This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 50 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

Heroin and cocaine are not the only illegal drugs with a terrible impact on global health. Counterfeit medicines can also do damage. Some of these fakes contain potentially toxic chemicals, and when taken to treat a disease they can kill. Others are like homeopathic remedies – while harmless in themselves, as they contain no active ingredients, they do not work as advertised. Efforts to tackle drug crime have prioritised illegal drugs and so have not dealt with crimes that are just as serious. This should now be remedied.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above passage?
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## Explanation

Answer A is incorrect because cocaine and heroin are used as a comparison point to emphasise the damage counterfeit meds can do, which supports the main conclusion (E), eliminate A. Answer B is given by the first sentence of the passage, but gives support to the overall argument so is not the main conclusion. Answer C is indicated in the fourth sentence, but is not the main focus of the passage, so eliminate C. Answer D is given in the third sentence, and forms part of the argument by providing another reason for why E should be done.

Post Comment

A public telephone has been vandalised and will take only 50 pence coins and 10 pence coins. A woman puts £8.50 into the phone to make a long-distance call with twenty-five coins. Five 10 pence coins are returned when she finishes her call.

2. What combination of coins is retained by the machine?
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## Explanation

You can form a pair of linear simultaneous equations. Let a be the number of 50ps the woman puts into the phone and let b be the number of 10ps the woman puts into the machine. 0.5a+0.1b=8.5 and a+b=25. Double the first equation and subtract this from the second equation, which gives 0.8b=8, so b=10. Substituting b=10 into the second equation gives a=25-10=15. Therefore the number of 50ps is 15 and the number of 10ps is 10. Subtract the five 10p coins the machine returns after her call to work out what the machine retains, which gives fifteen 50p coins and five 10p coins.

Post Comment

All European countries have seen a decline in the number of people who vote in elections. In the 2005 General Election in the UK only 61% of those eligible to vote did so. When this percentage is further broken down to show the number of people who voted for the political party that went on to form the government, the number is even lower. Of those who did vote, only 35% voted for the party that won power. It becomes clear, therefore, that the party voted into government did not have legitimacy, if ‘legitimacy’ is defined as the government having the support of the majority of the people.

3. Which one of the following represents a flaw in the argument above?
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## Explanation

The argument given is that because the party voted into government did not have the majority of people voting for it, it therefore did not have the support of the majority, and hence is not legitimate. This suggests that the votes reliably represent the people’s choice of party to support. However, because it is given that ‘only 61% of those eligible to vote did so’, the proportions of votes for each party may not reflect how much support they have, because not everyone who supported a party may have voted for them. This flaw is given by answer B.

Post Comment

Only John Lewis, the nationally adored and trusted UK retail group, can get away with the shamelessly sentimental marketing that they do. More than 100,000 people watched and rewatched on YouTube in the first week it was available their most popular ‘Always a Woman’ advertisement. If anyone else had dreamt it up, they would have been pilloried as sexist and outof-touch. In it, John Lewis offers a politically incorrect view of modern womanhood: pair-bonding and breeding are significant milestones, they say, not making CEO of a company. Surprisingly however, figures show that the retailer has magnificently outperformed every single rival.

4. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

Answer A is not stated not implied, so eliminate A. The writer does not suggest that the marketing was morally disgraceful, so eliminate B. Answer C is not mentioned in the passage. Answer D is an assumption, not the conclusion. Therefore E is the correct answer, because it gives the overall message of the passage.

Post Comment

In the 1920s and 1930s there were successes for extremist parties in elections across Europe. Several of these parties formed governments and were directly involved in starting the Second World War. In recent elections extremist parties were particularly successful at the expense of the more traditional parties. It is possible that this dangerous situation will get worse. Our schools must teach children about the link between extremist politics and war in order to reduce the likelihood of future wars.

5. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The overall argument is that ‘schools must teach children about the link between extremist politics and war in order to reduce the likelihood of future wars’. This implies that teaching children this will reduce the success of extremist parties, whose success could lead to wars. Therefore the answer is C.

Post Comment

William wants to cook roast beef and potatoes for himself and four friends. From his cookbook he gets the following information:

After removing from the oven, the meat should be allowed to stand for 10 minutes.

William buys a joint of the correct weight and decides to cook it medium rare in a hot oven.

6. How long after putting the beef in the oven should he put in the potatoes, so that both will be ready to serve at the same time?
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## Explanation

William is cooking for 5 people (himself and 4 friends) and is cooking the joint medium rare in a hot oven. 300g of beef per person: 300×5=1500g. From the 1st table, to cook the beef medium rare in a hot oven you need 15 min per 500g plus 15 extra min; so to cook 1500g you need (15×3)+15=60min. Working backwards from when the beef is ready to serve, he needs to put the beef in the oven: 10min(for the meat to stand)+60min=70min before he intends to serve it. Potatoes take 30min in the hot oven and do not need to stand before serving, so the potatoes need to be put in the oven 70-30=40min after putting the beef in the oven.

Post Comment

A teacher is going to award a prize to her most deserving pupil in the current school year. She has narrowed it down to five students and must make her final judgements. She won’t give the prize to anyone who has been late to her lessons more than twice. She won’t give it to anyone who has failed to complete more than two pieces of homework by the deadline set. After these criteria have been met, the prize will be awarded to the student with the fewest non-A-grade pieces of work.

