UCAT PRACTICE TEST

Verbal Reasoning Instructions – You have one minute to read these instructions.
In this section of the exam, you will be presented with 11 passages to read, each associated with 4 questions.

Some questions assess critical reasoning skills, requiring candidates to make inferences and draw conclusions from information. You will need to read the passage of text carefully. You will then be presented with a question or incomplete statement and four response options. You are required to pick the best of most suitable response.

For other questions your task is to read each passage of text carefully and then decide whether the statement provided follows logically. There are three options you can choose from:

True : On the basis of the information in the passage, the statement is true.

False : On the basis of the information in the passage, the statement is false.

Can’t Tell: You cannot tell from the information in the passage whether the statement is true or false.

Candidates will only be able to select one response.

You will have 21 minutes to answer 44 questions. It is in your interest to answer all questions as there is no penalty for guessing. All unanswered questions will be scared as incorrect.

Click the Next (N) button to proceed

Khmer Rouge

Tuol Svay Pray High School sits on a dusty road on the outskirts of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In 1976, the Khmer Rouge (a far left Cambodian political party) renamed the high school S-21 and turned it into a torture, interrogation and execution center. Of the 14,000 people known to have entered, only seven survived.

Not only did the Khmer Rouge carefully transcribe the prisoners’ interrogations; they also carefully photographed the vast majority of the inmates and created an astonishing photographic archive. Each of the almost 6,000 S-21 portraits that have been recovered tells a story shock, resignation, confusion, defiance and horror.

Although the most gruesome images to come out of Cambodia were those of the on-site mass graves, the most haunting were the portraits taken by the Khmer Rouge at S-21. Today, S-21 is known as the Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide. Inside the gates, it looks like any high school; five buildings face a grass courtyard with pull-up bars, green lawns and lawn-bowling pitches. The ground-floor classrooms in one building have been left to appear as they were in 1977. The spartan interrogation rooms are furnished with only a school desk-and-chair set that faces a steel bed frame with shackles at each end. On the far wall are the grisly photographs of bloated, decomposing bodies chained to bed frames with pools of wet blood underneath.

These were the sights that greeted the two Vietnamese photojournalists who first discovered S-21 in January of 1979. In another building the walls are papered with thousands of S-21 portraits. At first glance, the photograph of a shirtless young man appears typical of the prison photos. Closer inspection reveals that the number tag on his chest has been safety pinned to his pectoral muscle.

With a bruised face and a pad-locked chain around his neck, a boy stands with his arms at his sides and looks straight into the camera.A mother with her baby in her arms stares into the camera with a look of indignant resignation. The photographs and confessions were collected in order to prove to the Khmer Rouge leaders that their orders had been carried out.

1. A man in one of the S-21 portraits had a 5 digit number tag attached to his chest.
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    Explanation

    Can’t Tell. Looking for the keyword ‘number tag’, we find it in the last paragraph where it says that the man had a ‘number tag’ on his pectoral muscle. However, we do not know how many digits it is, so the answer is Can’t Tell.

    Post Comment

    Khmer Rouge

    Tuol Svay Pray High School sits on a dusty road on the outskirts of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In 1976, the Khmer Rouge (a far left Cambodian political party) renamed the high school S-21 and turned it into a torture, interrogation and execution center. Of the 14,000 people known to have entered, only seven survived.

    Not only did the Khmer Rouge carefully transcribe the prisoners’ interrogations; they also carefully photographed the vast majority of the inmates and created an astonishing photographic archive. Each of the almost 6,000 S-21 portraits that have been recovered tells a story shock, resignation, confusion, defiance and horror.

    Although the most gruesome images to come out of Cambodia were those of the on-site mass graves, the most haunting were the portraits taken by the Khmer Rouge at S-21. Today, S-21 is known as the Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide. Inside the gates, it looks like any high school; five buildings face a grass courtyard with pull-up bars, green lawns and lawn-bowling pitches. The ground-floor classrooms in one building have been left to appear as they were in 1977. The spartan interrogation rooms are furnished with only a school desk-and-chair set that faces a steel bed frame with shackles at each end. On the far wall are the grisly photographs of bloated, decomposing bodies chained to bed frames with pools of wet blood underneath.

    These were the sights that greeted the two Vietnamese photojournalists who first discovered S-21 in January of 1979. In another building the walls are papered with thousands of S-21 portraits. At first glance, the photograph of a shirtless young man appears typical of the prison photos. Closer inspection reveals that the number tag on his chest has been safety pinned to his pectoral muscle.

    With a bruised face and a pad-locked chain around his neck, a boy stands with his arms at his sides and looks straight into the camera.A mother with her baby in her arms stares into the camera with a look of indignant resignation. The photographs and confessions were collected in order to prove to the Khmer Rouge leaders that their orders had been carried out.

    2. S-21 is still a high school.
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    Explanation

    False. We use the keywords ’high school’ and would find two references. Whilst we are told in the first paragraph a high school was renamed S-21, it is clear it underwent a change away from being used as a school. The second reference is at the beginning of the second paragraph, saying that ‘it looks like any high school’, but we cannot infer it was ever a high school and S-21 at the same time.

    Post Comment
    Alex Medicmind Tutor

    Tue, 29 Sep 2020 13:55:37

    Nowhere in the text does it say/can be inferred that there is not a high school in the world called S-21. I believe a more fitting answer would be Cant tell

    Maryam Medicmind Tutor

    Thu, 18 Feb 2021 21:30:11

    But it states in the first paragraphs that it was turned into torture, an interrogation center

    Khmer Rouge

    Tuol Svay Pray High School sits on a dusty road on the outskirts of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In 1976, the Khmer Rouge (a far left Cambodian political party) renamed the high school S-21 and turned it into a torture, interrogation and execution center. Of the 14,000 people known to have entered, only seven survived.

    Not only did the Khmer Rouge carefully transcribe the prisoners’ interrogations; they also carefully photographed the vast majority of the inmates and created an astonishing photographic archive. Each of the almost 6,000 S-21 portraits that have been recovered tells a story shock, resignation, confusion, defiance and horror.

    Although the most gruesome images to come out of Cambodia were those of the on-site mass graves, the most haunting were the portraits taken by the Khmer Rouge at S-21. Today, S-21 is known as the Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide. Inside the gates, it looks like any high school; five buildings face a grass courtyard with pull-up bars, green lawns and lawn-bowling pitches. The ground-floor classrooms in one building have been left to appear as they were in 1977. The spartan interrogation rooms are furnished with only a school desk-and-chair set that faces a steel bed frame with shackles at each end. On the far wall are the grisly photographs of bloated, decomposing bodies chained to bed frames with pools of wet blood underneath.

    These were the sights that greeted the two Vietnamese photojournalists who first discovered S-21 in January of 1979. In another building the walls are papered with thousands of S-21 portraits. At first glance, the photograph of a shirtless young man appears typical of the prison photos. Closer inspection reveals that the number tag on his chest has been safety pinned to his pectoral muscle.

    With a bruised face and a pad-locked chain around his neck, a boy stands with his arms at his sides and looks straight into the camera.A mother with her baby in her arms stares into the camera with a look of indignant resignation. The photographs and confessions were collected in order to prove to the Khmer Rouge leaders that their orders had been carried out.

    3. The Khmer Rouge contains mass graves.
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    Explanation

    False. A good keyword here is ‘mass graves’. Using the keyword ‘Khmer Rouge’ will not help us too much as it doesn’t narrow down the passage for us much as the words are present throughout the passage. We are told that ‘the most gruesome images to come out of Cambodia were those of the on-site mass graves’. However, the key to answering this question is understanding that Khmer Rouge was a political party, as we are told in the first few lines. The mass graves were on site of S-21, not Khmer Rouge – a political party is not a location which can contain mass graves, so the answer is false.

    Post Comment

    Khmer Rouge

    Tuol Svay Pray High School sits on a dusty road on the outskirts of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In 1976, the Khmer Rouge (a far left Cambodian political party) renamed the high school S-21 and turned it into a torture, interrogation and execution center. Of the 14,000 people known to have entered, only seven survived.

    Not only did the Khmer Rouge carefully transcribe the prisoners’ interrogations; they also carefully photographed the vast majority of the inmates and created an astonishing photographic archive. Each of the almost 6,000 S-21 portraits that have been recovered tells a story shock, resignation, confusion, defiance and horror.

    Although the most gruesome images to come out of Cambodia were those of the on-site mass graves, the most haunting were the portraits taken by the Khmer Rouge at S-21. Today, S-21 is known as the Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide. Inside the gates, it looks like any high school; five buildings face a grass courtyard with pull-up bars, green lawns and lawn-bowling pitches. The ground-floor classrooms in one building have been left to appear as they were in 1977. The spartan interrogation rooms are furnished with only a school desk-and-chair set that faces a steel bed frame with shackles at each end. On the far wall are the grisly photographs of bloated, decomposing bodies chained to bed frames with pools of wet blood underneath.

    These were the sights that greeted the two Vietnamese photojournalists who first discovered S-21 in January of 1979. In another building the walls are papered with thousands of S-21 portraits. At first glance, the photograph of a shirtless young man appears typical of the prison photos. Closer inspection reveals that the number tag on his chest has been safety pinned to his pectoral muscle.

    With a bruised face and a pad-locked chain around his neck, a boy stands with his arms at his sides and looks straight into the camera.A mother with her baby in her arms stares into the camera with a look of indignant resignation. The photographs and confessions were collected in order to prove to the Khmer Rouge leaders that their orders had been carried out.

    4. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
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    Explanation

    In this type 2 statement question, we must determine which statement to begin with. Statement D contains extreme language, whilst statement A seems implausible as we know it is an ‘execution center’. Statement B contains better keywords than statement C, so we would start there.

