This section is Section 1 of 3.

Speed as well as accuracy is important in this section. Work quickly, or you might not finish the paper. There are no penalties for incorrect responses, only marks for correct answers, so you should attempt all 50 questions. Each question is worth one mark.

You must complete the answers within the time limit. Calculators are NOT permitted.

Good Luck!

Note – if press “End Exam” you can access full worked solutions for all past paper questions

Like other booming cities, including New York, London has thrived amid globalisation. It is growing by 100 000 new residents a year. However, if London has given striving people plenty of reasons to come, it has done a poor job of housing them. The median price of a London home has tripled over the past two decades. Since 2001 the disposable income of people renting property has fallen by 30 per cent as a result. Businesses are worried too. Commercial property in central London is twice as expensive as in New York. Productivity has begun to slow as promising firms are forced out. Overpriced property is costing London the economic and human diversity on which its prosperity depends.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The article makes several points about property prices, yet the main overarching conclusion is the final line of the article where its details the effects of the increased property prices in causing the loss of economic and human diversity, of which prosperity depends. Hence the answer is E.

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Each region in the country of Bolandia sets its own tax rate which applies to the whole of an individual’s annual income.

Below is a table showing tax information relating to six different people.

2. Who pays the same amount of tax in a year as Tim?
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## Explanation

With tabular data, always try to read the question carefully first so that you only look at the relevant information. Here we are trying to find the individual that pays the same amount of tax as Tim. From the table we can see that Tim pays 30% of \$10,000. To save time its best to find a different way to work out the answer rather than actually calculating each person’s tax. So, in this case, as we go down the row, can see that Neil earns \$20,000 – so 2 times more than Tim. In order to pay the same amount of tax as Tim, Neil would need a tax rate that is 2 times less than Tim’s rate of 30% – so 15% but we can see that that’s not the case here. Similarly for each row, calculate how many times greater the person’s income is compared to Tim’s, and whether their tax rate decreases by the same multiplier. We can see that that’s the case for David – he earns 5 times more than Tim, but has a tax rate that is 5 times lower than Tim’s, as a result he pays the same amount of \$3000 in tax.

Post Comment

A high degree of self-discipline is one quality exhibited by all athletes who have reached the uppermost levels of competition, whatever the sport. This amount of self-discipline is in evidence long after the initial excitement of a sport has worn off, and an athlete has had to keep going through years of painful and repetitive training sessions. The example of top athletes suggests one approach to improving student behaviour and educational achievement. If more young people could begin training programmes akin to those of elite athletes, they too would develop exceptional levels of personal discipline to apply within their studies.

3. Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

This argument assumes that anyone who would pick up the training of athletes would develop high levels of self-discipline. This is a classic example of implying causation – the article assumes that athletes become self-disciplined due to their training, while it is very likely that the relationship is actually reversed: those atheletes with high levels of self discipline become a “top athlete”. Therefore, the best answer is E. Furthermore, if unsure, a technique of excluding other answers can be used here: A is false as the paragraph clearly explains why self discipline is important, while never stating that it is the sole factor in creating an elite athlete. B is not relevant as the argument does not suggest that sport is the only possible way to develop self-discipline. C is false as coaching is not a part of the argument, and is therefore irrelevant (elite coaching is not the key to self discipline according to this paragraph). D is also false as the connection between educational achievement and success in life is never mentioned in the paragraph and the argument does not rely on this.

Post Comment

Young people are becoming ever more responsible. They are less likely to take drugs or drink than past generations. Very few have serious problems with alcohol or drugs. It is people in their forties who are most likely to be admitted to hospital for drinking-related problems. The latest figures on drug addiction show that 39% of heroin addicts are now over the age of forty, up from 19% in 2006. Fewer than ever are under the age of twenty-four. The number of young adults in prison is falling, but our overcrowded prisons are increasingly home to the older generation: between 2002 and 2013, the number of middle-aged men locked up increased by 130%. The same is true of suicide rates: on both sides of the Atlantic fewer young people but more middle-aged men are killing themselves.

4. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

All facts and figures in the article state that the young are more responsible and what can be considered as social problems such as drinking and drug taking is seen more in those over the age of forty (middle-aged). This in addition to the prison population and suicide rates being higher in middle-aged people all point to answer B being the correct conclusion that can be drawn from this paragraph as the overarching theme.

Post Comment

Adults thinking back on their experience of school almost always remember with most gratitude the teachers who taught them more than just a subject, and prepared them for life, not just for an exam. But the current generation of students may not have the same experiences to look
back on in future years because the role of teachers has changed. The focus for both students and teachers is now mainly on exam results, and that is how their success or failure is measured. For teachers to share their lives with their students, offering them a model of adulthood to which to aspire, is therefore no longer considered desirable. So children today receive a less valuable education than their parents and grandparents did.

5. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The arguement in the text speaks about how previously education was more than just passing exams, it also prepared students for life, which is implied as previously being desirable, but no longer as we are now more focused on passing exams. The final line about how now education is less valuable goes to show how the articles assumption is based around this. Looking at the answer options, B, while may be true doesn’t link the text with its conclusion, C, while may be true is not addressed in the text at all. E doesn’t fit with the theme or the text, as although mentioned, it doesn’t folow the same vision of the text, While D, could be thought to be the correct answer, it doesn’t fit with the conclusion of the text, therefore it can not be the underlying assumption. This leaves answer A as the only viable option.

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Below is a greyscale image of the flag of Canada. The flag consists of two red strips on the left and the right, a white square in the middle, and a red maple leaf in the centre.