7. Which student will be awarded the prize?
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## Explanation

Eliminate ‘anyone who has been late to her lessons more than twice’: eliminate Grace. Eliminate ‘ anyone who has failed to complete more than two pieces of homework by the deadline’ (work out by subtracting no. of homeworks set by homeworks completed by deadline for each student individually): eliminate Andrew. Next, calculate the number of ‘non-A-grade pieces of work’ for each of the remaining students by subtracting their number of homeworks completed by deadline by homeworks with A-grade: Carole=3, Edward=2, Ian=1. Therefore the prize will be awarded to Ian.

Post Comment

Plankton are small plants and animals present in the sea. The animal plankton feed on the plant plankton. The rate at which the plant plankton are produced depends on sea temperature and the amount of sunlight.

In tropical regions there is little variation of plankton production through the year. Variations are much bigger at temperate and polar latitudes. Plant plankton production always rises before that of animal plankton.

The following graphs show the production rates of plankton in the northern hemisphere:

In the northern hemisphere winter is in December, January and February. In the southern hemisphere it is in June, July and August.

8. Which one of the following graphs provides a good representation of plankton production in the southern polar region?
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## Explanation

The question is explicitly asking for a representation of plankton production in southern Polar Regions. Variations of plankton production throughout the year would be more easily observable and detectable on the graph since we are in a polar region. Also, since it would be summer during the duration of the months of December, January and February in the southern hemisphere, indicates there will be a sudden large increase in numbers of plant plankton. D) is the only graph that supports both criteria, therefore D) is correct.

• Option A) A is the same graph for the production in plankton in the northern tropical region so A) is not correct.

• Options B) C) and E) show the increase in plankton production in the winter months of July and August, since it is in the southern hemisphere, these months are during the seasonal winter period so these 3 graphs are also not correct.

Post Comment

A study of shooting victims in Philadelphia has found that people who carry guns are far more likely to be shot than those who are unarmed. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania looked at 677 shootings over two and a half years, taking into account various factors such as the age and socioeconomic status of those involved. The researchers concluded that armed citizens were 4.5 times more likely to get shot and 4.2 times more likely to get killed than those who were unarmed. Therefore, it is significantly safer not to carry a gun in Philadelphia.

9. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that ‘it is significantly safer not to carry a gun in Philadelphia’ because ‘armed citizens were… more likely to get shot and… more likely to get killed than those who were unarmed’. This implies that the act of carrying a gun increases a person’s risk of being shot themselves. However, if the people carrying guns are doing so to defend themselves because they are already at a higher risk of getting shot than normal, then the argument falls apart. Hence C is the answer.

Post Comment

Recurring dreams (those that you keep on having time after time) make good sense when you think of them as messages from your unconscious. Some messages are too important to send just once in case you don’t understand them first time around or don’t realise their importance. So, a recurring dream must contain a message that is worth repeating over and over.

10. Which one of the following identifies the flaw in the reasoning in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that a recurring dream must contain an important message because it is worth repeating over and over, to ensure you understand it and recognise it’s importance. Answer A is irrelevant because it does not refer to dreams or their importance; eliminate A. Answer C is also irrelevant, because the passage does not state whether or not these important recurring dreams will be consciously remembered. The argument is that recurring dreams contain messages, not all dreams, so eliminate D. Answer E is really just a poor definition of a recurring dream, so it is not a flaw. Therefore, B is the flaw, because it suggests that even if you understand a dream (ie it makes sense) it may not be true, therefore cannot have an important message.

Post Comment

Conspicuous consumption does not make us happy. Buying a flashy car sends the message: ‘I’ve got so many resources, I can afford to squander them.’ Paying more for organic foods signals another desirable trait: conscientiousness. We put too much effort into sending signals that don’t actually impress others and cause us stress. We evolved into emotionally wellbalanced individuals thousands of years ago. To be truly happy now, we should devote more time to the activities that dominated life back then: being at one with nature, being with children, or holding face-to-face conversations. We need to evaluate our lives and make sure they include many of those things we were doing 250,000 years ago.

11. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The first four sentences of the passage suggest answer A, but only forms part of the argument by suggesting that we can use our time better. The entire passage refers to the way we are acting, rather than our decisions, so eliminate B. The fourth and fifth sentences together indicate answer C, but the remainder of the passage discusses our actions rather than our emotions, hence C is only part of the argument and not the main conclusion. Answer E is not the main conclusion because you could say ‘E, therefore D’. Answer D is the main conclusion, and is emphasised in the final two sentences.

Post Comment

A market research company conducted a survey into the relative popularity of two soft drinks with the following results (all figures are percentages):

The same number of people were surveyed in each age group.

12. Which one of the following conclusions can be justifiably drawn from the results?
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## Explanation

The same numbers of people were surveyed in each age group. Comparison becomes more straightforward as we can say there were 100 people in each of the groups.