    A – Looking for the keyword of ‘survivors’, and finding it in the first paragraph, we know that there were only 7 survivors.

    B – Using the keyword ‘1979’ guides us to the last line of the second paragraph, where it tells us that S-21 was discovered in January 1979, not the last month (December).

    C – The Khmer Rouge renamed the school and turned it into a base for torture and interrogation. They appear to have taken residence and are intrinsically linked to S-21. Therefore, this is a reasonable inference to make.

    D – Looking for the keyword of ‘furniture’ or any items of furniture – we know that the spartan interrogation rooms are furnished with only a school desk-and-chair set.

    Post Comment

    A Paradise to Lose

    The Amazon region is home to more than one million species of animals and plants – some 60 % of the planet’s species. The rainforest is therefore an irreplaceable archive of biodiversity. But it also performs valuable services for plants and the soil, by binding considerable amounts of carbon dioxide, for instance.

    Nonetheless, the latest satellite images show that the rainforest’s inhabitants are under threat. Clear-cutting continues, for example to make space for cattle ranches and soybean plantations. Climate change, moreover, is also beginning to threaten the wilderness.

    In the past 40 years, a rainforest area twice the sizes of France was destroyed in the Amazon basin. Most of this devastation occurred in Brazil, which is home to more than half of the rainforest. Destructive practices continue even today, although the government of Brazil, with international support, is doing quite a bit to put an end to them. However, global demand for agrofuels is increasing, and Brazil’s model of economic development is based on commodity exports. Both the national government and most state governments focus on mass exports of raw agricultural products, such as meat, soybeans and sugarcane.

    Borges Maggi is the world’s most important soybean producer and the governor of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. He says that forest romanticism has no future. He and other agro-millionaires speak of defending the “constitutional right to deforestation” for the sake of Brazil’s development.

    But Marina Silva, Brazil’s environment minister and a former rubber-plantation worker, disagrees. She supports a different development model. As she puts it, if trends are not sustainable, they are not about development, but only about repeating catastrophes.

    5. Which of the following conclusions is most likely to be true?
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    Explanation

    This type 2 statement question is handled by determining which statement to start with. Statement A and C are extreme, and therefore less likely to be true. Statement B has better keywords, so its best to start here.

    A – ‘Livestock’ or similar would be a suitable keyword, and we can find ‘cattle’ in the second paragraph. We are told that deforestation occurs to make space for both soybean production and cattle ranches. There is nothing to say one is more prevalent than the other

    B – Looking for the keywords of ‘deforestation’ and ‘economical’ (or associated words), we can see the 4th paragraph states that there are agro-millionaires who appear to benefit from deforestation.

    C – Our keyword of ‘climate change’ comes up in the 2nd paragraph, and whilst we know that it is a threat, we have nothing to confirm that it is a bigger threat than deforestation.

    D – The entire passage debates the pros and cons of deforestation, and contains many conflicting views. We cannot safely assume anything about the overall benefit of deforestation based on this passage.

     

    Post Comment

    A Paradise to Lose

    The Amazon region is home to more than one million species of animals and plants – some 60 % of the planet’s species. The rainforest is therefore an irreplaceable archive of biodiversity. But it also performs valuable services for plants and the soil, by binding considerable amounts of carbon dioxide, for instance.

    Nonetheless, the latest satellite images show that the rainforest’s inhabitants are under threat. Clear-cutting continues, for example to make space for cattle ranches and soybean plantations. Climate change, moreover, is also beginning to threaten the wilderness.

    In the past 40 years, a rainforest area twice the sizes of France was destroyed in the Amazon basin. Most of this devastation occurred in Brazil, which is home to more than half of the rainforest. Destructive practices continue even today, although the government of Brazil, with international support, is doing quite a bit to put an end to them. However, global demand for agrofuels is increasing, and Brazil’s model of economic development is based on commodity exports. Both the national government and most state governments focus on mass exports of raw agricultural products, such as meat, soybeans and sugarcane.

    Borges Maggi is the world’s most important soybean producer and the governor of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. He says that forest romanticism has no future. He and other agro-millionaires speak of defending the “constitutional right to deforestation” for the sake of Brazil’s development.

    But Marina Silva, Brazil’s environment minister and a former rubber-plantation worker, disagrees. She supports a different development model. As she puts it, if trends are not sustainable, they are not about development, but only about repeating catastrophes.

    6. Deforestation has many impacts on a local and national scale. Deforestation should cease because:
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    Explanation

    These statements all come coupled with a reason, and therefore we must take extra care to look at both halves of the statement.

    A – We are not told anything about tourism in the passage at all. We can therefore rule this out immediately.

    B – We know that deforestation helps the economy therefore this is contradicting what is being said in the passage.

    C – This is true and is told in the passage, however it does not provide an explanation as to why deforestation should cease.

    D – We are told in the first paragraph that 60% of the planet’s species are contained there, which confirms the first half of the statement. The second paragraph confirms the second half of the statement – it is reasonable to infer that if the species are ‘under threat’ that this could lead to their extinction.

    Post Comment

    A Paradise to Lose

    The Amazon region is home to more than one million species of animals and plants – some 60 % of the planet’s species. The rainforest is therefore an irreplaceable archive of biodiversity. But it also performs valuable services for plants and the soil, by binding considerable amounts of carbon dioxide, for instance.

    Nonetheless, the latest satellite images show that the rainforest’s inhabitants are under threat. Clear-cutting continues, for example to make space for cattle ranches and soybean plantations. Climate change, moreover, is also beginning to threaten the wilderness.

    In the past 40 years, a rainforest area twice the sizes of France was destroyed in the Amazon basin. Most of this devastation occurred in Brazil, which is home to more than half of the rainforest. Destructive practices continue even today, although the government of Brazil, with international support, is doing quite a bit to put an end to them. However, global demand for agrofuels is increasing, and Brazil’s model of economic development is based on commodity exports. Both the national government and most state governments focus on mass exports of raw agricultural products, such as meat, soybeans and sugarcane.

    Borges Maggi is the world’s most important soybean producer and the governor of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. He says that forest romanticism has no future. He and other agro-millionaires speak of defending the “constitutional right to deforestation” for the sake of Brazil’s development.

    But Marina Silva, Brazil’s environment minister and a former rubber-plantation worker, disagrees. She supports a different development model. As she puts it, if trends are not sustainable, they are not about development, but only about repeating catastrophes.

    7. According to the passage, the governor of the Brazilian state said that deforestation should continue:
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    Explanation

    We can find the ‘governor of the Brazilian state’ in the 4th paragraph, as Borges Maggi. Reading this short paragraph allows us to appraise the statements.

    A – This is a counter-argument used to support why deforestation should occur.

    B – This is correct. We are told that there is a constitutional right to deforestation

    C – We know that he is a soybean producer, but he does not explicitly say this is the reason he wants deforestation to continue.

    D – He mentions the development of Brazil – this is not necessarily Brazil’s economy.

     

    Post Comment

    A Paradise to Lose

    The Amazon region is home to more than one million species of animals and plants – some 60 % of the planet’s species. The rainforest is therefore an irreplaceable archive of biodiversity. But it also performs valuable services for plants and the soil, by binding considerable amounts of carbon dioxide, for instance.

    Nonetheless, the latest satellite images show that the rainforest’s inhabitants are under threat. Clear-cutting continues, for example to make space for cattle ranches and soybean plantations. Climate change, moreover, is also beginning to threaten the wilderness.

    In the past 40 years, a rainforest area twice the sizes of France was destroyed in the Amazon basin. Most of this devastation occurred in Brazil, which is home to more than half of the rainforest. Destructive practices continue even today, although the government of Brazil, with international support, is doing quite a bit to put an end to them. However, global demand for agrofuels is increasing, and Brazil’s model of economic development is based on commodity exports. Both the national government and most state governments focus on mass exports of raw agricultural products, such as meat, soybeans and sugarcane.

    Borges Maggi is the world’s most important soybean producer and the governor of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. He says that forest romanticism has no future. He and other agro-millionaires speak of defending the “constitutional right to deforestation” for the sake of Brazil’s development.

    But Marina Silva, Brazil’s environment minister and a former rubber-plantation worker, disagrees. She supports a different development model. As she puts it, if trends are not sustainable, they are not about development, but only about repeating catastrophes.

    8. The following are all currently threats to the rainforest wildlife, except:
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    Explanation

    The key to this question is understanding that we are being asked which of the following is not a reason for deforestation, as deforestation is something that is leading to a loss of wildlife.

    A – ‘Agrofuels’ is mentioned in the 3rd paragraph, and we can infer that agrofuels is part of Brazil’s commodity exports, and therefore must be a reason for deforestation, which in turn leads to loss of wildlife.

    B – We are told that soybean plantation are two reasons why deforestation is occurring, which is a threat to the rainforest.

    C – ‘Rubber’ is only mentioned in the final paragraph, in the context of a former rubber plantation worker. This does not tell us that there is currently any deforestation due to rubber production. Therefore this is the correct answer.

    D – Whilst not directly related to deforestation, in the second paragraph, we are also told that ‘climate change is beginning to threaten the wilderness’.

     

    Post Comment
    Alex Medicmind Tutor

    Tue, 29 Sep 2020 13:58:15

    Saying that rubber production does not threat rainforest life is a stretch. Just because it doesn't specify that it contributes to deforestation does not mean it does not.

    Bread, Beer & Yeast

    The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. The earliest breads were unleavened. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.

    Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened food and genesis of the brewing industry. There is an alternate theory regarding the invention of brewing. Some historians believe it is possible that brewing began when the first cereal crops were domesticated.

