This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 50 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

Fear of death prompted us to develop technology that helps people live longer. But those same technological advances have condemned us to fear of infirmity and dementia, since so many of us will live to an advanced age. So as to eliminate this new fear, once we have reached old age we should be assisted to die if we choose death over a sad decline. According to current estimates, dementia affects almost 50 per cent of people by the age of 85, and bodily infirmity is guaranteed to develop further the older we get. There is no cure for old age.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

This answer needs you to identify that euthanasia is the same as assisted death. The article talks through reasons for euthanasia in older age, therefore leading us to the conclusion that B is the correct answer.

Post Comment

There are 24 pupils in a class. They decided to help the local park by planting a total of 24 plants, a mixture of birch trees and roses. Each girl planted three roses, and every three boys planted one birch tree between them.

2. How many more boys than girls are there in the class?
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## Explanation

For this question we can start off assuming that for each girl planting 3 roses, there are 3 boys planting a tree. This gives us a ratio of 1 girl : 3 boys and 3 roses : 1 tree i.e. 4 ‘units’, and 24 (the number of trees and the number of students) is divisible by 4. If these numbers didn’t work, then in you would shift to perhaps considering other ratios such that 24 is still divisible by the number of ‘units’. However in this case, we can see that when we do 24/4 we get 6, which means (1×6) girls : (3×6) boys = 6 girls : 18 boys. We can see that these values add up to give us the right number of total students as well as plants. Now that we know that we are working with the right number of students, we can go back to the question itself and we can see that there are 18-6 = 12 more boys than there are girls so the answer is D

Post Comment

The family had to choose between planting maize or soybeans. Maize received a better market price than soybeans last year, but maize requires a much greater fertiliser input to ensure high yields. Because they could not obtain credit to purchase additional fertiliser, they planted soybeans even though the crop is likely to earn less at harvest time.

3. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

You can solve this question by eliminating all the wrong answers. Firstly, the original paragraph presents a choice between two options, one option is better, but only the other option can be achieved due to other constraints (in the paragraph, that is money). Answer A only presents 1 option, so it is false (there is no choice between 2 alternatives). Answer B, while having 2 options, does not show any constraints – the person in the answer only hopes that one will happen – it is not a good parallel. Answer C does not offer two options and is false. Answer D has a similar issue, only 1 option is presented. Answer E is correct – there are 2 options, using a bank or a hotel to exchange money. Only one option is possible due to a contraint – limited time. That option is poorer as the exchange rate is not as good, which is a perfect parallel to the original scenario.

Post Comment

The world is now producing more farmed fish than beef. In 2012, fish production reached a record 66 million tonnes; cattle-farm output levelled out at 63 million tonnes. This ought to be good news for the environment. Cattle farming is one of the biggest contributors to global warming, while fish farming – as well as being sustainable – produces little pollution. Fish such as the silver carp can be reared on existing rice paddies, and they feed on grass, plankton and detritus. Species such as salmon, however, are carnivorous and are fed on smaller fish like anchovies caught in the wild. As a result, salmon can only be farmed by further depleting wild fish stocks.

4. Which one of the following can most reliably be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

The article is talking about how fish farming is better for the environment than cattle farming, as well as going on to talk about the difference between carnivorous and non-carnivorous. Combining the two these will give you the most accurate conclusion that can be drawn as answer option D. As although fish farming is helping the environment, it would be better for it to be non-carnivorous fish, not fish like salmon, that will further deplete the wild fish stocks.

Post Comment
nills Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 16:44:05

why is not e

There is an urgent need to improve the recruitment procedures for teaching positions at universities. There have been numerous cases in which academics have failed to hire outstanding young researchers and talented lecturers. For example, a research fellow from Germany complained that his applications for lecturing jobs were rejected despite his impressive research and publication record. Another scholar from Spain, who had received the Excellence in Teaching Award, also failed to get a job. A number of similar complaints have forced the Department of Education to introduce a policy which requires universities to staff the relevant selection committees with representatives from independent human resources consultancies. This measure will improve recruitment procedures.

5. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

This question is saying “Adults ALWAYS remember the great teachers, who taught them valuable life experiences an the new exam-based system doesn’t help that.” A – It doesn’t discuss “merely” passing exams neither does it discuss “education” for life. B – This is the correct answer as From the moment you see extreme language like “always” being used, you almost certainly know that is where the flaw will be. Its rare for something to ALWAYS be true. C – The question doesn’t discuss the ambition of children, this is irrelevant. D – The extract doesn’t mention many positives for exam-based systems; this is contradictory. E – The question doesn’t talk about “satisfaction”, it is about “value”; this is irrelevant.

Post Comment
Leonardo Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 27 Aug 2023 20:33:40

Explanation of the wrong question

Jake has a 500 ml bottle of orange squash that he has made according to the instructions on the bottle of concentrate. The instructions dictate that he should add 4 parts water to 1 part concentrate. He accidentally spills his squash, and now there is only 400 ml in the bottle. He then tops up the remainder with concentrate.

6. What percentage of the squash in his 500 ml bottle is now concentrate?
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## Explanation

After spilling his drink, Jake is left with 400ml of squash, but this is still in the ratio indicated in the instructions, i.e. 4 parts water to 1 part concentrate, which gives us a total of 5 parts. 400ml/5 = 80 and as we have only 1 part concentrate, this means that we have 1×80 = 80ml of concentrate within the 400ml of squash. As he then adds a further 100ml of concentrate to top up his 500ml bottle, so we end up with 80+100= 180ml of concentrate. As a percentage of the total that is 180/500= 36%.