• Option A) Drink A is favoured more in comparison to Drink B for all of the age groups apart from ages 25-35. Thus A) is false

• Option B) the total number of people who preferred Drink B is 103 (20 + 31 + 33 + 19 = 103)

• The total number of people without a preference for any drink is 101 (33 + 12 + 22 + 34 = 101). This means B) is the correct answer

• Option C) 48% of people showed a preference, therefore the rest of the 52% either showed none or are unsure, hence C) has to be false

• Option D) to calculate the total number of people who showed a preference, (total for B + total for A) therefore 103 + 122 = 225. This is larger than 50% of the total number so D) is incorrect.

• Option E) The average ((19 + 19 + 12 + 23)/4 = 18.25%) that is calculated of people who did not know what they preferred is 18.25%. E) is also not correct

Post Comment

My monthly electricity bill is calculated as a standing charge plus an amount per unit used. At the beginning of one month my electricity company decided to change the tariff by reducing the standing charge and increasing the cost per unit. This was intended to help customers who use less electricity.

The table below shows my consumption and monthly charges for the whole year.

13. At the beginning of which month was the tariff changed?
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## Explanation

First you need to work out the original standing charge and an amount per unit used. You can do this by forming a pair of simultaneous equations. Let’s use June and July to do this as we know they have the same standing charge and an amount per unit. This is because used the tariff was not changed at the beginning of either of these months because they have not been given as answer options, and they are consecutive so the tariff couldn’t have been changed between these months. If you let x be the standing charge and y be the amount per unit (in £), you can form the equations: x+75y=37.50 and x+60y=30.00. Solving these, you get y=0.10 and x=30. We now need to check if these values apply for the tariff used before June, in February and April (options A and B), which they do, so eliminate answers A and B. Then check August, which does as well so can be eliminated. But September does not, as according to the standing charge and an amount per unit used for the prior months, and as 80 units were used in September, the cost would be: (80×0.10)+30=£38, but the charge in September was £36. Therefore D is the answer.

Post Comment

A survey has shown the following relationships between parental occupation, type of school and educational success at GCSE level:

14. Which one of the following can be inferred from these tables?
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## Explanation

It is essential to study the tables and truly understand what they both show/suggest. The first table represents that the children of parents who do manual labour achieve less/ aren’t as successful with their GCSE’s than those of children whose parents work in professional or managerial roles. The second table on the other hand suggests that those children in independent school achieve more than those who attend local authority schools. Although there is no solid evidence that there is a direct link with these variables, even though parental occupation/status and type of school do seem to affect studies, this is why A. and B. are not correct.

There is also no proof that one variable is supposedly more important than the other so C) also cannot be correct.

D) is not backed by any information that is provided so D. is also false.

E. is the only correct answer that can be inferred as parental occupation and type of school both affect academic/educational success in their own way.

Post Comment

Currently 56% of British school children do not study a foreign language at all at GCSE, and seven university language departments have closed in the past seven years. People with only one language feel disempowered, whereas those who speak other languages are comfortable to travel the world. Once you can speak their languages, some of the mystique of foreigners goes away and you feel less intimidated by them. Good language skills are also important in the international business world.

15. Which one of the following conclusions is best supported by the passage above?
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## Explanation

The passage starts by highlighting that the majority of British school children do not study a foreign language, then compares the advantages of being multi-lingual (being ‘comfortable to travel the world’) compared to the disadvantages of being uni-lingual (feeling ‘disempowered’). Hence A can be concluded from the text. Answer B cannot be inferred because the text mentions travel but not holidays specifically. Eliminate D because it opposes the argument given in the passage. The text does not mention the effect on language teachers, so eliminate C. Answer E cannot be concluded from the information given because we don’t know if there are anymore potential deals out there or if they could be being held back by other factors.

Post Comment

School science lessons were once the place of bangs, flashes, smells, blood and droplets of mercury on the bench. Few, if any, people ever died from these experiences. Now, the activities that once made science fun are rare – banned on health and safety grounds. It has been reported that governments are concerned about the decreasing percentage of students enrolling on science courses at universities. If they do wish to reverse this trend, they need to take steps to curtail the pervasive ‘health and safety’ culture in which we now live.

16. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that if the government wants to increase the percentage of students enrolling on university science courses, they need to reduce health and safety restrictions to make science fun at school. Here, the assumption is that making science lessons more fun will cause a higher take-up of science courses at university, which is given by answer B. Answer A is incorrect because the argument does not suggest that reducing health and safety restrictions is safe nor the morally right action to take, only that it is necessary in order to increase the uptake of science courses at university. Answer C is incorrect because the argument does not rely on the practicals being minimally dangerous. Answer D is incorrect because if there was a case in which health and safety had a positive impact on education, it would not affect the argument that reducing them will lead to greater uptake of uni science courses. By saying that the ‘activities that once made science fun’ have been banned on health and safety grounds implies that they are dangerous, but if non-dangerous science was proven to be fun, the overall argument would still be upheld.

Post Comment

In the UK, house prices have risen at far greater rates than inflation, fuelled by unprecedented levels of borrowing. Because of these high prices, owning their own home has become unaffordable for many people. Those who are able to ‘own’ their own home must do so burdened by a huge level of debt. Since the recent financial crisis can be attributed in part to those who were unable to meet the repayments on their debts, governments should attempt to tackle the problem at its root and take action to prevent a continued rise in house prices above the level of inflation.

17. Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that the government should ‘take action to prevent a continued rise in house prices’ because current prices are making owning houses unaffordable for many people and putting others in debt. Answer A strengthens the argument because it gives support for the fact that housing is continually become more unaffordable, therefore emphasising the need for the government to take action. Answer B weakens the argument by suggesting the opposite trend in house prices, indicating that the government do not need to take action. Answer C may be considered to strengthen the argument slightly, because it suggests less people can afford to borrow money, again emphasising unaffordable housing, but lending money may not help with debt anyway because the borrower would have to pay it (or more) back in the end, eliminating C. Answer D weakens the argument by suggesting there are limited pathways for the government to take when addressing this problem.

Post Comment

There are 420 candidates sitting a public exam in a college. The sports hall can accommodate 210 students; once this has been filled there are other rooms available that are much smaller. The following is a list of the number of single desks that have been set up in each room:

26, 20, 24, 28, 24, 20, 24, 16, 20, 18, 26.

The rooms have sufficient space for all the candidates who are not in the sports hall. The exams officer wants to leave the same number of empty desks in each of these rooms.

18. What procedure should the exams officer adopt to work out how many students to have in each room?
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## Explanation

Using method C: 210+26+20+24+28+24+20+24+16+20+18+26=456=the total capacity of all the rooms. 456-420=36=the number of spare seats altogether. Total number of rooms (including the sports hall)=12. 36/12=3=number of empty desks to have in each room. Subtracting 3 away from the capacity of each room then gives the number of students to have in each room.

Post Comment

Steve and Jen are getting married and would like to have their reception in a marquee. There will be 80 people attending in total and they would like to have the most expensive tables and chairs – eight people will sit at each table. The capacity for a marquee can be worked out using the industry standard of allowing 3 m² per person. Price lists from the hire company they will use are given below:

19. What is the lowest total cost of a complete marquee package plus tables and chairs for Steve and Jen’s reception?
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## Explanation

They want 8 people per table so need 10 round tables which costs: 10×6=£60. They want the most expensive (Gilt) chairs which for 80 people costs: 80×2.4=£192. They need enough room for 3msquared per person for 80 people: 3×30=240msquared in total for the size of the marquee. Therefore the only marquees large enough are the 9x27m and the 9x30m. The package for the 9x27m marquee is cheaper, so we will use this one. The total cost for the complete marquee package plus tables and chairs: 60+192+1,385=£1,637, which is D.

Post Comment

The maths sets at Newtown Comprehensive are identified by their teacher’s name. Every year the Head of Maths gives the same test to all the maths sets at the end of year 7, calculates the average mark for each set and then produces the results on a bar chart in ascending order. He is asked to present the graphs for the last five years to the Board of Governors. Unfortunately, when they were cut and pasted onto one sheet by the Clerk to the Governors, the years were missed off.

The results for last year were as follows:

20. Which one of these five graphs shows last year’s results?
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## Explanation

Ordering the sets in ascending order of their marks: 20, 36, 49, 57, 71, 82. Eliminate C and B because the smallest bar does not end on a line on the graph paper, which it should because the smallest value is 20, and each line marks an increase of 20. Eliminate D because the 3rd longest bar shows 49, which should end just before the centre of the graph paper. Eliminate A because the largest bar shows 82, which should end after a line on the graph, but it ends on the line in A instead. Therefore E must be the correct graph.

Post Comment

We need a fair policy for dealing with drivers whose ability is impaired by drugs, such as cannabis, amphetamines and cocaine. Setting limits for driving under the influence of drugs may be difficult. Tests would be necessary for the levels in the blood of each of these drugs. But, such limits may not reflect the complex interactions between drugs and their effect on driving: a driver may be severely impaired but under the limit for each individual drug. Also, setting a legal limit for the use of a substance that is illegal seems self-contradictory. So to solve the problem of drug-driving there should be a new offence of driving with any level of illegal drug in the body. This would make it much easier to catch and convict drug-drivers – the ultimate deterrent.

21. Which one of the following identifies the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The overall argument is that ‘to solve the problem of drug-driving’ it should be illegal to drive with any level of illegal drug in the body. This suggests that drug-driving is only caused by driving after taking illegal drugs. Answer C challenges this by suggesting that legal drugs could also be a culprit, hence highlighting the flaw in the argument.

Post Comment

Adding fluoride to the water supply would not, as some claim, improve dental health. If fluoride really did improve dental health, one would expect people living in areas where water is naturally fluoridated to have healthier teeth than people whose water is fluoride free. In fact, research suggests that there is no difference in dental health between the two groups.

22. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

If X(adding fluoride to water) led to Y(better dental health), then there would be greater Y where there is more X, compared to if there was no X. But this in not the case. For Answer A, X=badgers, Y=droppings

Post Comment

Inhabitants of towns and roads with odd names often complain that property values are lower and that they face embarrassment when describing where they live. People have a right to decide as a community what is in the best interests of that community and, therefore, local residents should have the right to rename their town or road if they wish.

23. Which one of the following illustrates the principle used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The principle is that ‘People have a right to decide as a community what is in the best interests of that community’, ie that people should be able to make decisions about things that are going to affect them. Answer A mirrors this by suggesting that because residents will use new school buildings, they should be the ones to decide where they will be located.