The width of the white square is twice as large as the width of a red strip. The red maple leaf occupies a quarter of the square in the middle.

6. What is the ratio of red to white in the flag?
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## Explanation

Central white square is square so 2 x 2 = 4 (arbritary units). Each white stripe is 2 (height of square) x 1 (as given). We are told the leaf is 1/4 of the central square – if area of the square is 4, then the red leaf is 1, the rest of the white is 3. So adding up: two red stripes are 2 each + 1 from flag; white is 3 units. Therefore ratio is 5:3, option D.

Post Comment

The table below shows the breakdown of marks awarded to students taking an exam.

The mark scheme is as follows: 90 = excellent; 80 = good; 70 = satisfactory; 60 = acceptable; 50 = fail. The final mark is the average between the marks given by the first and second examiners.

7. Which pair of examiners disagreed the most on the marks they awarded a student?
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## Explanation

Most of the tabular information is a distractor. All you need to work out the difference in two marks awarded for each pupil; the largest difference is the ‘most disagreed’ teachers – so in this case it is Mrs de Vere and Mr Robson, who differed by 40 marks for Hillary Gordon. This is option E.

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The bar chart shows the total numbers of tickets sold for a concert over three nights.

Premium tickets are more expensive than Standard tickets.

8. Which one of the following statements is correct?
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## Explanation

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Texting is the preferred method of communication among young people, with 72% of teenagers saying they text regularly and one in three sending more than a hundred texts per day. Unfortunately, however, very few youngsters seem able to communicate using grammatically correct sentences. They seem to think it ‘gr8’ that correct spelling is no longer considered necessary. Many local employers have complained that school-leavers have no idea how to communicate appropriately, whether face-to-face or in business letters. Many written job applications are phrased so poorly that they go straight in the bin. Mobile phones were banned in my daughter’s school last year, a move which has proved fully justified. Since then test scores in English have improved. All schools need to introduce a similar ban.

9. Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

This argument is a classic example of wrongfully assuming that a correlation means a causation. The main point of the argument is that the ban on cell phones and the increase in English score are correlated, but there is no certain way of proving that this relationship is causative. The answer is therefore B.

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While it is a woman, Ada Lovelace, who is often credited with originating the concept of software, today’s computer tech-related jobs are held mostly by men. The tech sector must continue to work against factors that inhibit gender equality within it. One such factor appears to be prejudice about women’s abilities to write computer programming code. A recent study of a program-sharing and development website analysed the rates by which suggested code changes were accepted by website users according to the gender of the user contributing the changes. In cases where the contributor’s gender was not made clear on the website, 72 per cent of the suggestions made by women were accepted. In cases where the contributor’s gender was revealed to be female, the acceptance rate fell to 63 per cent.

10. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The arguement of the passage is based around how when the female gender is revealed, changes were accepted less, as this is the main point of the arguement, weakening this would weaken the whole arguement the most. Therefore, answer option E is the best sentence to include to undermine and weaken the arguement. The other answer options, while some do contribute to weakening the argument, would have little impact on the argument if included in the passage.

Post Comment

Schools have a duty to support the well-being of their students, and sport is one way to enhance this. Although many young people don’t enjoy the competitive side of sport, there are many physical activities that don’t require a competitive element, such as hillwalking and caving. Schools should offer these, or other non-competitive physical activities, as an alternative to traditional games lessons. Many people don’t continue to play sport after they leave school, yet physical fitness is important in maintaining general health and the ability to work. Introducing alternative physical activities that are attractive for less competitive adults is therefore an important part of preparing students for life after school.

11. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

Points on many young not enjoying competitive sport, and the need to incourage people to continue playing sport after school all point to the main conclusion being that non-competitive alternatives to traditional games lesson should be offered by schools, answer option D.

Post Comment

When riding my bike in the dark, I use two rear bike lamps. Both of the lamps are in ‘flashing mode’, which means that they repeatedly emit light for a set period of time at set intervals. The reasons for using two lights are that it reduces the amount of time when neither of the lamps emit light, and that if one of the lamps stops working, other road users can still see me on the road. One of the lamps shines for one second and goes dark for one second repeatedly; the other lamp shines for two seconds and goes dark for two seconds repeatedly. I always turn both lamps on simultaneously at the start of my ride.

12. For how many seconds in each minute do neither of the lamps shine when they are in use?
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## Explanation

Lamp 1 is lit up for 1 second, then off for one second. Lamp 2 is lit up for two seconds, then off for two seconds. They are both switched on at the same time. Consider the first four seconds. If o represents on and x represents off, lamp 1 will be oxox, lamp 2 will be ooxx. Therefore in second three, they are both off. We conclude every four seconds, they are both off for 1 second. We want how many seconds this occurs in a minute: 4 x 15 = 60 so it will happen 15 times a minute, so the answer is C.

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The following table compares five selected commuting routes in different European countries with respect to the length of the journey and the monthly cost of a season ticket as a percentage of average monthly wages.

13. On average, the commuters of which route spend the lowest proportion of their wages per kilometre of the route?
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## Explanation

This question requires quick use of fractions. If we say each commuter has a monthly salary of £100, we can easily state what their montly amount spent on commuting is (eg, London-Luton would be £14, Karis-Helsinki would be £6). The question wants to know the lowest portion of wage per kilometre, so we divide each monthly amount spent by the kilometres for that commute (eg London-Luton = £14/56km). Using approximate fractions, London-Luton = 1/4, Brandenburg-Berlin ~ = 1/9, Karis-Helsinki ~ = 1/12, Uppsala-Stockholm = 1/12, Drogheda-Dublin ~ = 1/9. These are very quick rough fractions: looking closely, we can see that the lowest portion of wage will be eiher Karis-Helsinki (6/75) or Uppsala-Stockholm (6/72). Karis-Helsinki is the lower proportion, so the answer is C.