Post Comment

Baytree Island’s Council is concerned to retain a balance of skilled professional workers amongst the population, and monitors migrants in and migrants out on an annual basis. There is currently some concern about the trend, and the Chief Administration Officer was asked to prepare a statistical table for the next Council meeting, as shown below:

Key: P=persons, M = males, F=females

7. In which year did the island have the greatest overall loss of professionals?
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## Explanation

Such tabular questions provide much more information than you need hence it is important to first read the question clearly so that you know what parts of the table are relevant. Since we are looking for the year with the greatest overall loss of professionals, we can focus purely on the professional’s column. Further, we can see that it is split into persons, male and females and in this case, we are only concerned about the persons column. Since we are looking at the loss of workers, we only need to focus on the bottom half of the table, which is labelled ‘out’ (i.e. workers lost). Quickly skimming the values shows that the highest number of professionals lost, 68, was in the year 2015, hence the answer is C.

Post Comment
Amelie Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 17 Jul 2022 10:51:38

Surely it's overall loss so you have to consider those out and then subtract in

Most railway stations have digital clocks that display the time in 24-hour format. I recently undertook a train journey from Exeter to Aberdeen. As the train left Exeter, the clock on the platform showed:

I lost track of time as I read a book and then dozed. I eventually became aware of the train coming to rest and the guard announcing ‘Carlisle’.

I opened my eyes, and found that I could only see the top of the platform clock (because of the hoarding in the way) as follows:

8. Approximately what time was it, to the nearest hour, when the train stopped at Carlisle?
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## Explanation

This is a relatively straightforward question, all you have to do is recognise the numbers within the platform clock, having been given only the top half. Quickly running through each of the digits (remembering how they are presented on a 24-hour clock – which is particularly different for the digit 4 for example) tells you that the only possible time on the clock can be 14:57 i.e. the time is 3 o’clock to the nearest hour, so the correct answer option is C.

Post Comment

Shooting is not just positive for rural economies, but is also necessary for conservation efforts. In various peripheral rural places in Britain, sport shooting related jobs are a mainstay of local economies, often accounting for as much as a third of the labour market. However, since humans disturbed the ecosystem by eradicating the top predators, destroying habitats and introducing non-native species, we are also now responsible for reducing further damage – conserving – by continuous management. This means shooting overpopulated species to minimise the risks of disease and starvation, and dominant foreign species in order to conserve weaker native ones. Additionally, the management of the environment for the purposes of sport shooting can have very positive conservation effects; for example, many endangered birds of prey now thrive on shooting estates.

9. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is stating that shooting is good for conservation. The best answer that could negate this is by stating that something else – reintroducing predators – is even better. That is done in statement E. Some answers have nothing to do with the actual argument (A, B, C), and answer D makes the statement even stronger, so the only way to weaken it is via E.

Post Comment

Thousands of parents have recently been prosecuted by local education authorities for taking their children out of school to go on holiday during term time. I took my daughter out of primary school for a two-week holiday every year. The headmistress made no objection and said it would give the other kids time to catch up with her! She was able to learn a foreign language and spend some rewarding time with her French pen-pal. She eventually achieved top grades at school and a degree in mathematics, so it obviously did her no harm! Parents, not governments, know best how to raise children. This law is quite unnecessary.

10. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The entire argument is based on a single example – it only has anecdotal evidence, which is a classical flaw. The author has based their opinion that parents should decide whether a child can go on a holiday or not on their own personal experience with who seems to be an exceptionally well achieving child, and this single example cannot be generalised to all other cases. The correct answer is therefore D

Post Comment

Evidence suggests that children whose parents are married tend to fare better – financially, academically and socially – than children of unmarried parents. The government is therefore proposing a tax break for married couples, whereby married couples are reimbursed by approximately £150 per person per annum. This idea is flawed for several reasons. First, it punishes those whose partners have left them and broken up the marriage. Secondly, it punishes those who, through no fault of their own, have been unable to find a partner. Thirdly, it assumes that people in unhappy relationships will persevere in their unhappy state for something like £12.50 a month. This is patently absurd. Finally, it makes the bogus assumption that maintaining a poor marriage will be better for the children than separation.

11. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The article focuses around the idea, and even states that it is flawed for several reasons, going on to expand on this. This demonstrates how that the article is focus around this point. Making answer option E, the government’s idea of giving married couples tax breaks is flawed, the main expressed conclusion of the article.

Post Comment

Below is a table showing the value of Lucy’s shares. They started at £3.00 in 2011 and in 2016 they were worth £22.68.

12. When did Lucy’s shares have the biggest percentage increase?
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## Explanation

As we are only looking for the greatest percentage increase between consecutive years, try to approximately calculate the percentage increase between two years as you go down the column and check if the next one is greater, retaining the greatest increase in mind as you go. For 2011 to 2012, we can see that there is an increase of £1.20, which is slightly less than half of £3, so it is a little less than a 50% increase. When we look at the subsequent years, 2012 to 2013 we can see that there is a 50% increase, and the same is true for the years 2013-2014, however the increase from 2014-2015 is a little more than 50%. Then there’s a 50% increase from 2015-2016, so the correct answer is D as the greatest change is between 2014-2015. Top tip: Don’t try to calculate the exact increase unless it’s necessary – for this question it is sufficient to check whether the increase is exactly 50% or slightly more or slightly less.

Post Comment

I am redecorating my house and need to buy wallpaper for one of the rooms. I need to buy 54 m of wallpaper in total and want to pay the lowest price. The table below shows the details of the five types of wallpaper I want to choose between.

13. Which type of wallpaper should I choose?
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3

## Explanation

Post Comment

The diagram below shows the method of construction of a book with four folded sheets in each block, and three blocks in total. Page one is the first page of the first block of four sheets. At the centre of each block, you can see the stitching that binds the book together.

