This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 50 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

In the past 15 years the government has poured millions of pounds into promoting sport to try to increase adult participation. The results show no lasting effect. A survey showed that unless children ‘catch the sport habit’ between the ages of seven and fourteen years they are unlikely to participate in sport as an adult, and that the sports they adopt as children are likely to be the sports they play as Schools need and should be given money to give children an interest in sport. Spending money trying to persuade adults to take up sport is like locking the stable door after the horse has bolted.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the conclusion of the argument in the passage above?
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## Explanation

This passage talks about the efforts made to try increase adult participation in sport. The argument speaks of how schools need to be allocated funds to increase interest in sport, as spending money trying to persuade adults to take up sports will never work. Looking at the answer options, A, is not true, based on information in the text, B is potentially true, but we are unsure based on the text. D is potentially true, and alluded to, however we can not accurately conclude this from the passage. E is true but not always, leaving C as the only completely true conclusion based on the information provided in the text.

Post Comment
Fuck you Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 30 Oct 2022 03:43:13

B is eminently reasonable.

Two neighbours work for the same company and share the journey to work, driving alternately in strict rotation. They work Monday to Friday each week and every other Saturday. (They always work the same Saturdays as each other.)

2. What is the maximum number of days either of them has to drive in a calendar month?
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## Explanation

The maximum number of days in a calendar month is 31. Assume the 1st day is a Monday. Person 1 drives Mon, Wed and Fri for this week. They work this Sat but person 2 must drive. Therefore for the 2nd week of the month Person 1 drives Mon, Wed and Fri again. This Sat they do no work, so person 2 must drive on the Mon of the 3rd week. So in the 3rd week, person 1 drives Tue, Thurs and Sat and in the 4th week Tue and Thurs (not Sat because they are not working this Sat). These for weeks include 28 days, so there are 3 days remaining for the 5th week, which are Mon, Tue and Wed. Person 1 works Mon and Wed in the 5th week. In total, person 1 has worked: 3 days in week 1, 3 in week 2, 3 days in week 3, 2 days in week 4 and 2 days in week 5. In total person 1 drives: 3+3+3+2+2=13 days, which is the maximum possible (as the month both starts and ends with person 1 driving and the working Saturdays are arranged in order to maximise the number of times person 1 drives).

Post Comment

Sales of printed books are steadily declining, with sales dropping to a seven-year low in 2011. Independent bookshops are closing all over the country and chain bookstores are likely to be hit Sales of e-books, meanwhile, are booming, with many predicting that 50 per cent of all books sold within 10 years will be digital downloads. Anecdotal evidence suggests that people enjoy the convenience of digital media. E-books have triumphed: they have led readers away from traditional forms of print to a digital world.

3. Which one of the following is a flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The flaw can be seen in the final sentence, as it states that ‘they have led readers away from traditional forms of print’ (books). This suggests that the booming sales of E-books are due to readers switching from reading traditional forms of print to E-books. However, they have not given evidence for this being the case, so an alternative scenario is possible in which new readers have been attracted to the E-books and is hence responsible for their success in sales, rather than the interest of previous readers switching from their books.

Post Comment

When Arnold Schwarzenegger was the Governor of California, he looked for ways to make savings in an effort to balance the California budget. He was particularly concerned about the high cost of school text books, which he considered to be outdated. Schwarzenegger, who portrayed a time-travelling robot killer in the Terminator films in which a computer network takes over the world, looked to information technology to solve the problem of the high cost of text He proposed that as an alternative to books, students could be given hand-held devices that store up-to-date books electronically and allow them access to online work for maths and science. Since students are experienced with computers and will readily accept the new technology, this is not just Hollywood sci-fi but common sense.

4. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that students should be given hand-held devices instead of books to solve the problem of high cost text books. For this argument to be valid, the cost of getting hand-held devices should be less than the cost of getting textbooks. Therefore B is an assumption.

Post Comment

Recent news stories have mistakenly implied that animals can understand mathematics better than Participants in a study were asked to state a choice of one of three doors, behind one of which there was a prize. Then the researcher opened one of the other two doors, revealing that there was no prize behind it. Asked if they would like to change their choice, most chose not to change. Switching to the remaining closed door would have increased their chance of winning. Even after playing the game many times, which allowed them to observe that they would win more often if they switched, most did not do so. When pigeons played a similar game, after a few attempts they switched every time. So the pigeons learnt from experience, whereas the people overanalysed and became confused.

5. Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the above argument?
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## Explanation

The first sentence of the passage states that news stories have made a mistake implying that animals can understand maths better than humans. It then describes the study in which pigeons learnt from their experience, but humans did not. For the study to support the argument, learning from experience must not be a mathematical process, otherwise the results of the study would contradict the first sentence of the passage.

Post Comment

Central Avenue is a long straight road, several kilometres Both my home and my office are on Central Avenue, and the diagram below shows their positions, together with two sets of traffic lights that lie in between.

Both sets of lights turn to green for Central Avenue traffic simultaneously, showing green for exactly two minutes, turning green again exactly two minutes later.

I cycle to work every morning at a steady speed of 5 metres per second (except, of course, whilst waiting at traffic lights).