    Sources generally agree the discovery of the powers of yeast was accidental. No one has yet managed to date the origins of beer with any precision, and it is probably an impossible task. Indeed, there are scholars who have theorized that a taste for ale prompted the beginning of agriculture, in which case humans have been brewing for some 10,000 years. Most archaeological evidence, however, suggests that fermentation was being used in one manner or another by around 4000 to 3500 B.C. Some of this evidence-from an ancient.

    Mesopotamian trading outpost called Godin Tepe in present-day Iran- indicates that barley was being fermented at that location around 3500 B.C. Additional evidence recovered at Hacinegi Tepe (a similar site in southern Turkey) also suggest that ancient Mesopotamians were fermenting barley at a very early date.

    9. Yeast was used in bakeries in 4004 B.C.
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    Explanation

    Can’t Tell. Looking for the keyword of ‘4000 B.C’, we can see in the second paragraph that it was used as a ‘leavening agent and in brewing ale’. Not only would it be using external knowledge to know that leavening agents are used in baking, but we are also not explicitly told that it was used in bakeries, or even if there were any bakeries during this time period.

    Post Comment

    Bread, Beer & Yeast

    The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. The earliest breads were unleavened. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.

    Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened food and genesis of the brewing industry. There is an alternate theory regarding the invention of brewing. Some historians believe it is possible that brewing began when the first cereal crops were domesticated.

    Sources generally agree the discovery of the powers of yeast was accidental. No one has yet managed to date the origins of beer with any precision, and it is probably an impossible task. Indeed, there are scholars who have theorized that a taste for ale prompted the beginning of agriculture, in which case humans have been brewing for some 10,000 years. Most archaeological evidence, however, suggests that fermentation was being used in one manner or another by around 4000 to 3500 B.C. Some of this evidence-from an ancient.

    Mesopotamian trading outpost called Godin Tepe in present-day Iran- indicates that barley was being fermented at that location around 3500 B.C. Additional evidence recovered at Hacinegi Tepe (a similar site in southern Turkey) also suggest that ancient Mesopotamians were fermenting barley at a very early date.

    10. Some historians believe that cereal crops are responsible for the beginning of brewing.
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    Explanation

    True.There are many good keywords which will lead us to look at the second paragraph. We are told that ‘some historians believe it is possible that brewing began when the first cereal crops were domesticated’, which directly confirms our statement as true.

    Post Comment

    Bread, Beer & Yeast

    The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. The earliest breads were unleavened. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.

    Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened food and genesis of the brewing industry. There is an alternate theory regarding the invention of brewing. Some historians believe it is possible that brewing began when the first cereal crops were domesticated.

    Sources generally agree the discovery of the powers of yeast was accidental. No one has yet managed to date the origins of beer with any precision, and it is probably an impossible task. Indeed, there are scholars who have theorized that a taste for ale prompted the beginning of agriculture, in which case humans have been brewing for some 10,000 years. Most archaeological evidence, however, suggests that fermentation was being used in one manner or another by around 4000 to 3500 B.C. Some of this evidence-from an ancient.

    Mesopotamian trading outpost called Godin Tepe in present-day Iran- indicates that barley was being fermented at that location around 3500 B.C. Additional evidence recovered at Hacinegi Tepe (a similar site in southern Turkey) also suggest that ancient Mesopotamians were fermenting barley at a very early date.

    11. Hacinegi Tepe is only found in Northern Turkey.
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    Explanation

    False.The use of ‘only’ makes this Extreme Language. Looking for the keyword ‘Hacinegi Tepe’, we see that it is found in Southern Turkey, and therefore it cannot ‘only’ be found elsewhere, making this statement false.

    Post Comment

    Bread, Beer & Yeast

    The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. The earliest breads were unleavened. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.

    Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened food and genesis of the brewing industry. There is an alternate theory regarding the invention of brewing. Some historians believe it is possible that brewing began when the first cereal crops were domesticated.

    Sources generally agree the discovery of the powers of yeast was accidental. No one has yet managed to date the origins of beer with any precision, and it is probably an impossible task. Indeed, there are scholars who have theorized that a taste for ale prompted the beginning of agriculture, in which case humans have been brewing for some 10,000 years. Most archaeological evidence, however, suggests that fermentation was being used in one manner or another by around 4000 to 3500 B.C. Some of this evidence-from an ancient.

    Mesopotamian trading outpost called Godin Tepe in present-day Iran- indicates that barley was being fermented at that location around 3500 B.C. Additional evidence recovered at Hacinegi Tepe (a similar site in southern Turkey) also suggest that ancient Mesopotamians were fermenting barley at a very early date.

    12. The area known as Mesopotamia is the direct equivalent of modern Iran only.
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    Explanation

    Can’t Tell.‘Mesopotamia’ is a good keyword to look for, and we find this alongside ‘Iran’ in the 3rd paragraph. Whilst we know that present-day Iran was once Mesopotamian, we cannot be certain that the 2 geographical areas directly overlie. Mesopotamia was in fact a large area, encompassing many countries.

    Post Comment
    Tamzin Medicmind Tutor

    Thu, 17 Sep 2020 20:09:59

    Shouldn't the answer be b) false? We know that the Mesopotamian outpost is in Iran, and we also know that evidence from Turkey shows Mesopotamian bread-making?

    £60 Fines for Being Late to School

    Councils are cracking down on tardy children, with parents who don’t pay up facing prosecution. Families have been told they face fines if children are repeatedly late for school, with the threat of prosecution for those who do not pay.

    Councils and schools in the West Midlands, Hampshire and Essex are among those that have extended the £60 fixed penalties they issue for absenteeism, including holidays in term time, to cases of lateness. Warwickshire county council has issued guidance to say it can fine families if pupils are often late, defined as arriving more than 30 minutes after the register is taken.

    Winter Gardens Academy in Essex has told parents they can be fined £60 if their children consistently turn up after 9am, rising to £120 if not paid within 21 days.An Eastern Asian government’s behaviour tsar said sanctions to improve punctuality could include making children collect litter, remove chewing gum or mop classroom floors before school, a measure used in South Korea, often a leader in academic league tables. He said fines could be used as a last resort.Tom Bennet said parents whose teenage children were regularly late should walk with them.

    “Most pupils would rather make sure not to miss their alarm, than be seen walking up to school with their parents,” he said. Bennet admits he was late for school every day when he was studying for his A-levels. Bennet believes that the increase in technology has had a role in increasing the number of students being late for school, because many are staying up late on their phones.

    13. Based on the information in the passage, which of the following statements is false?
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    Explanation

    It is important to notice that this is a reverse question. It is asking you which of the statements is False, so if any statements are True or Can’t Tell they are not the answer option.

    A – Whilst the passage is about issuing fines for being late, there is no discussion of the impact of the fines on lateness.

    B – South Korea is referred to as being a ‘leader in academic league tables’, so can infer that this statement must be true.

    C – Looking for the any keyword relating to a cost, we find that one scheme has a fine of £60, but we do not know that this is the maximum. Therefore we can’t tell if this statement is true or not.

    D – Using the keyword ‘Essex’, because it is a capitalised noun. We find it in the second paragraph, where it mentions that ‘councils and schools in West Midlands, Hampshire and Essex are among those’ with the penalty. ‘Among those’ indicates that there are more than just these 3, so the statement is false in saying the fine only exists in 3 UK districts.

    Post Comment

    £60 Fines for Being Late to School

    Councils are cracking down on tardy children, with parents who don’t pay up facing prosecution. Families have been told they face fines if children are repeatedly late for school, with the threat of prosecution for those who do not pay.

    Councils and schools in the West Midlands, Hampshire and Essex are among those that have extended the £60 fixed penalties they issue for absenteeism, including holidays in term time, to cases of lateness. Warwickshire county council has issued guidance to say it can fine families if pupils are often late, defined as arriving more than 30 minutes after the register is taken.

    Winter Gardens Academy in Essex has told parents they can be fined £60 if their children consistently turn up after 9am, rising to £120 if not paid within 21 days.An Eastern Asian government’s behaviour tsar said sanctions to improve punctuality could include making children collect litter, remove chewing gum or mop classroom floors before school, a measure used in South Korea, often a leader in academic league tables. He said fines could be used as a last resort.Tom Bennet said parents whose teenage children were regularly late should walk with them.

    “Most pupils would rather make sure not to miss their alarm, than be seen walking up to school with their parents,” he said. Bennet admits he was late for school every day when he was studying for his A-levels. Bennet believes that the increase in technology has had a role in increasing the number of students being late for school, because many are staying up late on their phones.

    14. In order to tackle lateness, various solutions have been been proposed, except for:
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    Explanation

    This is an Except Question, which is asking for the solution that is not confirmed by the passage.

    A – Our keyword would be ‘walk’ or it’s synonyms. In the final paragraph, Tom Bennet suggests that ‘parents whose teenage children were regularly late should walk with them’, which is to say that this could be a potential solution for lateness.

    B – ‘Holidays’ is a good keyword, and can be found at the end of the 2nd paragraph. Whilst we are told that penalties can be issued for parents that take their children on holiday during term time, we are not told that preventing this would be a potential solution.

    C – This is the main topic of the passage, and they mention the £60 fine regularly.

    D – ‘Chewing gum’ comes up in the 4th paragraph, where it is suggested as a solution to improve punctuality, which is to say prevent lateness.

    Post Comment
    15. Lateness is becoming more of a problem for schools to deal with. Which of the following is a cited reason for students being late?
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    Explanation

    Statement A – ‘A-Levels’ is only mentioned when Tom Bennet said he was late every day whilst studying for them. However, this does not say that it was directly the stress of his studies that made him late.