A book is to be made using the same technique but with eight sheets of paper in each of the three blocks.

14. Which of the following pairs of pages could be in the centre of a block (that is, if opened there, the stitching would be visible)?
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## Explanation

For this question remember to use the illustration provided for your benefit. We’ve been told that for the book being made there will be 8 sheets of pages being used as opposed to the 4 in the example illustration. From this we can work out that there will be 16 pages prior to the first centre of a block. This means that pages 16 and 17 will be in the centre of the first block, with the stitches visible. This isn’t provided in the answer options, so we need to work out the pages present at the centre of block 2. For this we need to add the pages within the first block + the first half of the second block (32+16=48). Hence pages 48 and 49 are in the centre of the second block and the answer is C.

Post Comment

The award of a Nobel Prize in economics, but not in psychology, sociology or anthropology, seems to imply that economics is not a social science, but an exact one, like chemistry or physics. Underpinning this idea is the thought that the human world operates like the physical world. Economists themselves perpetuate this impression by dealing in hard quantitative data, as opposed to observation and qualitative analysis. The defining feature of the natural sciences is their consistent success in making predictions, but almost all economists failed to predict the 2008 financial crisis. The striking collapse of LTCM, a hedge fund set up by two economists who were later awarded the Nobel Prize, further underscores the limits of economics to make accurate forecasts.

15. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

The article focuses around the debate on if economics is classed as a true science or a social science. Looking through the answer options, options A,B and E are all obviously incorrect based on the text. Option D although may be an accurate conclusion you can draw from the text, the main focus of the text is around the classification of economics as a science in relation to the Nobel Prize. Therefore, this answer option can not be true. This leaves you with option C which is the only answer option that follows a conclusion of the text.

Post Comment

Mobile phone use and driving under the influence of alcohol are not the only examples of irresponsible driver behaviour. Tiredness when driving a vehicle is said to be responsible for 300 deaths per year. Astonishingly, almost half of male drivers and 22% of female drivers admit to having fallen asleep at the wheel. If we assume (and it seems reasonable to do so) that even more people are injured than killed as a result of accidents caused by tiredness, it is clear that tiredness while driving is a major road safety issue – and entirely preventable. If we wish to preserve our own lives and those of others we should not drive a car knowing that we have had insufficient sleep or rest to drive safely.

16. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

This paragraph is talking about how dangerous it is to drive when tired – it presents with great evidence for that. However, they state that accidents caused by tiredness are “entirely preventable”, which is a big claim to make as it rests on the assumption that drivers can recognise when they are too tired to drive which is not necessarily true. The correct answer is therefore B.

Post Comment

There has been a significant rise in the number of children with rickets. This has resulted from the airless, indoor world we have created for ourselves. Rickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, which is produced in response to sunlight on the skin. Where children used to play outside they mostly stay indoors immersed in virtual realities via various electronic media. Instead of long summer evenings outdoors, we close the curtains to prevent sunlight falling on our screens. The lure of technology is compounded by adult fears of the risks to children if they are left to roam free in the outside world; in any case there are fewer accessible public spaces for open air activity. Curing this will require an awful lot more than vitamin pills.

17. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
1
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## Explanation

Post Comment
Angel Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 20 Sep 2023 12:42:37

For further reference: since the passage talks about sunlight increasing the vitamin D intake option B disproves it by stating that vitamin D intake is higher in food. Therby, stating that the cause of rickets is not our indoor environment but rather our diet. Thus weakening the whole arguement

Angel Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 20 Sep 2023 12:42:37

For further reference: since the passage talks about sunlight increasing the vitamin D intake option B disproves it by stating that vitamin D intake is higher in food. Therby, stating that the cause of rickets is not our indoor environment but rather our diet. Thus weakening the whole arguement

Five girls are collecting shells on a beach. They are putting them in buckets that each hold 24 shells. At the end of the collecting time, they are going to ensure that they all have the same number of shells. Four of them are only two short of filling their bucket, but the youngest one is lagging behind with her total. Each of the others give her three shells from their buckets in order to equalise the numbers collected.

18. How many shells did the youngest girl collect for herself?
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## Explanation

Since 4 of the girls are only 2 shells short of filling their bucket, this shows that they have 22 shells each. Each of the 4 elder girls then gives 3 shells to the youngest, which means that in the end each will end up with 22-3 =19 shells. As the youngest receives 3×4 =12 shells from the other girls, this means that she was 12 shells short of 19. Hence by herself she managed to collect 19-12 = 7 shells

Post Comment

A Youth Centre runs a number of football teams for boys of different ages. Each season, one prize is awarded to the player who has given the best all-round performance. Five players have been nominated as possible recipients of this year’s prize. The manager has decided not to reward any player who has missed two consecutive training sessions more than twice, and the manager will also exclude anyone who has failed to score a goal from a penalty kick more than twice. After these criteria have been applied, the prize will go to the player who has scored the highest number of goals.

19. Which player will receive the best all-round performance prize?
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## Explanation

Tabular questions always provide more information than is required to answer the question, so make sure to read the questions clearly so that you can identify the relevant data. First, we can exclude Graham as he has missed more than 2 consecutive training sessions. Second, we can look at the difference between the two columns on the number of penalty kicks taken, and the number of penalties scoring a goal and exclude any of the remaining players that have a difference greater than 2. This means that we can exclude David and Colin. This leaves us with John and Mike, and comparing their total number of goals shows that Mike has scored the highest number, giving us the correct answer option of D.

Post Comment

The diagram below shows the net of a cube.

The following diagrams show five suggested views of the cube once it has been assembled.