Post Comment

Nowadays many people in the UK work out their own income tax bills. Everyone has a personal allowance which is the amount of money they can earn each tax year before they start paying tax. Income above the personal allowance is taxed in bands. The UK tax bands and personal allowances for four tax years are shown below. The tax year runs from 6 April to 5 April the following year.

Mary is 52 and her husband is 58. Her only earnings each year are from a summer job. Between 6 April 2000 and 5 April 2001 she earned £5,585.

24. How much tax did she pay?
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## Explanation

Mary is married and 52yrs old so will have a personal allowance of £4385. Subtracting these from her earnings: 5585-4385=£1200. This is below £1520 (the starting rate for 2000-01), so will be taxed at 10%, which is £120, which is answer B.

Post Comment

The graph below shows the cumulative rainfall for Malvern Wells in the UK for 2010.

25. What, approximately, was the average monthly rainfall from the beginning of June to the end of September?
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## Explanation

Following the vertical line to the left of ‘Jun’ on the graph paper up to the graph gives a cumulative rainfall of approximately 170mm. Following the vertical line to the right of ‘Sep’ gives a cumulative rainfall of 400mm. To calculate the total rainfall within these 4 months: 400-170=230mm. To calculate the average monthly rainfall: 230/4=57.5mm/month which is very close to D. Using the precise reading for cumulative rainfall at the beginning of June which is 172mm, rather than the estimate of 170mm, and performing the same calculations described would give the correct answer of 57mm/month.

Post Comment

Duncan’s bath has a flat base and vertical sides. It can be filled completely from the hot tap in 15 minutes or from the cold tap in 10 minutes. Its capacity is 360 litres. When preparing a bath, Duncan’s habit is to run both taps together for 1½ minutes, before turning off the cold tap. He turns the hot tap off when the bath is ¾ full, then leaves the water for a while to cool down to a suitable temperature before he climbs in.

26. Which graph would show how the depth of water increases as Duncan prepares his bath?
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## Explanation

Post Comment

Thu, 30 Jun 2022 14:49:46

Depth: 1sqare= 90L 4 square =360L but it said 3/4 full so only A B D are correct. Time : 1square = 1.5min . It takes 7.5. mins to full the tub with only hot tap so totally 5 square so and is B

anon Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 03 Oct 2023 11:52:05

it takes 15 mins to fill the bath with hot? not 7.5

Increasing quantities of personal data are recorded and stored on computers: for example, where and when you use your mobile phone or what purchases you make in the supermarket. This poses a potential threat to our privacy. The Data Protection Act forbids the use of this information for a purpose other than that for which it was collected, apart from instances in which serious crime could be prevented or detected. We must not allow this principle to be abandoned because our liberty depends on it. Although at present there is no malign political purpose to which this information is put, we cannot be certain that this will never be the case.

27. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

Answer A is indicated by the penultimate sentence, but is not the main conclusion because A can be use to support B as the main conclusion. C is unlikely to be the main conclusion because the passage does not mention the government. D is implied by the third sentence, but is only additional information that need not be provided to form the argument so cannot be the conclusion. The first two sentences of the passage are summarised in E, but like with answer A, E can be used to support B, so E is not the conclusion.

Post Comment

An intensely irritating fashion among politicians of all parties is to use the sound bite ‘doing the right thing’ to justify whatever action they have taken or propose to take. The phrase cleverly implies that if you do not agree with the action you are an immoral person – and no-one wants to be that. Taken to its logical conclusion, all we need are politicians who have some sixth sense that tells them what ‘the right thing’ is, and, hey presto, we can trust them to act on our behalf without any need for accountability. This is nothing short of dangerous brainwashing.

28. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion of the passage above?
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## Explanation

Answer A may be inferred from the first sentence, but the passage does not indicate that ‘sound bites’ fail to provide proper explanations, so eliminate A. Answer B is not a conclusion because the text says that politicians say they are doing the right thing, but this doesn’t mean that they think this themselves (ie they could be lying). The text overall points out the negative aspects of sound bites instead of politicians justifying their actions, suggesting that C could be a conclusion. The passage compares the effect of sound bites to brainwashing, which is different to ‘alienating’, so eliminate D. Answer E cannot be concluded because the passage says that politicians are using sound bites, but does not suggest this is their choice or preference.

Post Comment

Thankfully, logicians did not devise the British Constitution. It has evolved through the work of ordinary people, who have adapted the Government of the country to meet the needs of their age. They have always preserved sufficient flexibility to permit such adaptation. And we have avoided a lot of problems because we have never been guided in anything we have done by logic. If you study the period of history from the Civil War, in the middle of the 17th century, to the accession of George I in 1714, you will see the benefits of not making the Constitution too rigid by writing it down. It proves how much there is to be said for ignoring logic and following common sense.

29. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The fourth sentence of the passage suggest that refraining from using logic has allowed us to avoid many problems. This implies that if we were to have used logic, then we would have come across problems, and also that when we use common sense would not come across problems. For this to be true, both logic and common sense cannot be followed simultaneously because they would give two different results. This assumption is stated by answer D.

Post Comment

Towards the end of a sports season in which all teams in the league play each other four times, the league positions are as follows:

Three points are awarded for a win, 1 point per draw and 0 for a loss. At the end of the season, if two teams have the same number of points, the league will be decided by the highest number of games won.