    Statement B – This is mentioned in the final paragraph, but is cited as a possible solution, rather than a reason for the lateness itself.

    Statement C – ‘Alarm’ is mentioned in a quote by Tom Bennet, where we are told that ‘most pupils would rather make sure not to miss their alarm…’ implying that some of them do miss their alarm, explaining their lateness. This is therefore a valid reason and is the correct answer.

    Statement D – ‘Phones’ is found in the final paragraph, and whilst technology is cited a reason for lateness, we cannot be sure that this specifically encompasses ‘iPhones’, or whether it is other phones mainly at play. This is an example of a passage adjustment, and therefore cannot be taken as true.

    Post Comment

    £60 Fines for Being Late to School

    Councils are cracking down on tardy children, with parents who don’t pay up facing prosecution. Families have been told they face fines if children are repeatedly late for school, with the threat of prosecution for those who do not pay.

    Councils and schools in the West Midlands, Hampshire and Essex are among those that have extended the £60 fixed penalties they issue for absenteeism, including holidays in term time, to cases of lateness. Warwickshire county council has issued guidance to say it can fine families if pupils are often late, defined as arriving more than 30 minutes after the register is taken.

    Winter Gardens Academy in Essex has told parents they can be fined £60 if their children consistently turn up after 9am, rising to £120 if not paid within 21 days.An Eastern Asian government’s behaviour tsar said sanctions to improve punctuality could include making children collect litter, remove chewing gum or mop classroom floors before school, a measure used in South Korea, often a leader in academic league tables. He said fines could be used as a last resort.Tom Bennet said parents whose teenage children were regularly late should walk with them.

    “Most pupils would rather make sure not to miss their alarm, than be seen walking up to school with their parents,” he said. Bennet admits he was late for school every day when he was studying for his A-levels. Bennet believes that the increase in technology has had a role in increasing the number of students being late for school, because many are staying up late on their phones.

    16. There are various different reasons a family may be given a fine. According to the passage, which of the following scenarios may occur?
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    Explanation

    A – Looking for ‘Midlands’ we can see that West Midlands may impose a fine for this reason, but we have no way to be able to extrapolate this to anywhere in the Midlands. This is an example of a passage adjustment.

    B – ‘Warwickshire county council’ comes up in the 3rd paragraph. We are told that if they often ‘arrive more than 30 mins after registration is taken’ that they may face a fine. However, based on the information in the passage, we cannot know if ‘mid-morning’ is after registration or not. 

    C – ‘Winter Gardens Academy’ is mentioned in the 3rd paragraph, and we can see that. The fine may rise to £120 if not paid within 21 days, and as 4 weeks is over this threshold, we know this scensario is true.

    D – as A and B are not valid scenarios, this statement cannot be correct.

    Post Comment
    Petar Medicmind Tutor

    Fri, 23 Oct 2020 08:23:24

    I can't agree with you because the question is : "There are various different reasons a family may be given a fine. According to the passage, which of the following scenarios may occur?". The say the right answer is "A student of Winter Gardens Academy who received a fine 4 weeks ago, paying £120. " The reason for giving a fine is the student is late, which is £60, the reason for having a £120 fine is because you didn't paid it on time, what I mean by that is the £120 is not a reason for a fine.

    You are what you eat right? You are what your gut microbes eat.

    And this appears to be one of the reasons giant pandas are struggling to survive. The microbes inside their guts are “optimized to digest meat” — this despite the fact that pandas have been eating a nearly exclusive diet of fibrous bamboo for some 2 million years.This conclusion comes from researchers’ analysis of panda droppings.

    They collected faecal matter from 45 pandas in the wild — in spring, summer and fall — and sequenced the DNA. The findings are published in the American microbiology journal, mBio. “The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears,” the study states. “It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes.”

    The paper adds: “The peculiar characteristics of its gut microbiota may put it at high risk of extinction.” The giant panda is arguably the most beloved animal in the world. But despite decades of effort from conservationists (the panda is the symbol of the World Wildlife Fund), the animal remains endangered. Fewer than 2,000 giants pandas live in the wild, and the animals are well known for having trouble reproducing.There are many reasons for the giant panda’s perilous state, but the low diversity of its gut microbes is definitely not helping the situation. It is becoming conventional wisdom that high diversity in gut microbes makes it easier for animals to adapt to changing environments.

    The giant panda is not adapting. “Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved anatomically specialised digestive systems to efficiently deconstruct fibrous plant matter, the giant panda still retains a gastrointestinal tract typical of carnivores,” the researchers write.

    17. Based on the findings of the study published in mBio, giant pandas are:
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    Explanation

    A – We know that giant pandas evolved from omnivorous bears, however we have not been told if brown bears are omnivores, so we cannot assume this statement is true.

    B – The last paragraph tells us that giant pandas do not have digestive symptoms akin to other herbivores, who are able to digest plant matter. We can infer that they are therefore not able to digest fibrous plant matter, such as bamboo. We can confirm that bamboo is fibrous plant matter from the first paragraph. Therefore this statement is correct.

    C – The 3rd paragraph confirms that they are deficient in cellulose, however no other enzyme is mentioned. We do not know whether other enzymes are equally deficient.

    D –  The study says that they are at risk of extinction due to ‘peculiar characteristics of its gut microbiota’, but this doesn’t mean that they are already dying out, and also we cannot take this to mean inappropriate bacteria, as we have not been told gut microbiota involves bacteria.

    Post Comment
    UCATER Medicmind Tutor

    Sun, 31 Jan 2021 13:09:23

    Bamboo is never mention in quotation marks so it is not specifically mentioned in the mBio whereas "cellulose-digesting enzymes" are mentioned. Should be B

    You are what you eat right? You are what your gut microbes eat.

    And this appears to be one of the reasons giant pandas are struggling to survive. The microbes inside their guts are “optimized to digest meat” — this despite the fact that pandas have been eating a nearly exclusive diet of fibrous bamboo for some 2 million years.This conclusion comes from researchers’ analysis of panda droppings.

    They collected faecal matter from 45 pandas in the wild — in spring, summer and fall — and sequenced the DNA. The findings are published in the American microbiology journal, mBio. “The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears,” the study states. “It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes.”

    The paper adds: “The peculiar characteristics of its gut microbiota may put it at high risk of extinction.” The giant panda is arguably the most beloved animal in the world. But despite decades of effort from conservationists (the panda is the symbol of the World Wildlife Fund), the animal remains endangered. Fewer than 2,000 giants pandas live in the wild, and the animals are well known for having trouble reproducing.There are many reasons for the giant panda’s perilous state, but the low diversity of its gut microbes is definitely not helping the situation. It is becoming conventional wisdom that high diversity in gut microbes makes it easier for animals to adapt to changing environments.

    The giant panda is not adapting. “Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved anatomically specialised digestive systems to efficiently deconstruct fibrous plant matter, the giant panda still retains a gastrointestinal tract typical of carnivores,” the researchers write.

    18. According to the passage, which of the following is true?
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    Explanation

    A – ‘America’ is only mentioned in the context of the journal of the published research. There is no saying that the research was carried out in America, just because it has been published in an American journal.

    B – Their poor ability to reproduce is mentioned at the end of the 4th paragraph, but not in the context of evolution. We cannot make this assumption.

    C – Looking for ‘World Wildlife Fund’ we find that this is related to work of conservationists, and it is reasonable to assume that the organisation is also conservational. 

    D – ‘2000’ is a good key word, and we are told that ‘fewer than 2,000 giants pandas live in the wild’, but our statement is about the number left ‘in the world’. This passage adjustment means we cannot infer this as true.

    Post Comment

    You are what you eat right? You are what your gut microbes eat.

    And this appears to be one of the reasons giant pandas are struggling to survive. The microbes inside their guts are “optimized to digest meat” — this despite the fact that pandas have been eating a nearly exclusive diet of fibrous bamboo for some 2 million years.This conclusion comes from researchers’ analysis of panda droppings.

    They collected faecal matter from 45 pandas in the wild — in spring, summer and fall — and sequenced the DNA. The findings are published in the American microbiology journal, mBio. “The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears,” the study states. “It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes.”

    The paper adds: “The peculiar characteristics of its gut microbiota may put it at high risk of extinction.” The giant panda is arguably the most beloved animal in the world. But despite decades of effort from conservationists (the panda is the symbol of the World Wildlife Fund), the animal remains endangered. Fewer than 2,000 giants pandas live in the wild, and the animals are well known for having trouble reproducing.There are many reasons for the giant panda’s perilous state, but the low diversity of its gut microbes is definitely not helping the situation. It is becoming conventional wisdom that high diversity in gut microbes makes it easier for animals to adapt to changing environments.

    The giant panda is not adapting. “Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved anatomically specialised digestive systems to efficiently deconstruct fibrous plant matter, the giant panda still retains a gastrointestinal tract typical of carnivores,” the researchers write.

    19. The author of the passage would most likely agree that giant pandas:
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    Explanation

    A – The beginning of the 4th paragraph says that it is ‘arguably the most beloved animal in the world’. It would make sense that it would be missed if it were to go extinct. Therefore this is the correct answer.

    B – The passage generally speaks about a wrongly designed microbiome, but there is nothing suggesting the author feels strongly about the giant panda being required to change its diet to survive. In fact, they state ‘there are many reasons for the giant panda’s perilous state’.

    C – The passage says that evolution is the cause of the poor gut microbiota, but it never says that it is the cause of their diet itself.

    D – We are told that they are possibly evolutionarily inferior to other herbivores, but not necessarily to other bears. 

    Post Comment

    You are what you eat right? You are what your gut microbes eat.