20. Which two of the above are possible views of the cube?
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## Explanation

Cube questions can be hard to work through if you have difficulty visualising the nets. To make it easier to approach, start off with the nets that require the least amount of visualisation, in this case we can see that the options 3 and 4 focus on the letters A, N and D, which are right next to each other on the 2D net. Hence to work out which of the options is correct out of 3 and 4 we only need to observe the orientation of the letters on the net rather than trying to visualise what would happen when we fold the net. The orientation of the letter A is the wrong way round relative to N in option 4, so we can rule out answer options C, D and E. We can also see that cube 3 is accurate as the letters are all orientated the right way round relative to each other, and cube 2 is also correct so we can select the answer option B.

Post Comment

When mobile phones first became relatively inexpensive many parents bought them for their teenage children on the grounds that having access to a phone would keep them safe. High profile cases of abduction at the time underscored the need to improve safety for young people. But today mobile phones invariably have access to the internet, which has made young people vulnerable to stalking and cyberbullying. Since the stated case for buying teenagers mobile phones was to keep them safe, we should now restrict their access to them.

21. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

This question has a lot of jargon; what you need to take away from it: Phones kept people safe from abduction but now they don’t (as they’re used for cyberbullying) so they should be taken away. A – Cyberbullying doesn’t mean phones don’t keep people safe from abduction (valid and relevant argument). B – The extract isn’t talking about other devices (irrelevant). C – While the point here is valid the extract doesn’t mention that phones “don’t keep people from being attacked” , it mentions cyberbullying as unsafe (irrelevant). D – The extract is not talking about the “majority of teenagers” it talks about making “young people” vulnerable (irrelevant). E – the extract doesn’t mention other ways to keep children safe it is focusing on the idea of restricting access to phones as a potential safety measure; not the only safety measure (irrelevant)

Post Comment

A new supermarket scheme awards money-off vouchers to customers who spend £40 a week on their grocery shopping. As your weekly shop only costs £15, you are not eligible for vouchers.

22. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

Read the statement and grasp the main Ideas. There is a promotional offer and you miss the conditions for it so you’re not eligible for it. A – You meet the offer by bringing 2 friends (mismatch). B – You miss the offer criteria so you’re not eligible for it (match). C – You miss the criteria but are still eligible for the offer (mismatch). D – You miss the criteria but are still eligible for the offer (mismatch). E – Irrelevant (mismatch). Overall B is the best match and it’s the correct answer.

Post Comment

The plethora of house-buying and relocation programmes on television these days may well stimulate an interest in lovely properties, but they are a bad thing because at the same time they make viewers who could never afford the houses shown feel both envious and worthless.

23. Which one of the following illustrates the principle used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

Post Comment

I have a digital clock that works in 24-hour format (that is, after 23:59, it goes to 00:00). The patterns for each number are made up of segments, as shown below:

24. What is the maximum number of segments that can be displayed at once, while still showing a valid time?
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## Explanation

First check which numbers have the highest number of segments. We can see that 8 has the highest (7 segments) while 6 and 0 have the next highest (6 segments). We can then think about the possible combinations present on a clock displaying a valid time. The first number can only ever be 0, 1 or 2. From these we can see that 0 has the highest number of segments, and it also doesn’t restrict the numbers for the second number (like 2 would). For the second number we can easily select the number with the highest number of segments, 8, as it gives a valid hour. For the minutes section we can’t have 88, which would give the highest number of segments but an invalid time, nor can we have 68, but we can have 08. As a result, the time with the highest number of segments is 08:08, with 26 segments and the correct answer is D

Post Comment

The President of Bugaria is elected using the supplementary vote system, which is conducted as follows:

Voters vote for their first-choice and second-choice candidates (though a second choice is optional).

The two candidates with the most first-choice votes go through to a second stage, whilst the others are eliminated. The second-choice votes for these two from the ballot papers of the eliminated candidates are added to their first-choice votes, and the candidate with the greater total is elected President.

The table below shows a summary of the votes cast for the five candidates in last week’s Bugarian Presidential Election. For example, 37 862 voters cast their first vote for Sam and their second vote for Val.

25. Who has been elected President of Bugaria?
0
6

## Explanation

Post Comment
A Medicmind Tutor

Mon, 09 Oct 2023 18:43:40

could u guys give an actual method/explanation? thanks

G Medicmind Tutor

Mon, 16 Oct 2023 18:00:37

Got it right, but is there no way to do this faster?

A number of identical boxes are piled up, waiting to be loaded into a delivery van. Amy and Ben are about to load them into the van.

The appearance of the pile of boxes and the positions of Amy and Ben at present are shown below:

Amy’s view of the pile is:

26. Which one of the following could not be Ben’s view of the pile?
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## Explanation

The answer is E , as from Amy’s view, you can see that the second pile from the right appears 7 boxes tall. This means that at least one of the piles coloured in green must be 7 boxes tall and as a result, at least one of the two rightmost piles must be 7 boxes tall in Ben’s view. This is true in all answer options except for E, so that is the correct answer. Top Tip: For these kinds of questions, as you usually only have to figure out which of the views is not possible, make sure to start off with the piles that are easiest to work out, such as the leftmost pile from Amy’s view, as from the bird’s eye view we can tell that it’s only one pile and therefore it must be 5 boxes tall – and therefore the second pile from the left in Ben’s view must be atleast 5 boxes tall.

Post Comment

Long-term unemployment is a big problem for the UK, both for the government and for the individual. The solution is unlikely to be one the government wishes to consider: invest money in improving the skills of job centre staff. Some people argue that providing welfare benefits makes unemployed people less motivated to find work. Other people, mostly outside the government, think that not enough is done to provide the help needed to get people into work. Neither side is right. Unemployed people are all different: some really want to work and would do so if they had help; others are content to live on benefits. We have to steer away from one size-fits-all solutions and tailor the approach to the individual. But this needs much higher levels of skilled staff than job centres currently have.

27. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The main conclusion is touched on at the beginning of the text, with the rest of the text acting to support this conclusion. This is that, the solution is to invest money in improving the skills of job centre staff. This is then further discussed in the text and explored as to why this does and doesn’t’ help. The text even goes as far to emphasise this point at the end of the paragraph, making certain that the correct answer option is D. The way to reduce unemployment is to spend on skilled staff in job centres.

Post Comment

A Prime Minister has a difficult judgement to make when deciding whether to sack one of their ministers or not. Faced, for example, with a minister involved in some kind of scandal, the Prime Minister might feel they should sack them to show they stand up for integrity and high moral standards, or, on the other hand, allow them to remain in post for other reasons such as loyalty to a colleague or a belief that they are, on balance, doing a good job. Sacking ministers shows that the Prime Minister is prepared to live by principles, even if by so doing they lose valued colleagues. The electorate will judge the Prime Minister to have acted with integrity: that is an invaluable perception for anyone wishing to remain in power.

28. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

Although the article talks around both sides of the argument, the overall opinion you gain from the article is that it is in the Prime Minister’s best interests to sack colleagues, even at the expense of loosing a great colleague. This is in the interest of the party and the perception given off in order to stay in power. This overarching conclusion follows answer option A. It is clear that answer options B, C, and D are incorrect, and option E does not convey the overall conclusion of the text, therefore A is the correct answer.

Post Comment

In a survey done by a school librarian during one year, borrowing of books in the library declined by 20%. Amongst books borrowed, rates of late return or loss of books also increased by 10%. On the other hand, student use of computers in the library increased by 25%. This finding was reinforced by frequent complaints from students that there were no computers available when they needed to use them. The librarian concluded that the best response to these findings was to cut the number of books and purchase more computers. 20% of books were sold off or given away, the space given over to additional computer tables, and the library’s entire available budget given over to purchasing new computers.

29. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the librarian’s reasoning?
0
8

## Explanation

If A is correct the police don’t benefit form the re-education scheme, that’s the main idea, so A is correct. B – Effectiveness of re-education not questioned, its expense is in question. C – This supports the argument. D – Driving offences relates to main idea but not the main idea, main idea is re-education courses financial implications. E – The main argument is not about the options available instead of losing license, although that is mentioned the main idea is centred around the finances of re-education courses.

Post Comment
student Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 30 Oct 2022 18:51:26

not even answering the right question...

Recently, packets of Amblers crisps have had ‘money-off’ coupons inside them. Some coupons are worth 9p, some are worth 14p and some are worth 20p.

George has been collecting these coupons. He has more 14p coupons than 9p coupons, and more 9p coupons than 20p coupons. The total value of all of his coupons is exactly £1.50.

30. How many coupons has George collected?
0
0

## Explanation

You need at least one “20p” coupon and at least 2 “9p” coupons, adding those up we have 38p. Take that away from £1.50 we have £1.12 and divide that by 14p we have a perfect 8. 8+ 2+1 = 11 (option C)

Post Comment

Joanne is studying the period 1900–1950 and has decided to buy a new book to help with her studies. There are five different books available at her local bookshop, the details of which are summarised below:

On Tuesday, Joanne chose to buy the cheapest book that would satisfy her requirements, and went away to get the exact amount of money needed to buy it. When she returned the following day to buy her chosen book she found that there was a sale and all of the books had been reduced by 20%. She then decided instead to buy the most expensive book that she could with the money she had, and which still satisfied her requirements.

31. How much money did Joanne have left over once she had bought the book?
0
0

## Explanation

First check which books meet Joanne’s requirements. We can rule out the Beginner’s Guide to History and All About History as they don’t match her time period. The cheapest book from the remaining 3 is the History of the 20th Century, which is worth £45. That means that she now has exactly £45 pounds. We can calculate the prices of the books under the 20% off sale, starting with the most expensive of the three, History for All, which goes from a price of £60 to £48, which is too expensive. We can next check the £50 book, which reduces to £40. That is the most expensive book that is still within Joanne’s budget so that means that after buying that book she will still have £5 left, hence E is the correct answer

Post Comment

Connem Ltd. has recently adopted a new company logo.

A large plastic version of the logo has just been delivered to the office, to be attached to the outside of the building. Unfortunately, in transit, the plastic has broken into two pieces, as shown below:

32. Which one of the following could not be Connem’s new logo?
1
0

## Explanation

This question requires you to visualise the shapes provided and see which of the answer options could not be made from the two pieces. Make sure to draw on the shapes to figure out whether or not the combination is possible. From this we can see that answer options A-D are all possible and the correct answer is E.

Post Comment

The current advice from the NHS in the UK is to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. However, a recent study suggested that at least seven portions are needed to maximise health. Given that less than a third of adults in the UK, and even fewer children, currently meet the five-a-day target, there is little to be gained from changing the NHS advice to a higher number. A higher target might even be counter-productive, as evidence shows that a change in diet is best sustained when the change is made slowly and incrementally.

33. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The article talks around how new evidence has suggested to increase the current guidance on fruit and vegetable intake, however, it goes on to add that this could be counter-productive and shows the negatives of such an increase. Following this theme we can rule out answer options A,B and E, as they do not follow the conclusions we can draw from the text. Answer option D, although is plausible, it is implied and would not be the main conclusions the text is expressing. Therefore, the correct answer is C.