Post Comment

Peter has drawn two diagrams showing information about the two cars owned by his parents:

14. Which one of the following statements is not correct?
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## Explanation

Quickest way to approach this is to write out what each car is based on the graphs. Car 1 is older, cheaper, smaller and slower. Car 2 is newer, more expensive, bigger and faster. We are looking for the incorrect statement, which is statement B (“the cheaper car is bigger”) as car 1 is cheaper, but smaller. However if you have time it is worth checking through the other options in case you made an error from rushing.

Post Comment

Recently a pioneering natural flood management scheme slowed river peak flow by 15 to 20 per cent, saving a small town’s museum and several homes. As part of this scheme, special dams, designed to leak water gradually, were installed in nearby hills to slow the flow of water
off the slopes. An upstream flood storage reservoir was installed, along with the planting of thousands of trees and the restoration of heather moorland, which acted as a sponge. Around half of the reduction in flood water in the town was due to the upstream land management measures, and half due to the effect of the flood storage area. Natural flood management measures improve water quality, prevent erosion and, in some cases, store carbon.

15. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above passage?
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## Explanation

This article is talking about more than just reducing the risk for flooding. This is suggesting that the natural measures for flood managmenet are doing more than just reducing the flood risk. This leads you to the correct conclusion being drawn of answer option B.

Post Comment

The government is planning an increase in fuel tax later this year as part of its strategy to meet carbon emissions targets. Yet motorists and road transport companies have suffered crippling price rises of up to 30% in petrol and diesel bills in the past year because of fuel taxes. The
government has enjoyed a £505 million windfall from high oil prices in the last six months alone, with extra revenue coming from North Sea oil reserves. A further increase in fuel tax will impact on all UK households because it will eventually push up the price of shop goods and inflation. So the government must abandon its planned tax increase.

16. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above passage?
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## Explanation

To tackle assumption questions, you must first find the conclusion of the text, which in this case is the final line that the government must abandon its planned tax increase on fuel later this year. The assumption then links the points in the text to this conclusion. Looking at the answer options, B is too simplistic to be the underlying assumtion, C is unknown, as while plausible as the assumption is not made clear in the text. D is not addressed or spoken about so is unlikely to be the assumtion, and E, is more of a suggestion that assumption underpinning the passage. This leave A as the only plausible option, which fits perfectly from the points raised in the text with the conclusion.

Post Comment

Despite the recent decline in numbers of people getting married, it appears that there is still much to recommend it. Married people are happier, wealthier and live longer. Husbands and wives have a lower risk of disease and a higher life expectancy. They smoke less, drink less and eat more healthily. Those who get married and stay married have on average double the amount of wealth of those who never marry. Surveys show that they are happier than single people and less likely to experience mid-life depression. Married couples benefit from stronger networks of support, with relatives providing more care and assistance in old age and in times of need. Finding and committing to a marriage partner is a goal well worth pursuing.

17. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above reasoning?
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## Explanation

The argument in the passage speaks around many of the advantages of being married. Of all that is mentioned, wealth and money is mentioned several times during the passage, making it the easiest arguement to undermine and have the largest impact on weakening the arguement. Looking at the answer options this shows how answer E is the correct answer. The only other viable answer option that does weaken the arguement is answer option D, however, it does not weaken the arguments made in the passage as much as answer option E

Post Comment
Dianne Kate Medicmind Tutor

Thu, 17 Nov 2022 13:41:44

For my future self, D is wrong because it just stated relationship so it could be any, romantic or platonic

anon Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 10 Oct 2023 10:45:56

why is it not B?

Three friends are training to run a marathon. Part of this training involves running steadily round a track in the local park. They are all at different stages in their training schedules so they run at different speeds. Alec completes each lap in 3 minutes, Barry takes 5 minutes and Colin takes 6 minutes.

They all leave the start line at the same time.

18. If they each maintain their running speed throughout the session, how many more laps will Alec have completed compared to Barry when the three of them next cross the start line together?
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## Explanation

For this question, first calculate the time until they all cross the start line together. This will have to be the lowest common multiple of 3, 5 and 6. As any multiple of 6 is already a multiple of 3, we can ignore 3 and find the lowest common multiple of 5 and 6, which is 30. So, the three of them will cross the start line after 30 mins. Since Alec takes 3 mins per lap, he will have completed 30/3= 10 laps by that point, whereas Barry will have completed 30/5 = 6 laps. So, Alec completes 4 more laps than Barry. Top Tip – read the question carefully, as they will often have answer options meant to mislead you. Here, if you simply calculated the total laps completed by Alec, which is 10, you can see a corresponding answer option (E) is there to catch you out.

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The table below shows the amount of waste recycled each year, in thousands of tonnes, over a three-year period in 20 countries.

19. What is the biggest percentage increase in recycling in the table from year 1 to year 3?
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## Explanation

A lot of the information in the table is there to distract. We are looking for highest percentage increase between years 1 and 3, so can ignore the middle column (year 2). Quickest way to work out the % increase here is to subtract the year 1 amount from year 3 to find the difference, and then divide that by the year 1 amount. Eg, for Buranda: 80 – 60 = 20, so 20/60 = 33% approx. Scanning down the table, we are looking for large percentage increases. Carbonda is 20/20 = 100% increase, but further down is Grandia (40/20 = 200% increase) so the answer is E.

Post Comment

The see-through glass block below can be viewed from six sides, including from above and below.