    And this appears to be one of the reasons giant pandas are struggling to survive. The microbes inside their guts are “optimized to digest meat” — this despite the fact that pandas have been eating a nearly exclusive diet of fibrous bamboo for some 2 million years.This conclusion comes from researchers’ analysis of panda droppings.

    They collected faecal matter from 45 pandas in the wild — in spring, summer and fall — and sequenced the DNA. The findings are published in the American microbiology journal, mBio. “The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears,” the study states. “It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes.”

    The paper adds: “The peculiar characteristics of its gut microbiota may put it at high risk of extinction.” The giant panda is arguably the most beloved animal in the world. But despite decades of effort from conservationists (the panda is the symbol of the World Wildlife Fund), the animal remains endangered. Fewer than 2,000 giants pandas live in the wild, and the animals are well known for having trouble reproducing.There are many reasons for the giant panda’s perilous state, but the low diversity of its gut microbes is definitely not helping the situation. It is becoming conventional wisdom that high diversity in gut microbes makes it easier for animals to adapt to changing environments.

    The giant panda is not adapting. “Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved anatomically specialised digestive systems to efficiently deconstruct fibrous plant matter, the giant panda still retains a gastrointestinal tract typical of carnivores,” the researchers write.

    20. mBio is a neurobiology journal.
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    Explanation

    False. Looking for the keyword of ‘mBio’ we find in the 2nd paragraph, we are told that it is a ‘microbiology journal’, and therefore not a neurobiology journal. This statement must be false.

    Post Comment

    The precursor of pizza was probably the focaccia, a flat bread known to the Romans as panis focacius, to which toppings were then added. Modern pizza developed in Naples, when tomato was added to the focaccia in the late 18th century. Neapolitan pizza itself is believed to have originated from a similar dish called Jeyoun.

    The word pizza was first documented in AD 997 in Gaeta, and successively in different parts of Central and Southern Italy. Pizza was mainly eaten in the country of Italy and by emigrants from there. This changed after World War II, when Allied troops stationed in Italy came to enjoy pizza along with other Italian foods.

    Foods similar to pizza have been made since the neolithic age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In Sardinia, French and Italian archaeologists have found bread baked over 8,000 years ago. According to Professor Philippe Marinval, the local islanders leavened this bread. The Ancient Greeks had a flat bread called plakous (πλακοῦς, gen. πλακοῦντος—plakountos) which was flavored with toppings like herbs, onion, and garlic.

    In the 6th century BC, the soldiers in Persian King Darius I armies baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid (ca. 19 BC), when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables (Book III).

    21. Pizza-like food has an extensive history. According to the passage, pizza- like food:
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    Explanation

    A – Using the keyword of ‘10th century’, we can see it was the word pizza that was first documented in AD 997, however we are told at the end that an early reference to pizza-like food occurred in 19 BC, therefore this statement cannot be true.

    B – This statement is confirmed by the bullet points at the end of the passage, which details all the different flavourings applied to pizza.

    C – There is no mention of Pizza being Italy’s signature dish anywhere in the passage.

    D – When looking for the keyword ‘focaccia’, we actually see the contrary. The focaccia was a precursor for pizza – not the opposite way round.

     

    Post Comment

    The precursor of pizza was probably the focaccia, a flat bread known to the Romans as panis focacius, to which toppings were then added. Modern pizza developed in Naples, when tomato was added to the focaccia in the late 18th century. Neapolitan pizza itself is believed to have originated from a similar dish called Jeyoun.

    The word pizza was first documented in AD 997 in Gaeta, and successively in different parts of Central and Southern Italy. Pizza was mainly eaten in the country of Italy and by emigrants from there. This changed after World War II, when Allied troops stationed in Italy came to enjoy pizza along with other Italian foods.

    Foods similar to pizza have been made since the neolithic age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In Sardinia, French and Italian archaeologists have found bread baked over 8,000 years ago. According to Professor Philippe Marinval, the local islanders leavened this bread. The Ancient Greeks had a flat bread called plakous (πλακοῦς, gen. πλακοῦντος—plakountos) which was flavored with toppings like herbs, onion, and garlic.

    In the 6th century BC, the soldiers in Persian King Darius I armies baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid (ca. 19 BC), when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables (Book III).

    22. Sardinian history shows early accounts of pizza-like bread. The following are true of Sardinia, except:
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    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question, so we can look for ‘Sardinia’ which comes up in the first bullet point at the end of the passage. This is an Except Question, so we are looking for which statement is not true.

    A – Whilst we know the island has been explored by French and Italian archeologists, this does not mean that these are the nationalities living here.  However, we do not know whether this statement is necessarily false.

    B – Bread baking was over 8,000 years ago. King Darius I was ruling in the 6th century BC, so it is reasonable to assume this statement is false.

    C – Professor Philippe Marnival makes a statement on the practices of the local islanders, and it is a reasonable inference to say he must have studied their lives

    D – The line preceding the bullet points explains that each bullet point is an example of a time in history where bread was made more flavourful – so this must be true of Sardinian bread.

    Post Comment
    Tamzin Medicmind Tutor

    Thu, 17 Sep 2020 20:14:17

    This answer is wrong! 8000 years ago would be 6000BC, while 7th century is only 700BC. Also, the 7th century BC is *before* the 6th century BC, not after.

    The precursor of pizza was probably the focaccia, a flat bread known to the Romans as panis focacius, to which toppings were then added. Modern pizza developed in Naples, when tomato was added to the focaccia in the late 18th century. Neapolitan pizza itself is believed to have originated from a similar dish called Jeyoun.

    The word pizza was first documented in AD 997 in Gaeta, and successively in different parts of Central and Southern Italy. Pizza was mainly eaten in the country of Italy and by emigrants from there. This changed after World War II, when Allied troops stationed in Italy came to enjoy pizza along with other Italian foods.

    Foods similar to pizza have been made since the neolithic age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In Sardinia, French and Italian archaeologists have found bread baked over 8,000 years ago. According to Professor Philippe Marinval, the local islanders leavened this bread. The Ancient Greeks had a flat bread called plakous (πλακοῦς, gen. πλακοῦντος—plakountos) which was flavored with toppings like herbs, onion, and garlic.

    In the 6th century BC, the soldiers in Persian King Darius I armies baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid (ca. 19 BC), when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables (Book III).

    23. Which of the following dishes was first invented most recently?
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    Explanation

    D-Looking for the names of the dishes in the text, we are not told the date of any of the 3 options. Therefore we cannot tell which came first.

    Post Comment

    The precursor of pizza was probably the focaccia, a flat bread known to the Romans as panis focacius, to which toppings were then added. Modern pizza developed in Naples, when tomato was added to the focaccia in the late 18th century. Neapolitan pizza itself is believed to have originated from a similar dish called Jeyoun.

    The word pizza was first documented in AD 997 in Gaeta, and successively in different parts of Central and Southern Italy. Pizza was mainly eaten in the country of Italy and by emigrants from there. This changed after World War II, when Allied troops stationed in Italy came to enjoy pizza along with other Italian foods.

    Foods similar to pizza have been made since the neolithic age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In Sardinia, French and Italian archaeologists have found bread baked over 8,000 years ago. According to Professor Philippe Marinval, the local islanders leavened this bread. The Ancient Greeks had a flat bread called plakous (πλακοῦς, gen. πλακοῦντος—plakountos) which was flavored with toppings like herbs, onion, and garlic.

    In the 6th century BC, the soldiers in Persian King Darius I armies baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid (ca. 19 BC), when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables (Book III).

    24. Which of the following statements can be reasonably inferred as true from the passage?
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    Explanation

    A – The keyword of ‘World War II’ would take us to the end of the 2nd paragraph, however we are not told of Italy’s stance in WWII, only that there were allied troops present. This cannot be inferred.  

    B – ‘Gaeta’ would take us to the beginning of the second paragraph. We are told that the word ‘pizza’ was documented, here and then successively in ‘different parts of Central and Southern Italy’. This does not confirm Gaeta is Northern Italy, as these may not be the only 3 divisions of the country. Additionally, we do not know whether Gaeta is in Central or Southern Italy, and the spread of the word was simply to other parts.

    C – Whilst this statement has lots of keywords, as the foods, which are spread amongst the passage, most of the ingredients are found in the middle 2 bullet points. ‘Tomato’ can be found in the first paragraph – therefore this statement is. true.

    D – ‘Neolithic’ can be found at the beginning of the 3rd paragraph, but we are not told anything about the specific time period here. Ancient Greece and Persian Empires are mentioned in the bullet points, but this may not necessarily relate to neolithic.

    Post Comment

    Mt Fuji, Lake Ashi and Bullet Train Day Trip from Tokyo

    After morning pickup at selected Tokyo hotels or Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal, relax as your deluxe coach cruises along a scenic 2.5-hour route to Mt Fuji Visitor Center. Learn about the history and geology of Japan’s highest mountain from your guide and the informational exhibits about the revered mountain.

    From the second floor observation deck, you can get great views of Mt Fuji on a clear day.After seeing the Visitor Center, return to your coach and proceed to Mt Fuji’s 5th Station, located about halfway up the mountain at 7,545 feet (2,300m).

    Take in the shrines, torii gates and shops that sell souvenirs, along with views of Mt Fuji and the surrounding lakes (subject to weather conditions). Soak in the invigorating atmosphere of 5th Station; you might even spot some climbers preparing for their adventure.Then have time for lunch. You can choose the upgrade that includes a Japanese-style lunch, or have the option to buy your own meal. After having a bite to eat, drive to nearby Lake Ashi, located in Hakone National Park. Step aboard your boat for a short cruise across the lake. Admire the spectacular scenery of pristine waters surrounded by Mt Komagatake, Mt Fuji and other mountains.