Post Comment

Welfare benefits create a culture of dependency and an unproductive workforce. There are people who stay on welfare benefits for years and never look for employment. Two years ago the government introduced tougher restrictions on the eligibility to receive benefits and the number of recipients has now fallen by 20%. The government should therefore toughen these restrictions even more to further reduce the number of welfare claimants.

34. Which one of the following identifies the flaw in the above argument?
0
6

## Explanation

In essence mobile phones lead to accidents ranging from motor accidents to being late . A – the article’s main point is not attention spans, B – the extract doesn’t talk say this strategy is “significant” nor “sufficient”. C – Phones can can help us with our day-to-day “cognitive” tasks so we should increase their use rather than the original argument of limiting their use (this is the best statement to represent the flaws). D – irrelevant (the use of mobile phones is not the crux of the argument). E – The article doesn’t compare risks of mobile phones for driving with the risk for cognitive failure (the argument is for phones vs. against phones not about their use explicitly).

Post Comment
anon Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 11 Oct 2023 21:03:11

this explanation is not relevant to the question?

There seems to be universal agreement on Shakespeare’s greatness, yet many of his plays lack any significant development of plot or character. An exceptional skill with language is evident in all his works and his running theme concerning the relationship between appearances and reality has appealed to audiences across times and cultures. But is this enough to confer greatness? More likely this status derives from a small number of his plays, the four great tragedies, which succeed in dramatising reflection on the depths of the human condition. It is this which touches the hearts and minds of his audience.

35. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
0
3

## Explanation

Hypocrisy “can be considered a virtue” and as a hypocrite you “still accept the moral principles you have failed to follow” hence the main matching conclusion is D. A – this is a point contributing to the main conclusion. B – This is only touched on once and again a point contributing to the main conclusion. C – this isnt even one of the points made in the passage. E – Its mentioned as a moral strength in the extract

Post Comment
Student Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 30 Oct 2022 19:00:19

a different question was answered here :/

At the start of the school year, a village shop stocks and sells a range of stationery items. The table below shows details of the wholesale costs and retail prices for a number of the items sold.

36. Of the five items sold, which two together made the most profit for the shop owner?
0
0

## Explanation

Look at the options and compare crayons and felt-tips. Crayons come out with a higher profit; compare pens and pencils, pens have a higher profit. To calculate profit it is best to multiply numbers sold in one week by the retail price per item, then deduct the cost of the items.

Post Comment

There is an automatic photograph booth in my local shopping centre. It takes exactly 2 minutes from the time that the money is inserted for the photographs to be taken, then the developed photographs appear 4 minutes later.

Money may only be inserted when the green light is on. This light goes out immediately after money is inserted, and comes back on again exactly 3 minutes later.

This morning, I arrived at the booth just as it was being switched on, and I was sixth in the queue. The first person inserted their money immediately, and the rest of us all inserted our money as soon as we were allowed to.

37. How long after I arrived at the booth did I insert my money?
0
0

## Explanation

As the first person inserts their money immediately, their picture will be taken within 2 minutes, however it will take 3 minutes from the time that the money was inserted for the green light to come back on and for the next person to insert their money. As a result, for each subsequent person in the queue you need to add 3 minutes. As you are the 6th person, that means you have to do 5×3= 15 minutes, so you can insert your money 15 minutes after the booth was switched on and the correct answer is A. It can be tempting to do 6 x 3 =18 mins however remember that the first person did not have to wait and inserted their money as soon as the booth was switched on, so it’s only the subsequent individuals that had to wait 3 minutes. Also remember that the 4 minutes to receive photographs is just an additional piece of information to distract you, as the text states that each person inserts their money as soon as they can, i.e. as soon as the green light turns back on.

Post Comment

The diagram below shows part of a map of Ruralia.

A group of students are on an expedition and must meet their teacher at Longwood, grid reference 787634. Unfortunately, they have been given a version of the map with the numbers missing from the gridlines, and the place names have been omitted too. They have a list of grid references for some places on the map, and are trying to work out which point to head for in order to be sure of meeting their teacher.

They have a set of instructions showing how the grid references work:

The grid reference of point P is 172427. Go to vertical line to the west of the point, read the number 17. Estimate how many tenths across the square the point appears at, hence 172. Go to horizontal line to the south of point P, read the number 42, estimate how many tenths up the square the point is, hence 427. This gives 172427 as the complete grid reference number.

Here is the list of the grid references / place names the students have been given.

38. Using this information to help you, which of the places marked on the map is Longwood?
0
0

## Explanation

Although this question can look quite difficult at first due to the amount of information provided, it is pretty straightforward once you understand how the grid references work. We can see some points are present at either extremes within the grid (both along the vertical and horizontal axis). Use these to label your axis. Along the horizontal axis, we can see a point at the left most extreme and scanning the grid references shows that the place with the highest number for the horizontal aspect is Lower Green, with 837654. If we label our horizontal axis accordingly, and note the fact that the grid reference for Long wood is 787634, we can see that the two points within the 78-79 square (horizontally) are W and Y. Between these, we can see that W is the correct answer as its most likely to be 787… whereas Y likely has a grid reference of 781… (which is Riverside).

Post Comment

Modern aeroplanes are for the most part ‘flown’ by autoflight computers. These computers can take over when the plane is just 30 metres off the ground, maintain whatever speed and height is tapped into the flight management system, and land the aircraft automatically. But when autoflight computers experience situations they haven’t been programmed to handle – sudden structural damage to the aircraft, or extreme weather – they can throw back responsibility to the pilot, who may become confused over the level of control they have. The confusion is made worse by flight deck computers overloading pilots with a blizzard of alerts. This is when crashes are most likely to happen.

39. Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?
0
0

## Explanation

The passage talks about how modern aeroplanes work and where errors occur and how this can cause to crashes, putting this down to both computer error and the computer overload to the pilot.

Statement B is not correct. This is because the text does not allude to how well autoflight computers can be refined.

Statement C is not correct. The text does not say it is unsafe in most situations, just that it is possible for humans to get confused by the outputs of computers.

Statement D is not correct. The text does not discuss control of computers from the ground.

Statement E is not correct. There is no discussion of entering data.

Statement A is correct. While the text does not directly say this, the implication is that it is the confusion caused when an autopilot hands control to the pilot that causes problems. It is therefore a logical conclusion that if the system was developed to the extent that pilots were not required (again, the feasibility of this is not mentioned but the statement does not lean on feasibility) then it would be safer.

Post Comment

Children spend far too long in schools analysing poems when they should simply be learning to enjoy them. Thankfully, a new approach requires that, instead of focusing on analysing technical aspects of writing such as the writer’s use of imagery or alliteration, children will be required simply to learn poems so that they can recite them by heart. This makes good sense. What is the use of learning how to analyse literature if you have no appreciation of its actual value? If they then become interested in it enough to study it at A level or at university, that can be when they learn to analyse in detail the author’s craft.

40. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The question here is basically saying: “Analysis of poems doesn’t let children appreciate poems. Children should memorise poems to enjoy and appreciate them. If interested they can then learn the literature”. A – the extract says children spend far too long on analysis and it makes them lack appreciation of the poem’s value (Invalid). B -The extract doesn’t mention memorising poems in the past or future, it just says a “new approach”; we don’t know if it has already been implemented and we don’t care since the extract only focuses on the current analysis scheme vs. the memorising being implemented (Invalid). C- “English” as a subject is not mentioned (Invalid). D – Alliteration and imagery are being analysed currently but it doesn’t say they are essential for a poem (invalid). E – Valid as it mimics what the extract is saying (valid).

Post Comment

The financial circumstances of many young people make it difficult for them to forego paid employment for an extended period in order to undertake unpaid internships or work experience placements. In many industries, it is unlikely that a young person will gain entrylevel paid employment unless he or she has held one of these temporary unpaid positions. Therefore, the current system of unpaid internships creates an unfair advantage for individuals from more affluent backgrounds.

41. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
1
0

## Explanation

In summary: “People from low socioeconomic backgrounds can’t afford to do unpaid work for a long time to gain experience so richer people gain an advantage.” A – its not about if unpaid experiences are good, its about if there affordable for an extended period (Invalid). B – where these experiences are based is irrelevant, even if it’s considers people who are less well off tend to live outside the city centre so they have to travel to access these experiences, if anything this statement supports the argument that these experiences are unaffordable (invalid). C – The argument mentions “extended periods” and this statement directly contradicts this argument and therefore weakens it (valid). D – This extract is about young people in poverty not being able to access unpaid jobs; this statement is referring to paid jobs (invalid). E – These schools could be private or public so we don’t know if its helping the poorer population (invalid).

Post Comment

In the main draw of a lottery, six of the balls (which are numbered from 1 to 49) are selected at random, then the numbers chosen are rearranged and displayed in ascending numerical order.

For instance: 3 17 20 29 34 45

In one draw recently, I noticed that the six numbers were made up of a total of ten digits, all different. The lowest number on this occasion was 1 and the highest number was 49, so the range of the six numbers was 48, the greatest possible range for the lottery main draw.

42. What is the smallest possible range when the six numbers in the main draw of the lottery have a total of ten digits, all different?
6
0

## Explanation

To get to 10 digits with only 6 draws you can draw a maximum of 2 single digit numbers. All our digits need to be different. For a small range we need a large “smallest number” and the smallest “largest number”. The largest single digit is “9” but since we need two single digits we need 8 and 9. This leaves us with 4 double digits and 8 numbers for them all to be distinct we need to have a number in 10s, 20s, 30s, 40s. So we used the numbers: 1,2,3,4,8,9 and we are left with: 0,5,6,7. The smallest “largest number we can make is 40. 40 – 8 = 32. The correct answer is E.

Post Comment
J Medicmind Tutor

Sun, 23 Oct 2022 10:27:51

You can’t get any number in 10s because 1 is already the smallest number: the digit ‘1’ is used.

PT Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 26 Oct 2022 16:07:50

9, 18, 27, 35, 36, 40 ?...

Car parking charges are shown in the table below. Brian wants to park his car for a period of 7.5 hours, whilst he is at work. He buys a ticket in the morning when he arrives at the car park. Due to the close proximity of the car park to his place of work, he is able to return to his car to buy a new ticket as many times as needed.

43. What is the most Brian can save by returning to the car to buy new tickets compared to buying one 8-hour ticket?
0
0

## Explanation

For this question we need to first figure out which of the tickets give the best value for money, i.e. the most time for the least cost. So, for 2 hours, we can see that with the £1.20 ticket, we are paying less per hour than with the 80p for 1-hour ticket. Continue down the rows and try to approximately work out the payment per hour for each. To make this calculation easier, to some extent we can just look at the increase between each row and only focus on the row with the smallest increases. As we go down the rows, we can see that with £1.70 for 3 hours we pay the least per hour (just under 60p) and the next cheapest tickets are the 2 hour £1.20 ticket and the 4 hour £2.40 ticket, as for both you are paying 60p per hour. Hence Brian will save the most with 2x 3 hour tickets followed by a 2 hour ticket. This gives us a total of 1.70+1.70+1.20 = £4.60. So, he saves 6.20-4.60 = £1.60 so C is the correct answer

Post Comment

Here is a diagram of a cube.