6. What is the longest journey time I can expect the journey to work to take?
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## Explanation

The first 400m would take 400/5=80seconds. To maximise the journey time, we must maximise the time spent waiting at traffic lights. So let’s assume the first set of traffic lights turn red just as the person reaches them after travelling 400m. So the person would spend 2 minutes=120 seconds stationary there. The following 900m would take 900/5=180seconds=3minutes. During the first 2 minutes travelling the 900m stretch, the traffic lights would be green (as they have just spent two minutes being red). During f the 3rd minute, they would be red. So when the person reaches the second set of traffic lights, they would be just starting their second minute of being red. Therefore the person would have to wait here for 1minute before travelling the final 500m, which would take 500/5=100seconds. In total, the journey time would be: 80+120+180+60+100=540seconds which is equal to 540/60=9 minutes.

Post Comment

The United States Postal Service has an online guide to help people using their postal This is an extract:

First Class Mail

First class mail must be used for handwritten or personal correspondence.

First Class Mail Rates – single piece rates

Parcels: Dimensions cannot exceed 1250 cm.

Letters: 30 cm long, 16 cm wide, 1 cm thick, maximum weight 360 grams. (Any item larger than this must be sent as a parcel).

I want to send two items through the post using first class mail. One is 50 cm long, 25 cm wide, 10 cm thick and weighs 300 grams. The other is 20 cm long, 12 cm wide, 0.20 cm thick and weighs 110 grams.

7. How much will it cost me to send the items?
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## Explanation

The first item is too large to be sent as a letter, so must be sent as a parcel. It weighs 300g, so it costs: 1.22+ (((300-30)/30)x0.17)=1.22+((270/30)x0.17)=1.22+(9×0.17)=2.75 dollars. The second item is small enough to be sent as a letter, but (110-30)/30=2.67 (not a whole number) so we must round this up to 3 (because 0.17 dollars is charged for each additional 30g or part thereof). So the second item would cost: 0.44+(3×0.17)=0.95 dollars. So in total the cost is: 2.75+0.95=3.70 dollars

Post Comment

Below is Thomas Leslie Fuller’s brass paperweight, which shows his initials.

8. Which one of the following is not a side view of Thomas’ paperweight when it is placed flat on a table (either side up)?
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## Explanation

A is the view facing the face on bottom of the diagram given, C is the top face, D is the right face and E is the bottom face again (as the weight can be either side up). So B is not a side view.

Post Comment

Action should be taken to prevent the use of children as low-cost labour in poor Asian countries in industries such as electronics, garment, shoe and toy Nothing short of a ban on child labour is acceptable. Child labour is an attractive proposition for employers: children have quick fingers, good eyesight and are often more productive than adults and do not have to be paid very much. And there’s a ready supply, thanks to the number of children dropping out of education because their parents cannot afford to educate them. If children have to work they are denied their childhood and education.

9. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that child labour should be banned because it takes away children’s education and childhood. This suggests that if no child labour was enforced, then children would be educated. therefore C weakens the argument by giving a scenario in which, even with the ban of child labour, children would not be educated. A and E are just additional facts and neither weaken nor strengthen the argument. B supports the third sentence in the passage. D gives a possible reason why someone may argue for child labour, but does not directly conflict with any of the points the writer has made.

Post Comment

During the Industrial Revolution, savvy entrepreneurs realised canals were a cost-effective, efficient way to move goods around the country. Gradually, however, canal carriage was replaced with other modes of transportation that were faster and In twenty-first century Britain, most businesses choose to use road haulage as a means of transportation. With the rise in fuel costs and introduction of ‘low emission’ zones, road haulage is now becoming less practical and economical. As the roads grind to a halt, it will not be long before the canals once again become the backbone of goods transportation.

10. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that because road haulage is becoming less practical and economical, canals will soon become the primary route to transport goods. For this argument to be valid, canals must be the only alternative to road haulage, but E suggest the opposite and therefore highlights the flaw. The passage does not mention speed, nor convenience so A and B cannot be flaws. C and D oppose the argument that canals may be a cheaper option, but do not highlight a flaw.

Post Comment

The presence of an ethical symbol, such as ‘right’ or ‘wrong’, in a proposition adds nothing to its factual If I say to someone, ‘You acted wrongly in stealing that money’, I am not stating anything more than if I had simply said, ‘You stole that money’. In adding that this action is wrong I am not making any further statement about it. I am simply evincing moral disapproval. It is as if I had said, ‘You stole that money’ in a tone of horror, or written it with exclamation marks after it. The tone, or exclamation mark, adds nothing to the literal meaning of the sentence. It merely serves to show that the expression is attended by certain feelings in the speaker.

11. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

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David is planning a holiday for himself and his wife. He has a budget of £2,000 but wishes to retain about £600 for spending Below is a table showing different holiday possibilities.

