the Medic Mind shortcuts. Here, statements B and C have the best keywords, so assess these first. Remember, this is a negative question so you are eliminating truthful statements from the set.

     Statement A has the key phrase ‘high-speed’, and even though this is part of a wider noun, it is easy to find in the text because it is hyphenated. A statement in the second paragraph states that ENIAC is ‘generally considered’ to be the first high-speed EDC so this is true.

     Statement B has the keyword ‘Atsanoff’, a name. This is found at the end of the paragraph, which details how he won a court case and got acclaim for the idea. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume he had the idea first.

     Statement C has the key phrase ‘wire-your-own’ which is quite easy to find in the text. However, it has adjectives attached which means the phrase should immediately be treated with caution as in this case it is a passage adjustment! There is a ‘wire-your-own’ system on ENIAC, but it is described as inconvenient, so this statement is untrue.

     Statement D has the key phrase ‘binary code’, found in the first paragraph. Here, it is described that the computer used a 10 decimal digit system, and not binary code.

    Post Comment

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