20. Which one of the following is not a possible view?
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## Explanation

We are looking for the impossible view; E is not possible because the indent in the rectangle is not closed at all in the 3D shape, so there would not be a line across the rectangle as is shown in E (birds eye view from above)

Post Comment

It is universally recognised that Africa’s conservation tourism provides employment, generates wealth and educates future generations while saving endangered species. So we should champion tourism for the sake of conservation. Tourism in the Arctic is thus to be welcomed. As the Arctic ice melts, new shipping routes are opening up. It is unfair to characterise the presence of a large cruise ship in the Northwest Passage as ‘extinction tourism’ that merely indulges people who want to view endangered animals before it is too late. The tourists will return home better informed about the Arctic’s fragile ecosystem.

21. Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

Option A demonstrates the flaw. The environment and ecosystem in Africa is very different to the environment and ecosystem of the Arctic. Thus stating that conservation tourism has improved conservation in Africa and therefore should be replicated in the Arctic cannot be applied to the situation in the Arctic.

Post Comment

If the vice president did act unlawfully in this matter, he would definitely have had to resign. Since we have confirmation that he has resigned, he must have broken the law.

22. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

This argument is based on the following: if A happens then B, so if B, then A must have happened. Therefore, looking throught the answer options, A is the negative of this, so can not be the correct answer. B is two A then B so is also incorrect. C is also a negative so incorrect, as is D as it does not follow the same pattern or parallel of arguement. This leaves answer option E, as it follows the theme of if A happens then B, so as B, then A must have happened.

Post Comment

It’s common for people to agree in principle to socially useful projects such as the opening of centres for people with serious mental health problems. However, if the project is planned for the area where they live, they tend to object and suggest that alternative locations would be
preferable. While they approve of the general idea of such projects, they won’t tolerate any negative effects on their own lives. We really don’t want to go back to outdated practices of housing people with mental health problems in remote areas with no contact with the general population. So we have to accept that these projects can only work if we live near, and interact with, the people they are designed to help. Practise what you preach!

23. Which one of the following illustrates the principle used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The principle underlying the argument follows a theme of how you can not stand for something but backtrack when that then interferes with your life, finishing with the line practise what you preach, illustrating this further. Therefore, looking at the answer options, A does not fit with this arguement principle structure. C follows the same arguement principle as A and therefore is not the right answer. D again doesn’t follow this arguement principles and neither does E. This only leave option B that follows the same principle of people agreeing till it impacts on themselves and then complaining.

Post Comment

A digital display consists of seven segments which light up in different combinations to produce digits. For example, to display the digit ‘1’ the two right-hand segments light up as shown:

The display is used to show, in sequence, each of the digits 1 to 9.

24. What is the maximum and minimum number of times that any one segment lights up during this sequence?
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## Explanation

This is a little time-consuming. I would recommend sketching out the digital display. Then above/next/beside each line segment, write which numbers between 1 and 9 would light up that segment. Each, the number 8 would light all of them, or the uppermost bar would be let by 2,3,5,6,7,8,9. The lower right hand bar is let by the numbers 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 which is eight, the maximum. The minimum is the lower left bar, which is only lit by the numbers 2,6,8, so three is the minimum, and the answer is C.

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Sandi is planning a trip to the old city of Pordson. She wants to stay for four nights in order to visit all of the attractions, and one of the nights must be the Saturday so that she can attend a special music concert.

The table below shows the prices per night and details of the deals for the five main hotels in Pordson.

25. What is the minimum that Sandi will need to spend on a hotel bill for her stay in Pordson?
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## Explanation

We need to work out the cheapest cost for each hotel option. At the Grand, the cheapest option (including Saturday) will be Friday, Saturday, Monday, Sunday which will come to 170 euros as the Sunday night is free. For the Majestic, the cheapest option is to stay Friday, Saturday, Sunday Monday, with Saturday half price, which comes to 175 euros. At Palace, the cheapest option is to stay Friday, Saturday, Sunday, Monday which will come to 140 euros (half of the original total of 280 euros). At the Palms, the cheapest option is to stay Thurs, Friday, Saturday and Sunday – Friday is cheapest and so will be free, and the total cost will be 160 eyros. For Plaza, the cheapest option is to Thurs, Friday, Saturday and Sunday, with a 50 euro discount, coming to 180 euros. Therefore the minimum that can be spent is 140 euros, at Palace, so option C is correct.

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A solid cube has 6 different shapes drawn on each of its 6 faces. A plan view showing all the shapes is given below. It is placed on the path drawn below with the triangular shape facing up. The cube is rolled, one face at a time, forward along the route shown, from start position until it reaches the end position.

26. Which one of the following shapes is facing up when it reaches the end position?
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## Explanation

This question requires spatial reasoning. Importantly, rolling the cube 2ce to the right (1st step) will result in the fact opposite to the triangle facing up, which is the rectangle. When rolling the dice 2x down, one again the opposite side to the rectangle is facing up, which is the triangle. The final step is the same as the first one, 2x to the right, which again results in the rectangle facing up – the answer is therefore D. To put this differently, whenever a cube is roles 2ce (each role is one face at a time), the face now up is the one opposite to the original. This process is repeated 3 times in this question. The only additional thing is to determine which face is opposite to the triangle, which is most easily done by looking at the cube plan – the face which is 2 squares away from the triangle is the one opposite to it.