12. Which one of the following holiday possibilities leaves him with as near to £600 as possible?
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## Explanation

To find out which one is closest to £600, you must calculate the cost of each of the options the answers list, and subtract each individually from his budget of £2000. For A: (250×2)+(120×10)=£1700, which would leave him £300. For B: (195×2)+(42.50x2x12)=£1410, which would leave £590. For C: (40×12)+(80×12)=£1440, leaving £560. For D:(110×2)+(120×12)=£1660, leaving £340. For E: (80×2)+(180×7)=£1420, leaving £580. Therefore, option B would leave him with the nearest to £600.

Post Comment

The table below shows the energy values for the main foods used by volunteer wardens at a wild bird reserve to prepare a variety of feed mixes.

A trainee volunteer has been asked to prepare a sample of a special mix to provide exactly 5,000 calories. He has weighed out the first four ingredients but cannot read the required mass of the final ingredient because of an ink blot. This is what has been weighed out so far:

mealworms 150 g, apple 150 g, raisins 250 g, suet 125 g

13. What mass of sunflower seeds must be used to successfully complete the task?
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## Explanation

First calculate the total number of calories in what has been weighed out so far: mealworms=1.5×150=225, apple=1.5×350=525, raisans=2.5×300=750, suet=1.25×800=1000. Add these together to calculate the total number of calories without the sunflower seeds: 225+525+750+1000=2500. We want to make 5000 calories, so we need the sunflower seeds to provide another 2500 (2500+2500=5000). Each 100g of sunflower seeds gives 500 calories, so we need 2500/500= 5 lots of 100g which is 500g of sunflower seeds.

Post Comment

Sue takes her dog Freya to the She throws a stick for Freya to fetch. Freya runs to collect the stick and bring it back to Sue. While Freya is collecting the stick, Sue walks slowly towards Freya.

14. Which one of the following graphs could correctly show the distance between Sue and Freya?
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## Explanation

The distance between Sue and Freya initially increases, because Freya is moving faster than Sue, so the initially gradient of the graph must be positive, so A and C can be eliminated. Then the distance between them will decrease, as Freya runs back to Sue whilst Sue us walking towards Freya, so the gradient will then be negative, so E can be eliminated. This leaves B and D, which differ because B shows that the distance between them increases slower in the first stage than when the distance between them decreases in the second stage (as the second part of the graph is steeper/ the magnitude of the gradient is greater). Whereas, graph D shows the opposite. B is the correct answer because the distance between them will decrease faster as both Sue and Freya are moving towards each other, unlike when the distance between them is increasing (because in this stage Sue is moving towards Freya and Freya is moving away from Sue rather than both of them moving away from each other).

Post Comment

The funding of the BBC through a universal licensing system is considered by many to be outdated and There seem to be only a limited number of options for the continued funding of this public broadcasting network. Firstly, the licence fee system could continue as at present. Secondly, the BBC could raise its own revenue as a commercial company through advertising and sponsorship. Finally, the BBC could be paid for like other parts of the public sector, through general taxation.

Funding of the BBC through taxation may raise questions about the BBC’s independence from government. This independence might also be put at risk if the BBC had to operate as a commercial company. It might be unduly influenced by its advertising and sponsorship customers unless serious safeguards are put in place.

15. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

The passage argues around the funding of the BBC, as it currently uses a universal licensing system. The argument talks of how this is outdated and unfair, and how it should use commercial revenues or used public sector funding from general taxation. However the argument talks about the independence of the BBC, and how this could be brought into question if there was funding through taxation or even as a commercial company. Looking at the answer options, A is untrue as outlined in the passage, B is true, but only if funding is changed from the current method of the universal licence. D is unknown and therefore not an accurate conclusion, while E is not fully explored in the passage and therefore could not accurately be concluded from the passage. This leaves C, as the only plausible conclusion that can be drawn from the passage.

Post Comment

A palaeontologist has argued that rex could not have been a predator. He says this because few predators have small eyes (needed to see prey) small arms (needed to hold prey), and huge legs (meaning slow speed), all of which are true of T.rex and that there is no evidence for predation such as bones with T.rex teeth embedded in them. Instead, he argues, it must have been a scavenger as its skull shows it had a good sense of smell and its legs were suited for walking long distances. Other scientists disagree, pointing out that many predators do not use forelimbs in hunting and that the speed of any dinosaur is very hard to assess.

16. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the palaeontologist’s argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that the T.rex couldn’t have been a predator and therefore must have been a scavenger. For this argument to be valid, it must be assumed that both could not possible simultaneously and hence C must be the assumption.

Post Comment

There was a 17 per cent decline in public library use in the UK between 1993 and 2003 according to a report by CABE (The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment). They suggest this is not due to a lack of public interest in reading books. Rather it is the authoritarian style and image of libraries with their rules about silence and fines for late returns of books. Those few libraries that have moved away from this image such as the one in Bournemouth, which provide cafes and ‘chill-out’ zones, have seen a 40 per cent increase in library use. Therefore it is clear that the future of the function of the UK library service will be more assured if all libraries follow this lead.

17. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the above argument?
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## Explanation

Part of the argument is that library use has declined in the UK due to rules, fines, etc. but not due to lack of public interest in books. Answer A is irrelevant because the passage refers specifically to library use in the UK. Answer B does not affect the strength of the argument because it refers to the proportion of public library users, rather than the overall number. Answer D may weaken the argument by suggesting that library in order to access computers increased during this period, implying that library use for book access must have decreased (in order to compensate for the overall decrease in library use between 1993 and 2003). Answer E presents a similar stance to D. Therefore the answer must be C, which strengthens the argument because it suggests that public interest in reading books has not fallen, supporting the argument that the decline in library use was not due to a lack of public interest in books.

Post Comment

A main road crosses a side road and the junction is controlled by a set of traffic lights. The normal sequence is for the lights to be green for 25 seconds on the main road followed by 15 seconds of green for the side road. There is also a pedestrian phase in the lights when all the road lights are If a pedestrian presses a button to cross any of the roads then, after the side road lights have been green, the pedestrian lights turn green for 10 seconds. Following a pedestrian phase, the main road green period is increased to 35 seconds to clear the build-up. Whenever any of the lights change there is a two-second period when all lights are red. The time on amber is included in the green times given above.

18. What is the longest time traffic on the side road will have to wait for their lights to go green?
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## Explanation

Assume the side road lights are initially green. The pedestrian lights then turn green fro 10 seconds, followed by the main road lights for 35 seconds, which takes 45 seconds altogether before the side road lights can turn green. However, there is a 2 second period between each light change, and in this case there would be three changes (from side road green to pedestrian green, from pedestrian green to main road green and from main road green back to side road green), which would add another 2×3=6 seconds. So in total the side road would have to wait: 45+6=51 seconds.

Post Comment

Elsie has six Their birthdays are as follows:

Remarkably, in non-leap years the boys’ birthdays are on the 50th, 150th, 250th and 350th days of the year, whilst the girls’ birthdays are on the 123rd and 321st days, and all six are on different days of the week.

19. Which other grandchild’s birthday is on the same day of the week as Ryan’s in a leap year?
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## Explanation

For birthdays to be on the same day of the week, the number of days between two birthdays must be a multiple of 7. In a leap year, Ryan’s birthday will still be on the 50th day (as it is before the 29th of February). The rest of the boys’ birthdays would be on the 151st, 251st and 351st days; the girls’ birthdays would be on the 124th and 322nd days. Subtract 50 from each number day to find the difference in number of days: 151-50=101, 251-50=201, 351-50=301, 124-50=74, 322-50=272. The only difference in number of days that is a multiple of 7 is (351-50=)301. This represents Robert’s birthday (as it is the latest in the year out of the boys), so the answer is D.

Post Comment

Whenever my friend Alistair writes to me he does so entirely in code. He always uses symbols for letters but changes the code each time, so any particular symbol does not necessarily stand for the same letter of the alphabet every time.

I always start to crack the code by looking at how he has written his name at the end of his letter. For instance, last time he was:

In my last letter to him I asked him when he intends to visit me next. Today I have received a reply consisting of just one word as follows:

20. When can I assume that he intends to appear?
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## Explanation

The 4th and 8th symbols are the same, suggesting that the 4th and 8th letters of the word must be the same. The only word given that has this is ‘sometime’, therefore E is the correct answer. You may have incorrectly thought that the answer was ‘saturday’ because the downward pointing arrow represents letter ‘A’ in the example given when Alistar’s name is written, however the text states that any particular symbol does not necessarily stand for the same letter of the alphabet each time, and the 4th and 8th letters are not the same in ‘saturday’.

Post Comment

The Government are transferring the cost of a university education from the state to the This is described as a reform which will put universities’ finance on a sustainable footing with more freedom and less bureaucracy. In addition it will lead to a greater choice for students with a focus on high quality teaching. The rise in tuition fees to £9,000 per year, making the cost of a three–year degree £27,000, should not be considered as too high. After all, the cost of a Mercedes Benz B-Class Sports Model is about the same price on the road as a three-year degree. This should put the rise in tuition fees into perspective and we can conclude that the tuition fees are very reasonable.

21. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in this argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that tuition fees are reasonable, because the cost of the car model given as an example in the passage is a similar price to a 3-year degree. For this argument to be valid, the cost of the car described must be a good representation of an affordable price. However, the cost of a car is unrelated to tuition fees, so B is the flaw.

Post Comment

You probably don’t have to be a cat-lover to enjoy The Great Race – an excellent short film about a Yorkshireman who goes running with (and against) his one-eyed Now he wants to make it a full-length film, but this is a mistake. Eight minutes of feline fun is about as much as any audience can take. Cats are like babies in this respect: endlessly fascinating to their owners, enjoyable only in short bursts for everyone else.

22. Which one of the following most clearly parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The reasoning given in the example is that you will enjoy a small amount of something (the short film The Great Race) but will not enjoy lots of it (if it was made a full-length film). Only D follows the same pattern: you will enjoy seeing a few photos (a small amount of something) but not being shown them for an entire evening (lots of that something).

Post Comment

The Universities Minister faced a torrent of criticism when he suggested that students could find themselves “cut-price degrees” at the last minute as universities charging the new maximum fee of £9,000 would slash prices to fill any vacant The chair of a group of student unions attacked the proposal, saying: “If a student qualifies for a place they will pay one amount, while someone who fails but then gets an unfilled place at the end will somehow pay less.” Clearly this turns justice on its head.