    Disembark from the boat and head to the Mt Komagatake Ropeway, an aerial tram that takes you from the shores of Lake Ashi to the top of Mt Komagatake. Have time to walk around the mountain top and take in amazing views of Lake Ashi, the Owakudani volcanic valley and majestic Mt Fuji. After visiting Hakone, transfer by coach to the evening bullet train (Shinkansen) for your return to Tokyo, where your guide will tell you how to get back to your hotel.

    This tour also offer a discounted option with pickup at Keio Plaza Hotel in Shinjuku for direct transfer to Mt Fuji without stopping at Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal. This Shinjuku direct departure option allows you to spend more time at Mt Fuji. It is worth noting that views around Mt Fuji are always subject to weather conditions as mountain weather is notoriously unpredictable. Visibility tends to be better during the colder months, in the early morning and late evening.

    25.Which of the following would the author most likely agree with?
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    Explanation

    A – We are not told anything about when it is a rainy day – only that ‘you can great views of Mt Fuji on a clear day’. 

    B – We are not given the author’s opinion on the Japanese-style lunch.

    C – We are told that the tourist will be able to ‘admire the spectacular scenery of pristine waters surrounded by Mt Komagatake’. This means that the scenery is indeed ‘stunning’.

    D – We are not given any information on the author’s opinion of the bus terminal.

    Post Comment

    Mt Fuji, Lake Ashi and Bullet Train Day Trip from Tokyo

    After morning pickup at selected Tokyo hotels or Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal, relax as your deluxe coach cruises along a scenic 2.5-hour route to Mt Fuji Visitor Center. Learn about the history and geology of Japan’s highest mountain from your guide and the informational exhibits about the revered mountain.

    From the second floor observation deck, you can get great views of Mt Fuji on a clear day.After seeing the Visitor Center, return to your coach and proceed to Mt Fuji’s 5th Station, located about halfway up the mountain at 7,545 feet (2,300m).

    Take in the shrines, torii gates and shops that sell souvenirs, along with views of Mt Fuji and the surrounding lakes (subject to weather conditions). Soak in the invigorating atmosphere of 5th Station; you might even spot some climbers preparing for their adventure.Then have time for lunch. You can choose the upgrade that includes a Japanese-style lunch, or have the option to buy your own meal. After having a bite to eat, drive to nearby Lake Ashi, located in Hakone National Park. Step aboard your boat for a short cruise across the lake. Admire the spectacular scenery of pristine waters surrounded by Mt Komagatake, Mt Fuji and other mountains.

    Disembark from the boat and head to the Mt Komagatake Ropeway, an aerial tram that takes you from the shores of Lake Ashi to the top of Mt Komagatake. Have time to walk around the mountain top and take in amazing views of Lake Ashi, the Owakudani volcanic valley and majestic Mt Fuji. After visiting Hakone, transfer by coach to the evening bullet train (Shinkansen) for your return to Tokyo, where your guide will tell you how to get back to your hotel.

    This tour also offer a discounted option with pickup at Keio Plaza Hotel in Shinjuku for direct transfer to Mt Fuji without stopping at Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal. This Shinjuku direct departure option allows you to spend more time at Mt Fuji. It is worth noting that views around Mt Fuji are always subject to weather conditions as mountain weather is notoriously unpredictable. Visibility tends to be better during the colder months, in the early morning and late evening.

    26. Mt. Fuji has various features which make it a tourist spot. What can we infer about a trip to Mt. Fuji?
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    Explanation

    A – We know that there are various options for lunch and we are explicitly told that there is ‘time for lunch’. This statement is false.     

    B – We are told that that it is a ‘scenic 2.5-hour route’, and therefore it is not more than 3 hours. This statement is false.

    C – We are told that Mt Fuji’s 5th station is located about halfway up the mountain at 2,300m therefore double that is 4,600m which is less than 5000m.

    D – In the final paragraph, we are told that views around Mt Fuji are always subject to weather conditions, and therefore will not ‘always’ be majestic. This is Extreme Language.

    Post Comment

    Mt Fuji, Lake Ashi and Bullet Train Day Trip from Tokyo

    After morning pickup at selected Tokyo hotels or Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal, relax as your deluxe coach cruises along a scenic 2.5-hour route to Mt Fuji Visitor Center. Learn about the history and geology of Japan’s highest mountain from your guide and the informational exhibits about the revered mountain.

    From the second floor observation deck, you can get great views of Mt Fuji on a clear day.After seeing the Visitor Center, return to your coach and proceed to Mt Fuji’s 5th Station, located about halfway up the mountain at 7,545 feet (2,300m).

    Take in the shrines, torii gates and shops that sell souvenirs, along with views of Mt Fuji and the surrounding lakes (subject to weather conditions). Soak in the invigorating atmosphere of 5th Station; you might even spot some climbers preparing for their adventure.Then have time for lunch. You can choose the upgrade that includes a Japanese-style lunch, or have the option to buy your own meal. After having a bite to eat, drive to nearby Lake Ashi, located in Hakone National Park. Step aboard your boat for a short cruise across the lake. Admire the spectacular scenery of pristine waters surrounded by Mt Komagatake, Mt Fuji and other mountains.

    Disembark from the boat and head to the Mt Komagatake Ropeway, an aerial tram that takes you from the shores of Lake Ashi to the top of Mt Komagatake. Have time to walk around the mountain top and take in amazing views of Lake Ashi, the Owakudani volcanic valley and majestic Mt Fuji. After visiting Hakone, transfer by coach to the evening bullet train (Shinkansen) for your return to Tokyo, where your guide will tell you how to get back to your hotel.

    This tour also offer a discounted option with pickup at Keio Plaza Hotel in Shinjuku for direct transfer to Mt Fuji without stopping at Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal. This Shinjuku direct departure option allows you to spend more time at Mt Fuji. It is worth noting that views around Mt Fuji are always subject to weather conditions as mountain weather is notoriously unpredictable. Visibility tends to be better during the colder months, in the early morning and late evening.

    27. Mt Fuji is best reached by bus. According to the passage, which of the following is true about travelling to Mt. Fuji?
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    Explanation

    A – At the end of the second paragraph, we are told that the guide will tell you how to get back to your hotel. This does not mean that they will take you directly back to the hotel.

    B – The end of the second paragraph tells us that that Shinkansen is the evening bullet train, and therefore not the name of the bus company.

    C – The only information about Lake Ashi is at the beginning of the second paragraph, showing that is is located in Hakone National Park. No relationship to Mt Komagatake Ropeway is mentioned.

    D – At the end of the second paragraph, we are told this tour also offer a discounted option with pickup at Keio Plaza Hotel in Shinjuku for direct transfer to Mt Fuji without stopping at Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal. Therefore this statement is true.

    Post Comment

    Mt Fuji, Lake Ashi and Bullet Train Day Trip from Tokyo

    After morning pickup at selected Tokyo hotels or Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal, relax as your deluxe coach cruises along a scenic 2.5-hour route to Mt Fuji Visitor Center. Learn about the history and geology of Japan’s highest mountain from your guide and the informational exhibits about the revered mountain.

    From the second floor observation deck, you can get great views of Mt Fuji on a clear day.After seeing the Visitor Center, return to your coach and proceed to Mt Fuji’s 5th Station, located about halfway up the mountain at 7,545 feet (2,300m).

    Take in the shrines, torii gates and shops that sell souvenirs, along with views of Mt Fuji and the surrounding lakes (subject to weather conditions). Soak in the invigorating atmosphere of 5th Station; you might even spot some climbers preparing for their adventure.Then have time for lunch. You can choose the upgrade that includes a Japanese-style lunch, or have the option to buy your own meal. After having a bite to eat, drive to nearby Lake Ashi, located in Hakone National Park. Step aboard your boat for a short cruise across the lake. Admire the spectacular scenery of pristine waters surrounded by Mt Komagatake, Mt Fuji and other mountains.

    Disembark from the boat and head to the Mt Komagatake Ropeway, an aerial tram that takes you from the shores of Lake Ashi to the top of Mt Komagatake. Have time to walk around the mountain top and take in amazing views of Lake Ashi, the Owakudani volcanic valley and majestic Mt Fuji. After visiting Hakone, transfer by coach to the evening bullet train (Shinkansen) for your return to Tokyo, where your guide will tell you how to get back to your hotel.

    This tour also offer a discounted option with pickup at Keio Plaza Hotel in Shinjuku for direct transfer to Mt Fuji without stopping at Hamamatsucho Bus Terminal. This Shinjuku direct departure option allows you to spend more time at Mt Fuji. It is worth noting that views around Mt Fuji are always subject to weather conditions as mountain weather is notoriously unpredictable. Visibility tends to be better during the colder months, in the early morning and late evening.

    28. The author suggests that which of these monuments has the most revitalising atmosphere?
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    Explanation

    B-The end of the first paragraph tells us that the atmosphere of 5th station is ‘invigorating’. This is a synonym for revitalising. 

    Post Comment

    New HIV Guidelines

    According to a new WHO progress report lack of an HIV diagnosis is a major obstacle to implementing the Organization’s recommendation that everyone with HIV should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    The report reveals that more than 18 million people with HIV are currently taking ART, and a similar number is still unable to access treatment, the majority of which are unaware of their HIV positive status. Today, 40% of all people with HIV (over 14 million) remain unaware of their status. Many of these are people at higher risk of HIV infection who often find it difficult to access existing testing services.