Post Comment
Pyke Medicmind Tutor

Tue, 19 Apr 2022 18:05:10

"the answer is therefore D" which I put wtf

People are quick to connect attempts to reduce the effects of climate change with the protection of the environment. However, responding to climate change is much more important for humanity than for nature. In the history of the planet, the relative stability of temperatures in the last ten thousand years is the exception rather than the norm. Nature has always found a way to adapt to large temperature variations but human civilisations, all of which have evolved in the last ten thousand years, have developed in a period with unusually reliable and predictable weather. Nature will find a way to move on, but climate change is potentially devastating for humans.

27. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The article states that nature has always found a way to adapt but human civilisations are less able to adapt to the changes as we have evolved during a stable climate with predictable weather. This is further supported by the final line of the article on how climate change could be devastating for humnas, but not nature. Therefore leading to the main conclusion being best expressed by answer option B.

Post Comment

Chiropractors rely heavily on manipulating their patients’ spines. This has benefits for some patients, but more than half of all patients suffer mild to moderate adverse effects after seeing a chiropractor. These are mostly local and referred pains that usually last for two to three days.
Chiropractors often claim that these are necessary steps on the road to getting better. However, several hundred cases have been documented in which patients were seriously and often permanently damaged after chiropractic manipulations. What usually happens in these tragic instances is that, upon manipulation of the upper spine, an artery supplying the brain is overstretched and simply breaks up, leading to a stroke that can prove fatal.

28. Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?
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## Explanation

The tone of the article, although offering a balance of arguement, is heavily shifted to Chriopractors doing harm. This would narrow your options down to either A or B. As the article does not go as far to say Chiropractic therapy should be banned, or offer such strong opinions on the matter, you can conclude that the articles conclusions would be B, Chriopractic therapy may do more harm than good.

Post Comment

Drivers found to be committing offences such as speeding are now offered the choice between paying the police for a re-education course or taking the traditional penalty of paying a fine and receiving penalty points on their licence. It is no surprise that the number of motorists opting for re-education courses has tripled in five years, but the high cost of such courses has led to accusations that police forces might use the new system for their own benefit. They could easily set up speed traps, catch a number of motorists slightly over the limit, and generate easy income for themselves. Re-education courses are a good idea in theory, but open to abuse by cash-starved police forces.

29. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The main conclusion of this passage is that re-education courses, while popular, aren’t necessarily good as they could be abused to generate revenue by cash-starved police forces. Looking at the possible assumtions, B, while is plausible, isn’t really spoken about much in the text and doesn’t link the text and conclusion. C, while could be inferred by the text, again doesn’t link the text fully with the conclusion. D is untrue based on the text, and E while is most likely true, does not underpin the conclusion from the text. This leave option A, which links the text and the conclusion together, demonstrating how this is the correct answer as to the assumption underlying this argument.

Post Comment

Alex and Sue are playing a game with a set of nine cards, numbered from 1 to 9. A 3 × 3 grid of cards is dealt onto the table. The cards for the next round have just been dealt and are as shown below.

The first player chooses two cards and scores the difference between the two numbers. The second player then chooses two cards from the seven that are left and scores the average of the two numbers. The highest score wins the round. Both players must choose cards that are
either horizontally or vertically next to each other in the grid.

For this round of the game Alex has to decide whether to play first or second. She wants to make sure that she wins the round. If she has more than one possible winning move then she wants to achieve the highest score possible.

30. What should Alex choose to do?
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## Explanation

For this question we simply need to run through the answer options and rule out any option in which Alex will lose. With answer option A, we can see that if Alec selects 1 and 8, her score will be 7. If we simply scan the remaining cards and look for cards with a value greater than 7, we can see that 9 and 7 are next to each other, so if the second player selects these, their score will be 9+7/2 =8 which is greater than Alex’s score so we can rule out A. For B Alex gets a score of 6, but the second player can get a score of 6.5 by selecting 6 and 7. For C Alec gets a score of 1 and for D a score of 2 – neither will allow her to win. Having ruled out A, B, C and D, we can see that E must be the correct option. Timing Tip – always think about the most time efficient way of approaching a question, here, trying to work out the winning move based on the cards alone will take much longer than ruling out the answer options.

Post Comment

Sat, 07 Oct 2023 22:02:53

for the arguement against A, it says choosing 9 and 7 would give the result of 8, but in the argument against D, it says it would give the result of 2??

The single ferry to Pepper Island starts each day from mainland Seatown and crosses to the island port of Kaysville. It runs back and forth from 9:30 am to 4:10 pm on Saturdays, Sundays and Bank Holidays, and from 10:30 am to 2:20 pm from Monday to Friday.

Each crossing takes 50 minutes. Between crossings, there is a 10-minute stopover for cleaning and refuelling. This is extended to 20 minutes on Saturdays, Sundays and Bank Holidays to allow for the increased cleaning requirements.

31. What is the maximum number of crossings the ferry can make in May?
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## Explanation

Post Comment
Ariana Medicmind Tutor

Thu, 29 Jun 2023 17:01:21

Can you provide the explanation please?

Constantine Medicmind Tutor

Wed, 11 Oct 2023 12:08:57

I am not sure if this is right but do we have to round numbers in this question? 4:10 pm - 9:30 am gives 400 mins, which can be divided by 70 mins because 50 mins is the travel time and 20 mins is the time for cleaning. This gives 5 and 5/7 crossings- almost 6. And then 2.20 - 10.30 gives 230 mins that we then can divide by 60 cuz 50 for crossing and 10 for cleaning, so we get 3 and 5/6 which is almost 4 crossings. If we take 6 as the number of crossings for holidays and weekends and 4 for weekdays we can have 6*10= 60 (10 is the sum of weekends and holidays) and 8*21= 84. And the sum of those gives 144. Does it mean that we have to assume that the ferry will leave the port even if it will not come back by the time it is supposed to stop running?