30. How many of the competing teams could win the league when all the games have been completed?
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3

## Explanation

There are 6 teams, so a given team will play 5 other teams 4 times each, so a each team will play 5×4=20 matches. Bottom Albion have played 15 matches, so have 5 left, and if they win all these they will have 15+(3×5)=30 points, which is less than East Rovers’ points, so Bottom Albion could not win the league. East Rovers could win the league as they have the most points at the moment and still have 4 games left to play, which they could win. If West Athletic won their remaining 6 games they would have 24+(6×3)=42 points, so could also win. Both North Rangers and South United have 22 points and 3 games left to play, and if either of them won their remaining games they would score: 22+(3×3)=31 points, in which case they would draw with Eastern Rovers (if Eastern Rovers lost their remaining games) and so neither North Rangers nor South United could win the league.

Post Comment

I am planning to take up a new hobby. There are a number of classes available locally, summarised in the table below:

[I do not want to have to leave home before 09:15 and I must be back by 16:15. I will choose the activity that is the cheapest per hour.]

31. What will be the price of the class I will take?
0
0

## Explanation

First eliminate the classes that would make her leave home to early or arrive too late. Eliminate the third painting session because she would have to leave at 9:10am. Eliminate dancing because she would have to leave at 9am to get to the morning session and would arrive home at 5:10pm for the afternoon session. Eliminate the first pottery session because she would have to leave at 9am. Now, calculate the price per hour of the remaining session to find the cheapest (by dividing the class price by the difference in hours between the start time and finish time) : first painting session=30/(12-10)=30/2=15, second painting session=16, second pottery session=20, first writing session=14, second writing session=16. Therefore she will take the first writing session, which costs \$35.

Post Comment

My TV remote control is shown below. All the buttons stick out from the body of the remote control.

32. When viewed from the direction of the arrow, which one of the diagrams below is not a possible view of the remote control?
1
0

## Explanation

D is not possible because the black rectangle in the bottom left corner of the remote (when viewing from the position of the arrow) would correspond to the leftmost block on diagram D. However, on diagram D this block overlaps the second block to the left in the row of blocks behind the two black blocks, whereas in the diagram of the remote the length of the bottom left black block does not extend for enough into the middle of the remote to cover the gap between the first and second blocks in the row behind.

Post Comment

Most city centres in the UK are now covered by sophisticated CCTV cameras which can record crimes being committed. Many towns and cities report a reduction in crime where cameras are installed: for example, Airdrie reported a 75% fall in crime and Kings Lynn reported a massive 90% reduction. Thus, they are a real success in controlling ‘opportunistic’ crime.

33. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The overall argument is that CCTV cameras ‘are a real success in controlling ‘opportunistic’ crime’. The writer justifies the point of view by giving an example of crime reduction in locations where cameras were installed. Answer C weakens the argument because it suggests that the CCTV cameras may not have been responsible for this reduction, but rather other factors such as ‘extra police presence’ introduced at the same/a similar time as the CCTV cameras. Therefore the argument that CCTV cameras are a success in controlling (reducing) crime may not be valid.

Post Comment

All British students should study a foreign language at school. We live in a rapidly expanding global market, where knowledge of a foreign language is essential if you want to work at the highest level. If all students studied a foreign language at school, there would be more British people at the heart of global business.

34. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
1
1

## Explanation

Post Comment
T. Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 25 Oct 2022 14:16:16

Argument is that: A foreign language is NECESSARY for a high paying job, hence if you have a foreign language than that is SUFFICNENT enough for a high paying job. Hence why it treats a NECESSARY condition as a SUFFICIENT one.

Paying bonuses of at least £1 million to high-flying stockbrokers and employees of banks cannot be justified. Such massive bonuses encourage these high-flyers to take unacceptable risks with shareholders’ assets in the pursuit of profits. Furthermore, the system discourages our brightest young talent from taking jobs in industry, where the rewards are much more modest but where there is a great need for such talent. One of the reasons why City firms (i.e. London based financial organisations) can pay such bonuses is that they charge enormous fees for assisting with takeover bids between companies. City firms often encourage companies to engage in such takeover battles but the costs for these frequently unsuccessful battles fall on to the companies and thus on to the consumer.

35. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
1
0

## Explanation

Post Comment

A film star has agreed to sign autographs for £1 each at a charity function, all day from 9 am to 6 pm.

He claims to sign his name consistently ten times every minute, but insists on having a ten-minute break after each full hour of signing.

36. How much do the organisers hope that the autographs will raise?
2
0

## Explanation

First, calculate how long he actually spends signing. He will sign 9-10am, have a break until 10:10am, then sign from 10:10 until 11:10am, then have a break until 11:20am, etc. Time spent signing: 9-10am, 10:10-11:10am, 11:20-12:20, 12:30-1:30pm, 1;40:-2:40pm, 2:50-3:50pm, 4-5pm, 5:10-6pm. This gives 7 hours and 50 minutes spent signing in total, which equals 7×60+50=470 minutes. Multiplying this by 10 (because he signs ten times per minute) gives 4700 autographs. Each is sold for £1, so the autographs are expected to raise £4,700.