1                                                          2                                                       3

44. Which one of the following nets could be folded to make this cube?
1
0

## Explanation

For this question you only need to look at the cube faces with a single coloured-in triangle and consider their orientation compared to each other. We can see that the resulting cubes for nets 1,2,3 and 5 therefore do not give the same cube and the correct answer is therefore D.

Post Comment

Charities address the negative effects of market economies, which apportion goods to people based on their ability to pay as opposed to their needs. The work of charities conceals the true impact of the market system and, worse, leaves the market in place to produce further negative outcomes. Charities therefore effectively perpetuate the problems the market system creates. Since it is immoral to support a practice that perpetuates the very problems it is supposed to resolve, giving to charity cannot be morally justified. After all, if the effects of a system are morally wrong, then it is immoral to sustain that system.

45. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

The passage provides a rather one sided argument against giving to charity, exploring the options as to why this is negative on the market economy. It uses the words immoral to describe the charitable system, and also how giving to charity cannot be morally justified. Both of these extracts push you towards to correct answer of D being the best expression of the main conclusion, that giving to charity is immoral. Remember, that although you may not think giving to charity is immoral, this is the conclusion of the argument and therefore the correct answer.

Post Comment

You can only grasp the true meaning of Pushkin’s poetry if you can read it in its original Russian form. Your doctoral thesis on Pushkin’s work shows acute insight so I can tell you have a mastery of the Russian language.

46. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
1
2

## Explanation

A given even will only happen if a condition is met. You did not meet this condition so you cannot accomplish the result. << The gist of the extract. A – you meet the condition and get the result. B – Doesn’t have a condition. C – you meet the condition and get the result. D – The condition is listening to loud music and it is not met so the result (damaged ears) is not met. E – This is set in the future so you don’t know if the condition was met or not.

Post Comment

It has emerged that prisoners have helped to maintain one of Britain’s busiest railway lines. Inmates from an open prison have worked night-shifts on the main line from London to Glasgow. This is the same line where a train left the tracks earlier this year, killing one person and injuring several others. It is all very well to have offenders being rehabilitated through work, but what appears to be happening here is that rail contractors are cynically using prisoners as cheap labour. This is unacceptable, not just for safety reasons – important as they are – but because ultimately it is an infringement of workers’ rights. If these prisoners are being paid less, or treated differently from regular workers, the practice must stop once and for all.

47. Which one of the following expresses the general principle that underlies the above argument?
0
0

## Explanation

Rich people should be able to use their money to their benefit is the main argument. A – rich people shouldn’t waste their money (basically the argument in reverse so valid). B – extract is not about benefit to others, about benefit to self. C – extract about benefit to self not others. D – extract is not about benefit to others, about benefit to self. E – although extract talks about benefit to family its not centered around tax.

Post Comment

A car journey begins with a 15 km drive at an average speed of 60 km /hour, then 5 hours on the motorway, including two 15-minute rest stops, travelling at an average driving speed of 80 km / hour, and finally a 20 km drive at an average speed of 40 km /hour from the motorway to the destination.

48. If the destination is reached at 12:00 midday, at what time did the journey begin?
0
0

## Explanation

First calculate the time that the journey took. First segment: 15km at 60km/hour = 15minutes. Second segments: 5 hours (note that this includes the 15-minute stops). Final segment: 20 km at 40km/hour = 30 minutes. Add all that together to get 15mins+5 hours+30 mins = 5 hours 45 mins. Hence the correct answer is D as 5 hours and 45 mins before 12 noon is 6.15 am.

Post Comment

Fiona is going to put some shelves up in her living room. The shelves must each be 1.80 m long and have a depth of at least 40cm. There will be five shelves in total. The different prices for wood are shown in the table below.

Fiona can cut pieces of wood to make more than one piece of the correct size, but she wants each of the shelves to be made of one complete piece of wood.

49. What is the cheapest total cost for which Fiona can make her shelves?
1
0

## Explanation

First, we can rule out the 30cm depth column as it’s too narrow to accommodate the depth of even 1 shelf. Although the question mentions that Fiona is happy to cut pieces from the same piece of wood, we can see that the remaining depths available, 45cm and 60cm, cannot accommodate for the depth of more than one shelf. Hence, as the prices in the 60cm depth column are all greater than the 45cm depth column, we can rule that one out. So now we are only working with the 45cm depth column. For the lengths, we can rule out 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m length wood. This leaves us with 2m, 3m and 4m, from which we can rule out the 3m length as it can only accommodate the length of 1 shelf, like the 2m wood pieces, but it costs much more. While 2 m length wood can accommodate 1 shelf, the 4m wood piece can accommodate 2 shelfs and also costs less than double the price, so it is the cheapest option. So, we can buy two of these, to make 4 shelves, but for the 5th shelf its cheapest to buy the 2m wood, giving us a total of 9.30+9.30+4.95 = \$23.55. Hence the answer is C

Post Comment

Keith likes to draw ‘bump charts’ to look at relationships. For instance, if 6 individuals were ordered by height, and it happened that the order was the same by weight, the bump chart would look like this:

Or if height was maintained for order on the left hand but lightness rather than heaviness on the right hand, the bump chart would be this:

50. If one axis is reversed in order (as in heaviness goes to lightness), which one of the following bump charts would not be symmetrical about a vertical line midway between the axes?
0
5

## Explanation

All options aside from C are anti symmetric, where the right side is the opposite of the left side. Therefore, they become symmetric about a vertical axis when one side is reversed.

Option C is already symmetric, meaning that it will become anti symmetric when one side is reversed.

Post Comment
TAIWO Medicmind Tutor

Thu, 07 Sep 2023 20:43:13

Would this not also apply to d?

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