In March, 20 people voted for the position of chair of a committee. There were three potential candidates: Andrew, James and Roger.

In April, 11 of these people changed their votes, as follows:

3 people changed their vote from Andrew to James
2 people changed their vote from James to Roger
5 people changed their vote from Andrew to Roger
1 person changed their vote from Roger to James

32. Which one of these bar charts could not show the number of votes for the three candidates in March and April?
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## Explanation

For this question, we can’t work out the absolute numbers of votes in March or April, but given the data provided, we can calculate the differences for each candidate. For Andrew we can see that 3 change their vote from him to James and 5 to Roger so overall he loses 8 voters. Quickly scanning through the charts shows that all of them show a decrease of 8. So moving on to the next candidate – we can see than James received 3+1 = 4 more votes than before, but loses 2 to Roger, so overall there’s a difference of 2 votes. Quickly scanning through the answer options shows that there’s only an increase of 1 in answer C, so that is the correct answer as it’s the only chart that cannot be showing the correct number of votes.

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A band of rebellious traders in Wales has decided to take their whole town ‘offshore’ in protest at the insignificant amounts of UK tax paid by big businesses. An alliance of shopkeepers from the town want to use the same controversial loopholes favoured by huge multinationals such
as Google so that they too can legally avoid UK tax. The coffee giant Starbucks, for example, has been branded immoral for transferring revenues out of the UK and into the Netherlands and Switzerland, where they receive sweetened tax deals. But the shopkeepers of the town cannot have it both ways. If they believe it is immoral for Starbucks to avoid UK tax, it is immoral for them, too. They should continue to pay UK tax in full.

33. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that shopkeepers are being hypocritical by trying to obtain the same immoral tax breaks, and therefore they should pay full tax. A, however, demonstrates that the shopkeepers are protesting to pressure the government to tackle tax avoidance (which would also then impact their taxes and they would no longer avoid UK tax), rather than to gain tax breaks themselves. Therefore they are not being immoral in the way the argument argues. B is incorrect as it is not releveant to the argument, C isn’t related to morality, D and E are also not related to the morality argument. The answer is A.

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Much concern is paid to the hazards posed by people using mobile phones while operating motor vehicles. Although using a smartphone or other mobile phone behind the wheel of a car is most certainly dangerous, research is showing that very frequent usage of the phones is
harmful more generally. A study has found that individuals with relatively high levels of mobile phone usage are more likely to demonstrate cognitive failures, which can range from forgetting appointments to accidentally bumping into things in the environment. Cognitive failures are associated with the short attention spans also observed in high-frequency mobile phone users. Clearly, if people want to reduce their risk of cognitive failures, they should limit the amount of time they spend on their mobile phones.

34. Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The argument is that people with high mobile phone usage = short attention spans = cognitive failures. Option A shows the flaw in the argument as we don’t know cause and effect. Perhaps it is is original short attention spans that drive people to have a high mobile phone usage. B doesn’t demonstrate flaw as the argument doesn’t quantify the amount of reduction aimed for. C, D and E are all irrelevant to the argument.

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Nearly everyone thinks it is a bad thing to be a hypocrite, because it is profoundly dishonest to pretend to have moral standards that you do not actually have. But pretending you are better than you are is evidence that you still accept the moral principles you have failed to follow. So it is better than being shameless about your moral failings. Perceived in this way, hypocrisy can be considered to be a virtue. Being a hypocrite shows you feel a need to hide some aspect of your life because it would be too embarrassing to allow it into the open. Many hypocrites wish they were the people they pretend to be: so perhaps one day they will succeed.

35. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

Although the article starts by talking about how hypocrisy is viewed by many as a bad thing, the article does go on to say how it can be considered a virtue, and explores this in detail. Therefore the only answer that follows this conclusion would be option D.

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Nathan is making a pair of trousers for his young son. The diagram shows the pattern for one piece. Four such pieces are needed.

For simplicity he assumes that he will need a 15cm × 38 cm rectangle for each piece. The material comes in three widths with prices as shown:

Material may be bought in lengths which are exact multiples of 10 cm.

36. What is the lowest price he can pay?
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## Explanation

Nathan needs four pieces. We can assume the cheapest way will be if he buys one large piece of fabric, that he later cuts into individual rectangles. Each of the four pieces will need to be 15 x 38, so either we can picture them lined up adjacent, for a total width of 60 (15×4) and height of 30, or we can picture them lined up on top of each other, for a width of 15cm and a height of 152 cm. Using the second measurement, we can treat the height as width by rotating the fabric, and will thus be purchasing from the 160cm width category. The price per metre is £2.80, we need 20cm as our height (technically only 15, but must be purchased in multiple of ten). 20 cm is 1/5 of a metre, so 1/5 x £2.80 = 56p. Therefore our answer is B.

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Arthur plans to modernise his bathroom. His design requires a 1600 mm × 700 mm bath. He wants side grips to help him get out of the bath, and because he doesn’t want to choose the taps before ordering the bath he must have one which doesn’t have pre-drilled tap holes.

A list from the bath catalogue is shown below:

37. How much will Arthur save by choosing the cheapest steel bath that fits his requirements rather than the cheapest acrylic bath that fits his requirements?
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## Explanation

Firstly, we can eliminate options. Gamma is eliminated as it has pre-drilled holes. Dalton, Oporto and Rocco are eliminated as they do not have side grips. Balmoral, and Polar are eliminated as they are the wrong dimension. Two acrylic and two steep options are left: two acrylics are Carola and Victory, costing £130 and £149 respectively. Two steel are Europa and Sierra costing £126 and £128 respectively. Therefore purchasing Europa is £4 cheaper than Carola, the cheapest acrylic, and C is the answer.