Post Comment

A gardener has to apply mulch to two plots of land, measuring 10 metres by 5 metres and 15 metres by 20 metres. The mulch has to be applied to a depth of 50 mm for the first plot and 100 mm for the second plot. The mulch weighs 0.65 tonnes per cubic metre.

37. How many one-tonne bags are necessary to complete the mulching of the two plots?
0
0

## Explanation

The area needed to be covered for the first plot is 10×5=50 square metres. This has to be applied to a depth of 50 mm, so looking at the 3rd column in the table we can see that the quantity needed in cubic metres would be between 2 (for 40 square metres) and 3 (for 60 square metres). As 50 square metres is exactly halfway between 40 and 60, this must also be for the quantity of mulch needed, so we would need 2.5 cubic metres for the first plot. The area needed to be covered for the second plot is:15×20=300 square metres. This has to be applied to a depth of 100mm, the fifth column in the table. We would need 10 cubic metres of mulch to cover 100 square metres, therefore to cover 300 square metres we would need 30 cubic metres of mulch. So altogether, we need 30+2.5= 32.5 cubic metres of mulch., At 0.65 tonnes per cubic metre, this would weigh: 32.5×0.65=21.125 tonnes. As each bag weighs 1 tonne and you can’t have 0.125 of a bag, 22 tonnes would be needed.

Post Comment

I stayed in a hotel last night. My room was at the front of the building. At one point I looked out of the window and saw:

on an illuminated digital clock on the other side of the road. I took the opportunity to reset my watch, which had stopped sometime earlier.

This morning, when I looked out, I realised that what I could see across the road was a reflection in the building opposite of a clock outside the hotel. According to my watch (which I now knew I had reset incorrectly last night) the time was supposedly nine minutes past ten.

38. What did I see across the road when I looked out this morning?
3
9

## Explanation

Post Comment

Critics of homeopathic medicine argue that much of the apparent success of its remedies is due to the placebo effect (a placebo is a substance containing no medication). The remedies work because the patients believe they will work. In rebuttal, homeopaths often refer to a study involving a herd of pedigree Friesian cows. The herd was divided into two groups of 41 cows each. One group, the treatment group, was given a homeopathic remedy against mastitis, while the control group was given a placebo. The findings showed that 10 of the cows in the control group developed mastitis, while only one in the treatment group developed it.

39. Which one of the following conclusions is best supported by the passage above?
0
0

## Explanation

Answers A and B cannot be concluded because the passage only refers to a single study involving cows in which homeopathy was used, so a conclusion about homeopathy in general cannot be made. The passage only gives examples of homeopathy used on animals, but does not refer to potential use and benefit elsewhere so D cannot be concluded. The first sentence of the passage refers to critics of homeopathy, but does not imply that there are ‘a great deal’ of them, nor that their reasoning is ill-informed, therefore E is not a conclusion either. Hence C can be concluded.

Post Comment

Car owners must have insurance in case they have an accident. Similarly, home owners have insurance in case anyone on their property is injured and claims compensation. However, insurance is not required for dog owners. Any injury caused by a dog is compensated by taking the owner to court, which is not easy. A law must be passed to make insurance compulsory for every dog owner. Any injuries would be paid for by the insurance companies, not long-suffering taxpayers.

40. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
0
1

## Explanation

The overall argument is that ‘A law must be passed to make insurance compulsory for every dog owner’ so that tax-payers would not have to pay for injuries caused by dogs, but instead by insurance companies. The argument is suggesting that making this law would prevent tax-payers paying for injuries caused by dogs. But this would only be true if dog-owners actually obey the law and get insurance for their dog. If dog-owners did not obey this law, insurance companies would not pay for the damage caused by dogs and perhaps the tax-payer would instead. Hence without assuming C, the argument would fall apart.

Post Comment

The main reason private schools thrive in Britain is that they are extremely good at getting their students into elite universities. In the UK only 7% of students attend private schools but they account for 40% of students at Oxford and Cambridge. As entry to the top universities is dependent on examination results (particularly A-level results), private school students must be achieving higher grades than those in the state sector. Higher grades are the result of good teaching, so the teaching in private schools must be better than the teaching in state schools.

41. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The argument is that ‘ the teaching in private schools must be better than the teaching in state schools’ because private schools are achieving higher grades. The evidence used to support this argument is given in the second sentence of the passage, comparing the small proportion of children that attend private schools to the relatively large proportion of Oxbridge students that are from private schools. However, if ‘A higher proportion of private school candidates take A-levels than those from the state sector’ that means that the unproportionately large percentage of Oxbridge students from private schools may be due to the fact that not many state school students take A-levels relative to private school students, rather than being due to better teaching at private schools.

Post Comment

An examination contains five questions. Candidates are instructed to answer three questions only, including at least one of the first two and no more than one of the last two.

42. How many different combinations of questions are available for a candidate to choose from?
0
0

## Explanation

If the 5 questions were numbered in order of 1-5, the 7 possible combinations would be: 123, 125,135, 235, 135, 125, 235.

Post Comment

Hester is going for a job interview. She needs to travel by railway between Birmingham and Derby, but she needs to stop off in Tamworth for an hour on the way out to see her former teacher for some coaching. When at Derby, she needs an hour and a half to go to the prospective employer to take an aptitude test. She can fix her appointments for any time in the day. Naturally, she wants to make the journey in the most efficient way so that it takes the least possible time.