23. Which one of the following best matches the principle underlying the above argument?
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## Explanation

Post Comment

A hotel offers its guests a dinner allowance of £28.50 per A guest wishes to spend up to her allowance on a three course meal without overspending.

 STARTER PRICE (£) Soup of the day 5.00 Prawn cocktail 6.50 Smoked salmon 6.10 Duck confit salad 6.95 MAIN COURSE Sirloin steak 8 ozs. 14.90 Gammon steak 12.50 Rainbow trout 16.10 Duck a l’orange 15.15 Vegetarian risotto 12.75 DESSERT Cheese and biscuits 6.10 Cheesecake 5.60 Apple pie and cream 5.30 Lemon sorbet 5.20 Profiteroles 6.20
24. What is the largest sum she can spend without exceeding the limit?
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## Explanation

Start by adding together the most expensive item from each category: 6.95+16.10+6.20=29.25 which exceeds her limit by 0.75. Try to find an item/items you could switch which would be closest to 0.75 as possible. Keep 16.10 for the main meal because the 2nd most expensive option is 0.95 less. The combination which gives the highest total below 28.50 is 6.10+16.10+6.20=28.40.

Post Comment

Chris is an actor and recently feels he has become He aims to lose at least 7.5 lbs over the next 10 weeks. He decides he is able to walk the following number of miles over each of the next ten weeks:

Mondays – 5 miles

Wednesdays – 5 miles

Saturdays – 8 miles

Sundays – 8 miles

The table below shows calories burned per mile by walking at various speeds.

NB : A lb in fat equals 3500 calories

25. What is the slowest speed he needs to walk at to lose at least 7.5 lbs if he starts at 180 Ibs?
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## Explanation

Each week he walks:5+5+8+8=26 miles. If he does this for 10 weeks he will walk:26×10=260 miles. He wants to lose at least 7.5 lbs of fat, which is equivalent to 7.5×3500=26250 calories. So he would need to burn at least 26250/260=101 calories per mile. Using the column of the table headed 180lbs, the lowest number of calories burned per mile which is greater than 101 is 102 calories per mile, which can be achieved at a walking speed of 4mph.

Post Comment

The bar chart shows the amount of money in the savings accounts of three friends at the start of the year.

Since then, they have all spent the same amount of money from their accounts and the amount in Belinda’s account has halved.

26. Which one of the following pie charts could represent the amounts of money in the accounts now?
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## Explanation

Because they have all spent the same amount of money, the amount in their accounts in ascending order will remain Carol, Belinda, Arthur, so eliminate C because the section representing Carol is larger than that for Belinda. If you draw a horizontal line approximately half way up the bar chart representing Belinda, you can then slice the same amount off the other two bar charts by drawing horizontal lines through them. This will give you an idea of the relative sizes of the sections on the pie charts, which correspond to D.

Post Comment

We need to find solutions to the problem of high levels of carbon dioxide emissions. A number of solutions are being proposed but one of the most promising is that of using willow trees as a fuel for generating electricity. There are many environmental advantages in using willow. Burning wood has the environmental advantage that in doing so one releases into the atmosphere only as much carbon dioxide as the trees themselves absorbed. In addition, plantations of willows will not only support the insects on which songbirds feed, but also, being trees that thrive in wet areas, they will help to conserve our threatened wetlands. Other countries, such as Sweden, have already recognised the advantages of using willow for fuel. We should follow their example.

27. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the argument above?
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## Explanation

This passage argues about solutions to help the high levels of carbon dioxide emission. One that is spoken about in detail is the willow tree and how it not only helps reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but helps to conserve wetlands too. Other countries such as Sweden already use willow for fuel as well, recognising its use. Looking at the answer options, A is a point raised in the text, C although true, is not the main point of the text, answer option D again is true, yet it is only a point raised in the text. Answer E is again true but acts to support the main conclusion that is B. If you use the therefore test, you can distinguish between answers E and B to show that answer B is the main conclusion of the text, and E supports this.

Post Comment

Brazilian police in Bahia recently ended their strike over low pay, which lasted 12 days and saw the region’s homicide rate double. During that time, politicians accused some police officers of causing panic by encouraging looting while on strike. Now the strike has ended they have offered an amnesty against the punishment of any striking officers as long as they did not commit any crimes during the For their part, the officers have received a 6.5 per cent pay rise and have complained that they were played off against the public and ended their strike so they could properly police the Salvador carnival. The Government contest this and say their decision to stop salary payments to any officers still on strike is what made the police return to work.

28. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

This passage speaks around how Brazilian police went on strike over their pay. This caused a great deal of crime, looting and homicide. It ultimately ended with a pay rise, but ended due to the Government wishing to have the Salvador carnival properly policed, things the government denies. Looking at the answer options, A is unknown but can be assumed, therefore is not an accurate conclusion. C is true, yet not the main conclusion of the passage. D is something that can be assumed, yet it again is not the main point of the passage. E is assumed but not full reflective of what the passage says, it is more points raised than overall conclusions. Therefore, the only viable conclusion for the passage is answer option A.