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The Head of Year 6 is planning an end-of-term treat for her students. The pie chart represents the numbers of votes cast by the children for each of the five possible outings.

38. Which one of the following rows (A–E) could show the actual number of votes cast by the children for each of the options?
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## Explanation

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One of the greatest achievements of English grammar schools was the development and dissemination of a sophisticated system of standard punctuation for the English language. The complex rules for the use of commas conveyed a range of precise meanings, while the choice between semi-colon, colon and full stop expressed the exact, and often subtle, relationship between statements. Without this kind of attention to punctuation, there is bound to be a loss of precision in communication and in thinking. The current use of commas to join statements together, without any regard for grammar or the nature of the link between them, lacks rigour and covers up lazy thinking.

39. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion from the above?
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## Explanation

The article alludes to how correct teaching of punctuation benefited students. It does state that this was done through using grammar schools originally, however, it is important to note that the article is not suggesting that reintroducing grammar schools would solve this issue. Instead it talks of how we must pay more attention to grammer, leading us to the conclusion that answer option C must be correct over any other conclusion options (that don’t follow the main text).

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Long hours and poor pay have become commonly accepted, but they are taking a heavy toll on life at home. It is not a pretty picture: an economy where high levels of stress and anxiety are normal, where people get ill because they have lost control of their time, and where marriages are damaged and children suffer. Yet it is a situation that politicians invite us to applaud. They praise ‘strivers’ and ‘hard-working people’, not chilled-out, caring mums and dads. The longer and harder we work, the more admirable we are supposed to be. So the political slogans have clearly been effective, but the resulting glorification of work has made us miserable.

40. Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
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## Explanation

The conclusion of this argument is that political slogans are effective and leaving people miserable due to glorifying high stress and long hour jobs. Looking at the answer options, A is not addressed in the passage, as it is not mentioned if employees are satisfied or not with their salary. C again is not mentioned, although could be implied, it is not an assumption made in this argument. D, is not addressed in this passage, and E is implied but this passage is talking about more than just parenting abilities and about stress, marriage and other aspects of life. This leaves answer option B as the only possible option, which links both the passage and conclusion together, highlighting that this is the underlying assumption.

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Despite recent improvements to their training, a new study suggests that the police are as susceptible as the general public to holding false beliefs about crime and punishment. Participants in the study were questioned about their views on a number of crime-related myths such as ‘capital punishment is an effective way to deter criminal activity’ – myths, because they are unsupported by research evidence. Police were just as likely to endorse the misconceptions as the lay participants and, moreover, were more confident in their false beliefs. This is a worrying example of a ‘scientist–practitioner gap’, a term which describes a situation where professionals do not accept the evidence of research relevant to their roles. Studies have shown that training can permanently reduce the ‘scientist–practitioner gap’. Police officers need more training.

41. Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the above argument?
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## Explanation

We want to strengthen the argument. The argument is that police officers are confident in endorsing false beliefs and they do not accept evidence of research relevant to the roles. Therefore they need training to reduce this ‘science-practitioner gap’. E strengthens this argument as it explains that non-evidence based views are likely to lead to public complaints. This directly supports the argument for training to reduce the ‘science-practitioner gap’ and therefore reduce public complaints. The other options are not directly relevant to the argument: A doesn’t relate to training, as it is before they are recruited; B if anything would dispel the argument; C is irrelevant to the specific issue of policing, D is irrelevant as the argument doesn’t involve practicality.

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The drawing below shows an allotment shed.

The four outside wood surfaces of the shed, including the door, need to be painted with three coats of paint. It takes 4 minutes to paint 1 square metre.

I have two identical sheds to paint and will take just one 20-minute tea break.

42. How long will it take to paint the two sheds?
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## Explanation

First we can work out the area being painted : the front and the back add up to (2.5 x 1) + (2 x 1) = 4.5m^2 and the two sides add up to (((2+2.5)/2) x1)x2 = 4.5m^2. This gives a total area of 9m^2. As takes it 4 minutes to paint, this will take: 9×4 = 36 mins and with 3 coats: 36 x 3= 108mins. Since there are two sheds, we can double the time, giving us 216 mins, and add the 20 min tea break, giving a total of 236 mins which is equal to 3 hours 56 mins, so the correct answer is E

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A school party consisting of 4 teachers and 20 students is visiting the theatre. Of the students, 8 are aged 15 years and 12 are aged 16 years. The following table shows the entry prices to the theatre.

43. What is the least amount that the school party must pay for entry to the theatre?
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## Explanation

Do the most obvious sums first. The school party is 24 people, so would be 3 supergroups, equalling \$600. There would also be three group tickets, as there can be at least two 15 year olds in each of the three group tickets. This would be \$175 x 3 = \$525. Everyone paying individually would be \$640, and using family tickets (plus extra adults) would be \$600. So the cheapest is option A, \$525.

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Consider the following net, which forms a hexagonal prism:

44. Which one of the following nets will form an identical prism?
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## Explanation

For these kinds of net questions, try to find an easy pattern than you can look for within each net to rule out the incorrect ones. For example, here, we can observe where the top of the letter T on the hexagonal face lies. We can see that it faces a corner, so we can instantly rule out answer option B as the top of the letter T lines up with a side in option B. We can also see that the top of the letter T lies near the corner with the numbers 2 and 3 making up the sides of the prism. Scanning through the remaining nets allows us to rule out A and E, as the top of the letter T lies near the corner with the numbers 1 and 2 making up the sides instead. For D its 3 and 4 so it can also be ruled out. This gives us the correct answer option of C. If visualising this proves to be hard, it is also worth looking at the order of the numbers on the sides of the prism – this allows us to rule out D for instance, while we can rule out A and E because all the numbers are oriented sideways – so the wrong way round.