This is the railway timetable:

Out:

Return:

43. Which would be the best trains to catch from Birmingham and Derby?
1
1

## Explanation

Post Comment

The die shown below is a conventional die, i.e. the total number of spots on any two opposite faces is always seven.

44. Which one of the following could not be the appearance of the die shown above after a subsequent throw?
1
3

## Explanation

If dice D is rotated so that the face with 5 dots takes the lower right position (currently occupied by the face with 6 dots), the 3 dots would not match up with those on the dice given in the question. In dice D, a dot on the face with 3 dots would occupy the upper left corner of the face, whereas in the dice given in the question the face with 3 dots would have a dot occupying the upper right corner of that face.

Post Comment

Suppose a book begins with the sentence ‘Dark clouds gathered’. Does this mean that it is going to rain, or there is going to be a war, or something else no-one had thought of? The traditional answer was: ask the author, or try to work out what the author intended it to mean. But this would not give you the answer, surprising though that may seem. Why not? Because what the words mean is what they mean to you, the reader, and to anyone else who speaks the language to which they belong. Authors can’t change what words mean by intending something different, any more than you can. What they say they mean is no more correct than anyone else’s interpretation.

45. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
0
1

## Explanation

Post Comment

If you want to get a good job then you need to write a good application letter. You didn’t get the last job that you applied for, so you can’t have written a good application letter.

46. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
1
0

## Explanation

If you want X (a good job), you need to do Y (write a good application letter). You didn’t get X, so you couldn’t have done Y. In C, X=be part of the yachting team, Y=have a certificate to slow that you can swim.

Post Comment

The credit crisis has significantly damaged pensions and pensioners. Millions of people coming up to retirement now, without a final salary pension, are at risk of poverty. It is previous government policy decisions, not just the credit crisis, that are to blame. We have had a pensions crisis building up for the last few years. One should always take responsibility for one’s mistakes. Therefore, the Government must act!

47. Which one of the following best illustrates the principle underlying the argument above?
0
0

## Explanation

The principle is that the government were previously to blame as well as the credit crisis, so they should act to fix the pension crisis. Answer A mirrors this as it says the person carrying the plates was to blame for trying to carry too many at once, so the person should act to replace the broken ones (similar to the government acting to fix the pension crisis).

Post Comment

Deliveries of containers for a fast-food takeaway are made only four times per year, at the beginning of January, April, July and October. Last year the takeaway over-ordered containers and currently has 2,000 left. The number of containers used per month varies, but is no more than 3,000 and no fewer than 1,000. The maximum number that can be delivered at one time is 6,000. The usage for last year is illustrated below.

48. Assuming the same usage this year, how many containers need to be delivered each quarter (in January, April, July and October) in order for over-ordering to be minimised?
1
0

## Explanation

First, eliminate answers B and C because 7,000 are ordered in April, and the question states that ‘the maximum number that can be delivered at one time is 6,000’. Then, calculate the total usage for each quarter last year using values from the graph in thousands: 1st quarter=2+3+1=6, 2nd=3+2+2=7, 3rd=1+1+3=5, 4th=1+2+3=6. We can only order a maximum of 6 thousand, so we must keep 1000 spare to use in the second quarter in addition to ordering 6000. So we must order 5,000 in January (+the 2,000 we have already, which will give us 1,000 spare to use in the 2nd quarter), 6,000 in April (and we can use the spare 1,000 from the previous quarter to meet the total demand of 7,000 for this quarter), 5,000 in July, 6,000 in October.

Post Comment

The table below shows the available denominations of British stamps in 2009:

49. What is the lowest amount above 55p which must be made up with at least three stamps?
0
3

## Explanation

58p can be made with 2 stamps: a 56p stamp and a 2p stamp, so eliminate A. 65p can be made with 2 stamps: a 56p stamp and a 5p stamp, so eliminate B. 68p cannot be made with less than 3 stamps, so C is the answer.

Post Comment

Four trees stand at the corners of square field X. They are photographed from field Y, from every possible direction, close up and from a distance, but never so that one tree stands in front of another.

50. In how many different orders, left to right, can the trees appear in the photographs?
1
0

## Explanation

If we imagine that we are taking the pictures as we move from right to left in field Y, we can see that in the initial pictures the order will be 1-2-4-3, followed by 1-4-2-3. Right in the middle of field Y, if pictures are taken from close up then the order will appear to be 1-4-3-2. As we continue onto the left side of the field the order will initially appear to be 4-1-3-2 and then 4-3-1-2. This means that 5 different orders are possible and the correct answer is therefore E.

Post Comment

## Instructions

Below is a summary of your answers. You can review your questions in three (3) different ways.

The buttons in the lower right-hand corner correspond to these choices:

2. Review questions that are incomplete.
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You may also click on a question number to link directly to its location in the exam.

## Instructions

This review section allows you to view the answers you made and see whether they were correct or not. Each question accessed from this screen has an 'Explain Answer' button in the top left hand side. By clicking on this you will obtain an explanation as to the correct answer.

At the bottom of this screen you can choose to 'Review All' answers, 'Review Incorrect' answers or 'Review Flagged' answers. Alternatively you can go to specific questions by opening up any of the sub-tests below.

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