Post Comment

When preparing for examinations, it is important that students do not suppress any emotional or other problems they might be having during their course of study. A good way of revealing problems is the creation of a partnership and a discussion between students, parents and This is far preferable to the problems only becoming apparent with the arrival of the results causing upset and disappointment for all concerned. Therefore, if schools and colleges create as many opportunities as possible for three-way meetings between students, parents and teachers, they will make a valuable contribution to their students’ achievements in examinations.

29. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that if there are more opportunities for meetings between parents, students and teachers, students will be able to express any problems they are having and this will lead to better achievement in exams. For this to be valid, the meetings must help students to both express and resolve these problems, when in actual fact they may be not result in a positive outcome due to opposing opinions, etc. Therefore B is the assumption.

Post Comment

David has a new cycle computer but has not learned all the functions yet, so can only read the cumulative mileage and average speed of all of the journeys since he fitted it. On his first journey using it he covered 15 km at an average speed of 30 km/h. He can work out from this that the journey took him 15/30 hours or exactly 30 minutes. After the second journey, his cumulative mileage was 24 km and overall average speed 32 km/h.

30. What was his average speed on the second journey?
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0

## Explanation

Total time= total distance/average speed= 24/32=0.75hours. Time taken in 2nd part of journey=total time- time taken in 1st part of journey= 0.75-0.5=0.25hours. Distance travelled in 2nd part of journey= total distance- distance travelled in 1st part of journey= 24-15=9km. Speed during 2nd part of journey=distance/time= 9/0.25=36km/h.

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d Medicmind Tutor

Mon, 24 Jul 2023 14:27:33

d

I have bought a combination lock for my bicycle. The combination is a three-digit number in the range 000-999 and it is currently set to the manufacturer’s default combination of 999. Before I use the lock I need to set the I want to use a combination where all three digits are different.

31. How many combinations are there in the range 000-999 where all three digits are different?
3
0

## Explanation

There are 10 different digits form 0 to 9. So for the first of the 3 digits in the code, you have 10 options. For the second digit, you have 9 options because you have already used one of the 10 original options. For the third digit you therefore have 8 options because you want the digit to be different to the previous 2. Therefore the calculation is 10x9x8=720.

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A regular octahedron is a solid composed of eight equilateral triangles, as shown in the image below:

32. Which one of the following paper shapes will fold into an octahedron?
0
0

## Explanation

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It is a strange fact that many people find violence entertaining as long as it’s fictional. Encountering a chainsaw-wielding maniac on television in one’s own home is obviously less traumatising than meeting one at the bus stop. But is it actually fun? The same is often true of reading crime novels. Take, for example, the popularity of the violent Swedish ‘Millennium Trilogy’, also now made into films. Psychologists call this enjoyment ‘the horror paradox’. However, today’s increase in violent – and frankly unpleasant – crime proves that, for a growing number of people, simply reading about or watching horror on screen is not enough ‘fun’: they need to go out to stalk and horribly kill a passer-by to get their kicks.

33. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
0
1

## Explanation

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Dianne Kate Medicmind Tutor

Thu, 17 Nov 2022 13:27:32

For future me, A is correct because of the last line, explaining that they need to GO OUT and stalk, so A weakens because most murders take place in homes amongst family. B is incorrect because it is irrelevant.

A recent peaceful demonstration against government cuts ended in violence caused by relatively small numbers of ‘anarchists’ attacking police and property. Anarchism is a political philosophy, and as a group, anarchists tend to be unable to agree among themselves on exactly what it means. But what does it tell us about these events or about those involved if we call everyone with a brick in their hand an anarchist? Given that the central idea all anarchists have in common is the abolition of the state (not necessarily by violence), ‘anarchist’ is a daft way to characterise the violent hangers-on of a demonstration protesting not for but against the shrinking of the state.

34. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the argument above?
0
4

## Explanation

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anon Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 26 Sep 2023 21:58:00

Acting on government advice, schools in England now provide only semi-skimmed milk to This assumes that all children are similarly at risk of becoming obese and ignores the benefits full-fat milk may bring to many children, including vegetarians and those who are underweight. It is another example of the Government interfering unhelpfully in the way people live their lives.

35. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

This argument talks about schools providing pupils with only semi-skimmed milk in schools, due to the risk of obesity. It speaks about how the government has adviced this, ignoring the health benefits of full-fat milk to children. It also adds that it ignores those who are underweight, and states that it believes the government are being unhelpful and interfering in the way people live their lives. Looking at the answer options, A is not true, and is something explicitly stated as untrue in the argument. B is something that is true, but only a point raised in the argument. D is not something addressed fully, but can be assumed, therefore not the main conclusion, while E, is something that we can not be sure of. The passage is agreeing that milk is beneficial, yet doesn’t say that the effect of the governments advice will be negative on health of all. On some, yes, but not all, therefore not the main conclusion. This leaves answer option C as the only possible correct conclusion.

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Lucy allowed an hour to travel to a job interview, intending to arrive exactly on time. The train which she took arrived ten minutes late by her The taxi which she then took got caught in a traffic jam for an unexpected 15 minutes and walking to the appropriate room took five minutes longer than anticipated. The clock in the interview room was running 30 minutes slower than Lucy’s watch which was running ten minutes fast.