    “Millions of people with HIV are still missing out on life-saving treatment, which can also prevent HIV transmission to others,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “HIV self-testing should open the door for many more people to know their HIV status and find out how to get treatment and access prevention services.”HIV self-testing means people can use oral fluid or blood- finger-pricks to discover their status in a private and convenient setting. Results are ready within 20 minutes or less. Those with positive results are advised to seek confirmatory tests at health clinics. WHO recommends they receive information and links to counselling as well as rapid referral to prevention, treatment and care services.

    HIV self-testing is a way to reach more people with undiagnosed HIV and represents a step forward to empower individuals, diagnose people earlier before they become sick, bring services closer to where people live, and create demand for HIV testing. This is particularly important for those people facing barriers to accessing existing services.

    Between 2005 and 2015 the proportion of people with HIV learning of their status increased from 12% to 60% globally. This increase in HIV testing uptake worldwide has led to more than 80% of all people diagnosed with HIV receiving ART.

    29. There are various outcomes of increasing availability of HIV testing. Self-testing provides numerous benefits, except:
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    Explanation

    A – We are told the results are ready ‘within 20 minutes or less’, and the author readily discusses accessibility of self testing in comparison to other testing services, so overall this statement is true.

    B – Paragraph 4 tells us that after a positive result via self testing, individuals are ‘advised to seek confirmatory tests at health clinics’, suggesting that the self testing is just a preliminary result.

    C – ‘Transmission’ comes up at the beginning of the 3rd paragraph, where we are told those who miss treatment may be transmitting it to others. However, we have not been told explicitly that self testing will cause this decrease in transmission. This is therefore the correct statement.

    D – ‘Services’ comes up within the 5th paragraph, where we are told that self testing is ‘a way to . . .  bring services closer to where people live’. This directly matches our statement.

    Post Comment

    New HIV Guidelines

    According to a new WHO progress report lack of an HIV diagnosis is a major obstacle to implementing the Organization’s recommendation that everyone with HIV should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    The report reveals that more than 18 million people with HIV are currently taking ART, and a similar number is still unable to access treatment, the majority of which are unaware of their HIV positive status. Today, 40% of all people with HIV (over 14 million) remain unaware of their status. Many of these are people at higher risk of HIV infection who often find it difficult to access existing testing services.

    “Millions of people with HIV are still missing out on life-saving treatment, which can also prevent HIV transmission to others,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “HIV self-testing should open the door for many more people to know their HIV status and find out how to get treatment and access prevention services.”HIV self-testing means people can use oral fluid or blood- finger-pricks to discover their status in a private and convenient setting. Results are ready within 20 minutes or less. Those with positive results are advised to seek confirmatory tests at health clinics. WHO recommends they receive information and links to counselling as well as rapid referral to prevention, treatment and care services.

    HIV self-testing is a way to reach more people with undiagnosed HIV and represents a step forward to empower individuals, diagnose people earlier before they become sick, bring services closer to where people live, and create demand for HIV testing. This is particularly important for those people facing barriers to accessing existing services.

    Between 2005 and 2015 the proportion of people with HIV learning of their status increased from 12% to 60% globally. This increase in HIV testing uptake worldwide has led to more than 80% of all people diagnosed with HIV receiving ART.

    30. What word is the author most likely to use to describe current HIV testing regimes?
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    Explanation

    A – As HIV self testing is a current regime, and this offers testing in a ‘private and convenient setting’, the author isn’t likely to believe testing is always intrusive.

    B – Whilst the author discusses self-testing as a way to ‘reach more people’ and briefly discusses ‘barriers to accessing existing services’, there is nothing strong enough to suggest that this is the most likely opinion of the author.

    C – We are told in the first line that getting diagnosed is a ‘major obstacle’ to everyone receiving treatment. The final paragraph as well also highlights how successful an increase in testing has been in increasing treatment uptake. Therefore, the author is likely to describe testing as paramount (i.e. important). 

    D – There is a mention of recommendation of accessing counselling services, however we are not told that this is specifically emotional counselling.

    Post Comment

    New HIV Guidelines

    According to a new WHO progress report lack of an HIV diagnosis is a major obstacle to implementing the Organization’s recommendation that everyone with HIV should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    The report reveals that more than 18 million people with HIV are currently taking ART, and a similar number is still unable to access treatment, the majority of which are unaware of their HIV positive status. Today, 40% of all people with HIV (over 14 million) remain unaware of their status. Many of these are people at higher risk of HIV infection who often find it difficult to access existing testing services.

    “Millions of people with HIV are still missing out on life-saving treatment, which can also prevent HIV transmission to others,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “HIV self-testing should open the door for many more people to know their HIV status and find out how to get treatment and access prevention services.”HIV self-testing means people can use oral fluid or blood- finger-pricks to discover their status in a private and convenient setting. Results are ready within 20 minutes or less. Those with positive results are advised to seek confirmatory tests at health clinics. WHO recommends they receive information and links to counselling as well as rapid referral to prevention, treatment and care services.

    HIV self-testing is a way to reach more people with undiagnosed HIV and represents a step forward to empower individuals, diagnose people earlier before they become sick, bring services closer to where people live, and create demand for HIV testing. This is particularly important for those people facing barriers to accessing existing services.

    Between 2005 and 2015 the proportion of people with HIV learning of their status increased from 12% to 60% globally. This increase in HIV testing uptake worldwide has led to more than 80% of all people diagnosed with HIV receiving ART.

    31. Lack of access to HIV testing services may lead to:
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    Explanation

    A – In the second paragraph, we are told that of those who are ‘unaware of their status’, many are at higher risk of HIV infection. However this does not mean that the lack of testing is causing this, only that the 2 groups overlap.

    B – In paragraph 4, we are told that better access to testing leads to earlier diagnosis (before getting sick). It is safe to infer that the opposite must be true – lack of testing will lead to slower diagnosis.

    C – ‘AIDS’ is not mentioned in the passage, and therefore we do not know anything about it, or how testing leads to its development.

    D – On the contrary, the 4th paragraph says that this may be a result of tesing, not a result of lack of testing.

    Post Comment

    New HIV Guidelines

    According to a new WHO progress report lack of an HIV diagnosis is a major obstacle to implementing the Organization’s recommendation that everyone with HIV should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    The report reveals that more than 18 million people with HIV are currently taking ART, and a similar number is still unable to access treatment, the majority of which are unaware of their HIV positive status. Today, 40% of all people with HIV (over 14 million) remain unaware of their status. Many of these are people at higher risk of HIV infection who often find it difficult to access existing testing services.

    “Millions of people with HIV are still missing out on life-saving treatment, which can also prevent HIV transmission to others,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “HIV self-testing should open the door for many more people to know their HIV status and find out how to get treatment and access prevention services.”HIV self-testing means people can use oral fluid or blood- finger-pricks to discover their status in a private and convenient setting. Results are ready within 20 minutes or less. Those with positive results are advised to seek confirmatory tests at health clinics. WHO recommends they receive information and links to counselling as well as rapid referral to prevention, treatment and care services.

    HIV self-testing is a way to reach more people with undiagnosed HIV and represents a step forward to empower individuals, diagnose people earlier before they become sick, bring services closer to where people live, and create demand for HIV testing. This is particularly important for those people facing barriers to accessing existing services.

    Between 2005 and 2015 the proportion of people with HIV learning of their status increased from 12% to 60% globally. This increase in HIV testing uptake worldwide has led to more than 80% of all people diagnosed with HIV receiving ART.

    32. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
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    Explanation

    A – We are told that HIV self-testing is ‘particularly important for those people facing barriers to accessing existing services’ – however this does not correspond to being more economically viable.

    B – In the 2nd paragraph, we are told that ‘today, 40% of all people with HIV (over 14 million) remain unaware of their status’. If we do 14 / 0.4, this gives us 35 million people who have HIV.

    C – From 12% to 60% is a fivefold increase, however this is in the number of people learning of their status, not of those who receive ART.

    D – At the beginning of the second paragraph, we are told that 18 million people receive ART and ‘a similar number is still unable to access treatment’. We have no way of knowing if this similar number is higher or lower than 18 million.

    Post Comment

    A Nap a Day keeps the Doctor Away

    The effect of napping on memory consolidation is also influenced by how often it takes place. Milner, Fogel and Cote (2006) found that following a 20-minute nap, those who napped habitually (i.e. more than twice a week) improved more on a procedural motor learning task after a nap than those who only napped non-habitually (i.e. less than twice a month).

    These results are corroborated with the previously discussed study by Kurdziel et al. (2013), where children who napped habitually had the greatest benefit in declarative memory performance. One flaw of the study by Milner et al. (2006), is that napping behaviour was decided based on frequency of naps rather than preference, as adults may be habitual nappers but may not have the time to do so.

    Nonetheless, it could also be argued that the participants were students and so did have sufficient time to carry out their desired napping preference. Looking at nap desirability, research by Evans et al. (1977) found that there were differences in nap infrastructure in appetitive nappers (nap unrelated to sleep need), replacement nappers (nap when tired) and sporadic nappers. Dinges, Orne EC, Orne MT and Evans (1980) carried out a replication study following on from this research, and found that appetitive nappers had greater stage 1 sleep and more stage changes than a group of non-nappers.

    The variation in how often people take naps, and the reasons for it could therefore have an impact on memory consolidation, as differing sleep composition has shown to be an influence.

    33. Various types of nappers are mentioned in the passage. Which of these are not a type of napper?
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    Explanation

    C-Half way through the passage, we are told that Evans found variation in certain types of nappers, including appetitive, replacement and sporadic nappers. Frequent nappers are not mentioned at all in the passage.