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An accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011 caused the release of radioactive material, resulting in around half a million people being evacuated from the area. These people have not been allowed to return to the area because of the health risks of exposure to radiation. But the psychological consequences of long-term evacuation may be more significant than the physical effects of radiation. People who wish to return to live in the area around Fukushima should be allowed to. Studies of a similar situation at Chernobyl showed that average life expectancy for evacuees reduced – not predominantly because of cancer caused by radiation, but because of depression, alcoholism and suicide due to the impact of permanent evacuation. There is, moreover, massive disagreement in the scientific community over how much radiation is ‘safe’.

45. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?
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## Explanation

This article, although starting with we evacuate nuclear power accident sites, focuses mostly on the negative effects seen by forcing evacuations. The article details to issues faced by individuals and how that the mental effects of evacuation has caused more negative effects than the radiation itself. Therefore, this article is aluding to how we should let individuals devide where they chose to live, to negate the mental health effects of evaucation, answer option D.

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Your cake will be tasty only if you use fresh ingredients which you can only buy at the market. You did not go to the market, so your cake will not be tasty.

46. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The reasoning states that for cake to be tasty, ingredients must be fresh. For ingredients to be fresh, they must be bought at the market. We did not go to the market, so we do not have fresh ingredients, so our cake cannot be tasty. A doesn’t follow this reasoning as there may be other reasons to influence happiness; it would need to say ‘you are happy if you are healthy’ to parallel. B doesn’t parallel. C doesn’t parallel as there are other reasons there may be light, not just lighting a candle. D doesn’t follow as there are other ways to damage hearing. E does follow because we know the car is broken, we don’t have good knowledge and so therefore will not arrive on time at the wedding. E is the correct answer.

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Costs of health care in the UK are shared through taxation, but some of those who can afford to pay for a higher standard of care choose to do so. Some think it is immoral for rich people to receive better health care simply because they can afford to pay for it. But the whole point of
money is to enable those who have it to improve the quality of life of themselves and their families. If money did not offer such advantages, it would not motivate people to develop their skills or to work harder in order to earn more. Since people are morally entitled to use their money to buy advantages for themselves and their loved ones, there can be no objection to private medicine.

47. Which one of the following illustrates the principle used in the above argument?
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## Explanation

The arguments principle overview is that while some do not like the differences that wealth offers, money would have no value if it did not offer advantages for those who earn it and their loved ones. Looking at the answer options, A does not fit with the theme or principle of the argument. Neither does B or C as they do not fit with the principle of the value of money or wealth. D, while potentially could be thought about with the point about immorality of the rich receiving better health care, it does not follow the full principles of the passage. Therefore the correct answer is E, which follows the theme of how money should be allowed to make a difference or advantage to the lives of yourself and your loved ones, aka your children.

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Sourdough, an ingredient of many bread products, is a fermented mixture of flour and water. At 8:00 am on Monday morning, I start with a mixture of 50 g flour and 50 g water. Each morning at 8:00 am I double the weight of the sourdough by adding equal weights of flour and water.

I know that 1 g of the water content evaporates every hour. The bread recipe that I would like to use requires 500 g of sourdough. I also want at least 50 g of sourdough left over so that I can continue growing it for next week’s bread.

48. On which day am I going to have the necessary amount of sourdough?
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## Explanation

Do not forget water evaporating. We need a minimum of 550 grams on the day we select as the necessary amount of sourdough. At 8am on Monday, there is 100 g (50+50). By 8am Tuesday, 24g has evaporated as water. So we have 76g. We double this to give 152g. Wednesday 8am, another 24g has evaporated, so we have 128g. We double this to give 256 g. Thursday 8am, another 24g has evaporated, so we have 232g. We double this to give 464g. Friday morning, another 24g has evaporated, giving us 440 grams. We double this. We now have 880g, more than the minimum. It is Friday, so the answer is D.

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A 250 g bag of mixed nuts lists the contents on the packet as follows:

As they are my favourite, I eat all the almonds in the packet and then re-weigh it. I find that the almond content was the minimum it could have been whilst being consistent with the labelling.

49. What is the largest possible peanut content of the nuts remaining in the bag after I have eaten the almonds?
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## Explanation

Since the almond content was the minimum it could have been whilst being consistent with the labelling, it must have been 20%. As the almonds have all been eaten this means that only 80% of the bag remains and since the peanuts can take up a maximum of 40% (of the original bag) we can see that they can take up a maximum of 50% of the bag now that the almonds have been removed. If this is difficult to see, we can calculate the actual mass – so we have 200g of nuts left and the maximum mass of peanuts is 100g, giving us the answer option of C

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The net below can be folded to make a Roman numerical dice.

50. Which one of the following dice could have been made as a result of folding the net?
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## Explanation

Cube questions can be difficult to visualise so try to focus on patterns that allow you to rule out the incorrect options. Here we can rule out A as the roman numeral I is in the wrong place (it should be replaced by VI as we can see that the base of V points to VI in the net). B is incorrect as we can see from the net that the open part of V in the numeral IV faces I not II. C can be ruled out as the numeral III is orientated incorrectly (the side of III should be facing II rather than the top of III facing II) and E is incorrect as we can see from the net that the side of V faces the side of III. Having ruled out A, B, C and E, we can see that the correct answer option is D.

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