36. According to the clock in the interview room, when did Lucy arrive?
0
2

## Explanation

Lucy’s watch was running 10 minutes fast and the train was 10 minutes late according to her watch, therefore the train actually arrived on time. There were 20 additional minutes added to Lucy’s planned 1 hour journey (15 from traffic jam and 5 minutes from walking), so the total journey time was 1hr 20mins. This means in actual time she would have arrived 20mins late, however the clock in the interview room was running 20 minutes slower than the actual time (30mins slower than Lucy’s 10mins fast watch). This means that according to the clock in the interview room, Lucy arrived on time.

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My current membership of the squash club is about to expire and so I wish to renew it. The options available to me are given in the table below and have not changed since I joined as a new member six months ago (a change in membership type counts as a renewal, not a new member).

I am currently a Gold member, but I do not want to enter competitions any more as I play only once a month. I do need a locker when I visit and the normal cost to hire a locker is £2 per visit. I want to choose a membership that will give me the smallest possible total cost for a full year.

37. What will be the difference between the amount that I will pay now and the amount I paid six months ago?
0
0

## Explanation

Six months ago, he paid for 6 months gold membership as a new member, which cost £40. This time, he pays the renewal price of £28 for a silver member for a whole year (bronze renewal for a year would cost 8+(2×12)=£32 because he would have to pay monthly for locker use). The difference between what he paid last time and what he is paying now is 40-28=£12.

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The table shows the number of children in the town of Lancester aged 11 and 16 who play various sports after school.

38. In which sport was the proportion of 11-year-old to 16-year-old children nearest to that for swimming?
0
1

## Explanation

Approximate the ratios by rounding each number to the nearest ten and then cancelling down as much as possible. Eg. for football 120:181 is roughly 120:180=12:18=2:3. The approximate ratios are as follows: swimming=2:3, footbal=2:3, cricket=12:13, hockey=5:6, tennis=4:5, squash=1:2.

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Many argue that successive government programmes to increase road safety have caused a progressive decline in the number of accidents on our roads. However, some observers have shown that the real number of accidents may be much higher than those officially recorded, with many accidents simply not being reported by They also point to the fact that, during the most recent period in which accident figures decreased, hospital admission rates for road accidents have remained fairly constant.

39. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
0
0

## Explanation

The passage states that the real number of accidents may be higher than officially recorded and that hospital admissions rates for road accidents have remained fairly constant. This suggests that the number of accidents may not have declined and that road safety may not have improved (as ‘many argue’ according to the first sentence of the passage). Therefore the argument is that this evidence does not support the idea that road safety has improved, highlighted by answer A.

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Concern has been expressed about the UK Government policy of expanding the number of university places available. It is argued that the economy does not need the number of graduates that this policy produces. However, graduate unemployment has actually decreased since the policy of expansion was implemented. This shows that the Government has wisely anticipated the employment demands of an expanding modern ‘high-tech’ economy and that the policy of increasing the supply of university places is an appropriate response.

40. Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The argument is that the government’s decision to increase the number of university places is justifiable because it meets the modern employment demands, using the fact that graduate unemployment has decreased since this policy has been implemented as evidence. However, for this argument to be valid one must assume that graduates have entered new jobs created by this increased employment demand, rather than taking jobs from others. This assumption is highlighted by answer C.

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The number of crimes carried out by girls has increased significantly. The rise in offences such as criminal damage, public disorder, robbery and minor assaults by girls under 18 are all seen as linked to a rise in alcohol So the greater availability of alcohol is contributing to rising crime levels among young girls.

41. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The argument is that the greater availability of alcohol is contributing to rising crime levels among girls. The support given is the rise in offences carried out by girls under 18yrs and a similarly correlated rise in alcohol consumption. However, it could be that the number of crimes committed is not rising, but rather more are being recognised/detected, as highlighted by B. This gives an alternative explanation for the rise in number offences noted to be carried out by girls under 18 and therefore weakens the argument.

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The table below shows the mean maximum daily temperature for Oxford for each year from 1905 to 1920 along with a moving 5-year average (the value shown beside 1920 is the average from 1916 to 1920 inclusive). Three values are missing from the table.

42. What value should be in the position marked ‘y’?
1
0

## Explanation

While the question might seem difficult at first due to the amount of data shown, it is quite straightforward if you approach it in a step by step approach. Initially we can calculate x since the 5 year moving average for the year 1913 is for the years 1909-1913 inclusive. Hence if we do 13.82×5=69.1 (in an exam setting we could easily and quickly do this without a calculator by first multiplying by 10 and then dividing by 2). Since 69.1 = 14.2+13.7+14.9+13.3+x, x=13. We can now use this to calculate y : (13.4+14.4+13.4+13.7+13)/5 =13.58. This gives us the right answer of C. Remember to scan through the question and data first to work out what you need to calculate and the quickest way to do so, as they will usually give more data than you need. In this case we do not need to calculate z so doing so would waste precious time.

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Fred is carrying out a three-year biological survey which depends on anglers sending in scale samples of fish that they catch. The survey covers five rivers and Fred has set a target for the numbers of sets of fish scales returned from each river each Unfortunately, by the end of the second year the number of scale sets returned has fallen well short of target.

The anglers who participated in the survey sent scales from all the fish they caught.

43. For which river was the average catch per angler sending in scales the highest in any one year?
0
6

## Explanation

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Allan wishes to visit a client on floor 8 of a building with 10 floors (including the ground floor). He enters the lift on the ground floor. His client has explained by email that the floors are indicated by an illuminated matrix but there is a notice stating that two of the lights are not working.

Allan enters the lift and pushes the button. Just then he starts to sneeze, distracting his attention from the display. The lift leaves the ground floor, travels, then stops. He glances at the display and concludes he could be on floor 8 so he gets out. In fact he is on the wrong floor.

44. On how many of the floors could Allan have got out by mistake?
0
0

## Explanation

Look for the numbers that could make an 8 when 2 lights are added to them in any positions. These numbers would be 0, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 9. However, we know that the lift has left the ground floor (floor 0) so Allan could have gotten out on any of floors 2, 3, 5, 6, or 9 instead of floor 8, which means he could have got out at one of five different floors by mistake.

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Some people believe that raw food is healthier than cooked food because cooking destroys However, we should be grateful that our ancestors discovered how to cook. Researchers have found that people who stuck to a raw food diet for three years suffered from chronic energy deficiency and lost a lot of weight. Cooked food is easier to digest, so enables us to take in the necessary calories without too much expenditure of energy. Cooking also removes toxins from food, making cooked food safer. This has the result that our bodies are not very good at disposing of toxins naturally, but this is not a problem provided that our diet consists principally of cooked food.

45. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The second sentence states that we should be grateful that our ancestors discovered how to cook. Then the passage continues to give advantages of cooked food (safer, easier to digest, etc.). These, and the remainder of the passage, provide support for the statement given in the second sentence, which suggests that it is the main conclusion.

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The level of light pollution must be low in order to be able to observe the moon, planets and My house is in the darkness of the countryside so stargazing will always be possible from my back garden.

46. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The reasoning given in the argument is that X is necessary (low level of light pollution) for Y (to observe the moon, etc.), therefore X is sufficient for Y. B parallels this when X=contact with a flu sufferer, Y=catching the flu.

Post Comment
Taiwo Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 30 Aug 2023 08:59:03

Why not E?

Although boxing is unacceptable, other risky sports are When people get injured or killed in horse sports, motor sports or while climbing, yachting or skydiving it is because things have gone horribly wrong. When people get killed in boxing it is because things have gone horribly right. The aim of any boxing match is to cause more permanent brain damage to your opponent than you yourself sustain.

47. Which one of the following best illustrates the principle underlying the argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The argument is that boxing is unacceptable because its purpose it to cause harm to the opponent, whereas other sports are acceptable because any harm caused would be accidental. Answer D uses similar style reasoning by suggesting that arson is unacceptable because the damage caused by the fire would be intentional, wheres bonfire parties are acceptable because any damaged caused would not have been intended.

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Amy is researching her family She has two parents and four grandparents. However, she discovers that, among her great grandparents, two sisters from one family married two brothers from another.

48. How many great-great grandparents has she?
1
0

## Explanation

The number of parents/grandparents doubles each generation – so you have 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great grandparents and 16 great-great grandparents. However in Amy’s case since two of her great grandparents are sisters and two are brothers we’d be counted their parents (Amy’s great-great grandparents twice) and therefore we need to take away two lots of parents away to avoid this. This means that Amy has 16-(2×2) = 12 great-great grandparents and the correct answer option is C

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The West Water Canoe School offers tuition in basic canoeing skills. There are 18 canoes for students to use. The school offers a minimum instructor to student ratio of 1:6 and a minimum of two instructors for any group.

Instructors are hired by the centre on a casual basis and are paid only for the time they actually work. Instructors are paid £6 per hour and are expected to use their own canoes.

The cost for students depends on the numbers in the group and the length of the session. Costs are set out in the table below.

49. What is the maximum profit the centre can make from a group after paying the instructors for a two-hour session?
0
4

## Explanation

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The cost of entry to the Victoria and David Museum is as follows:

Children £4

Senior Citizens £5

This chart shows the breakdown of yesterday’s total takings of £679 by age group.

50. Which one of the following pie charts shows the number of visitors in each age group that paid to enter the museum yesterday?
0
0

## Explanation

Divide the approximate takings for each age group by that age groups’ entry cost to calculate estimates for the number of visitors from each age group. Adults:400/7=57, children:150/4=37, seniors:150/5=30. Approximate total number of visitors=sum of approximate number of visitors from each age group=57+37+30=124. So the fractions for the pie chart would be: adults=57/124, children=37/124, seniors=30/124. Therefore on the pie chart, adults would make up less than half, children would make up slightly more than a quarter and seniors would make up slightly less than a quarter. These three conditions are only satisfied by pie chart B.

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## Instructions

Below is a summary of your answers. You can review your questions in three (3) different ways.

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## Instructions

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