    Post Comment

    A Nap a Day keeps the Doctor Away

    The effect of napping on memory consolidation is also influenced by how often it takes place. Milner, Fogel and Cote (2006) found that following a 20-minute nap, those who napped habitually (i.e. more than twice a week) improved more on a procedural motor learning task after a nap than those who only napped non-habitually (i.e. less than twice a month).

    These results are corroborated with the previously discussed study by Kurdziel et al. (2013), where children who napped habitually had the greatest benefit in declarative memory performance. One flaw of the study by Milner et al. (2006), is that napping behaviour was decided based on frequency of naps rather than preference, as adults may be habitual nappers but may not have the time to do so.

    Nonetheless, it could also be argued that the participants were students and so did have sufficient time to carry out their desired napping preference. Looking at nap desirability, research by Evans et al. (1977) found that there were differences in nap infrastructure in appetitive nappers (nap unrelated to sleep need), replacement nappers (nap when tired) and sporadic nappers. Dinges, Orne EC, Orne MT and Evans (1980) carried out a replication study following on from this research, and found that appetitive nappers had greater stage 1 sleep and more stage changes than a group of non-nappers.

    The variation in how often people take naps, and the reasons for it could therefore have an impact on memory consolidation, as differing sleep composition has shown to be an influence.

    34. Napping has been studied by various different researchers. Which of the following study author is not mentioned in the passage?
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    Explanation

    B-There is no mention of the name ‘Burgess’ in the passage.

    Post Comment

    A Nap a Day keeps the Doctor Away

    The effect of napping on memory consolidation is also influenced by how often it takes place. Milner, Fogel and Cote (2006) found that following a 20-minute nap, those who napped habitually (i.e. more than twice a week) improved more on a procedural motor learning task after a nap than those who only napped non-habitually (i.e. less than twice a month).

    These results are corroborated with the previously discussed study by Kurdziel et al. (2013), where children who napped habitually had the greatest benefit in declarative memory performance. One flaw of the study by Milner et al. (2006), is that napping behaviour was decided based on frequency of naps rather than preference, as adults may be habitual nappers but may not have the time to do so.

    Nonetheless, it could also be argued that the participants were students and so did have sufficient time to carry out their desired napping preference. Looking at nap desirability, research by Evans et al. (1977) found that there were differences in nap infrastructure in appetitive nappers (nap unrelated to sleep need), replacement nappers (nap when tired) and sporadic nappers. Dinges, Orne EC, Orne MT and Evans (1980) carried out a replication study following on from this research, and found that appetitive nappers had greater stage 1 sleep and more stage changes than a group of non-nappers.

    The variation in how often people take naps, and the reasons for it could therefore have an impact on memory consolidation, as differing sleep composition has shown to be an influence.

    35. Which of these was a potential weakness in the study by Milner et al. (2006)?
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    Explanation

    This is a type 1 statement question, and searching for the keyword of ‘Milner’ we find that ‘one flaw of the study . . . is that napping behaviour was decided based on frequency of naps rather than preference’.

    A – This presents a counter-argument to the weakness of not being based on inclination for napping

    B – Describes naps not being based on inclination, which is a synonym for preference. Therefore is the correct answer.

    C – ‘Variation’ is mentioned in the last few lines, and is not related to the Milner study.

    D – ‘Sleep composition’ is highlighted in the final line, which is not related to the Milner study.

    Post Comment

    A Nap a Day keeps the Doctor Away

    The effect of napping on memory consolidation is also influenced by how often it takes place. Milner, Fogel and Cote (2006) found that following a 20-minute nap, those who napped habitually (i.e. more than twice a week) improved more on a procedural motor learning task after a nap than those who only napped non-habitually (i.e. less than twice a month).

    These results are corroborated with the previously discussed study by Kurdziel et al. (2013), where children who napped habitually had the greatest benefit in declarative memory performance. One flaw of the study by Milner et al. (2006), is that napping behaviour was decided based on frequency of naps rather than preference, as adults may be habitual nappers but may not have the time to do so.

    Nonetheless, it could also be argued that the participants were students and so did have sufficient time to carry out their desired napping preference. Looking at nap desirability, research by Evans et al. (1977) found that there were differences in nap infrastructure in appetitive nappers (nap unrelated to sleep need), replacement nappers (nap when tired) and sporadic nappers. Dinges, Orne EC, Orne MT and Evans (1980) carried out a replication study following on from this research, and found that appetitive nappers had greater stage 1 sleep and more stage changes than a group of non-nappers.

    The variation in how often people take naps, and the reasons for it could therefore have an impact on memory consolidation, as differing sleep composition has shown to be an influence.

    36. Different nappers have different styles of sleeping. Which of these is the correct number of naps for a habitual napper?
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    Explanation

    B-Using the keyword ‘habitual napper’, we are told on the third line ‘those that napped habitually (i.e. more than twice a week)’ and therefore the answer is B.

    Post Comment
    Radhe Medicmind Tutor

    Thu, 13 Aug 2020 18:02:44

    The passage states habitual sleeps sleep more than twice a week not twice a week.

    Muna Medicmind Tutor

    Thu, 28 Jan 2021 00:24:20

    Also agree that the passage states "more than twice a week", so the correct answer should be C and not B! This should be corrected.

    A2n001 – The Future

    The A2n 001 was an experimental Diesel railcar built in Italy by CaFiCi consortium in 1982. Despite a long test period in several regional lines, the vehicle never came into regular service.

    The railcar was designed taking advantage of the experience developed in the construction of 2-decks vehicles gained in Italy by the Casaralta workshops (Bologna) in building railways carriages derived from those in service on the Parisian “banlieue” and supplied to Ferrovie Nord Milano and Ferrovie dello Stato companies. The vehicles were built under CIMT Lorraine (a French firm) license.

    The experiment was focused on the research on a lightweight vehicle with higher capacity than railcars used at that time. The objective was to provide regional and branch lines with such vehicles, with an offer estimated at about 40-50% more passengers than equivalent traditional railcars, despite the “low power consumption and a saving of about 20% in investment and running costs”. It was designed a curious double-decker railcar reminiscent of the similar coaches of the time. The vehicle was built by a company called Cafici International, with headquarters in Geneva.

    The engine was supplied by Fiat (IVECO 828 SRI engine 4-stroke, 8-cylinder V) and installed in only one in every two carriages, which were derived from those equipped on the double-decker coaches then being delivered by Casaralta, with secondary air suspension and brake discs and mixed strains.

    The arrangement of each carriage space was such as to create in practice four distinct rooms: the two vestibules, allowing access to the high and low rooms, a capacity of 17 each, and the two central decks, with an upper and lower deck, with a capacity of 60 and 48 respectively.

    37. A2n 001 railcar was an experimental project, which:
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    Explanation

    A – We are told it ‘never came into regular service’ in the first paragraph, however there is no reasoning given for this, anywhere in the passage.

    B – The keyword of ‘engine’ will lead us to the 5th paragraph, where we are told it was supplied by Fiat, and then some other technical information. At no point are we told that it is similar to regular cars. Assuming this because of Fiat would be using external knowledge, and making too big an assumption.

    C – This is highlighted in the 3rd paragraph, where we are told it aimed to offer ‘about 40-50% more passengers than equivalent traditional railcars’.

    D – We are not told about it being tested in any other country, other than Italy. In fact, we are told there was a ‘long test period in several regional lines’ – we could infer that regional lines means it didn’t cross a country border.

    Post Comment

    A2n001 – The Future

    The A2n 001 was an experimental Diesel railcar built in Italy by CaFiCi consortium in 1982. Despite a long test period in several regional lines, the vehicle never came into regular service.

    The railcar was designed taking advantage of the experience developed in the construction of 2-decks vehicles gained in Italy by the Casaralta workshops (Bologna) in building railways carriages derived from those in service on the Parisian “banlieue” and supplied to Ferrovie Nord Milano and Ferrovie dello Stato companies. The vehicles were built under CIMT Lorraine (a French firm) license.

    The experiment was focused on the research on a lightweight vehicle with higher capacity than railcars used at that time. The objective was to provide regional and branch lines with such vehicles, with an offer estimated at about 40-50% more passengers than equivalent traditional railcars, despite the “low power consumption and a saving of about 20% in investment and running costs”. It was designed a curious double-decker railcar reminiscent of the similar coaches of the time. The vehicle was built by a company called Cafici International, with headquarters in Geneva.

    The engine was supplied by Fiat (IVECO 828 SRI engine 4-stroke, 8-cylinder V) and installed in only one in every two carriages, which were derived from those equipped on the double-decker coaches then being delivered by Casaralta, with secondary air suspension and brake discs and mixed strains.

    The arrangement of each carriage space was such as to create in practice four distinct rooms: the two vestibules, allowing access to the high and low rooms, a capacity of 17 each, and the two central decks, with an upper and lower deck, with a capacity of 60 and 48 respectively.

    38. Inspiration for the project came from numerous sources. Features of A2n 001 were directly derived from the following, except:
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    Explanation

    A – This is confirmed at the beginning of the 2nd paragraph, where we are told ‘the railcar was designed taking advantage of the experience developed in the construction of 2-decks vehicles gained in Italy by the Casaralta workshops’. This suggests that experience was used, and therefore features were directly derived from this.

    B – Whilst these vehicles were the inspiration of Casaralta’s vehicles, as explained in the 2nd paragraph, this doesn’t confirm that it was a direct inspiration for A2n 001, instead it seems to be one step removed. Therefore this is the correct answer.

    C – The comparison to traditional railcars is the focus of the 3rd paragraph, highlighting some features were due to the traditional features of double deckers.

    D – The 5th paragraph tells us that the engine was inspired by these double decker coaches.   

    Post Comment

    A2n001 – The Future

    The A2n 001 was an experimental Diesel railcar built in Italy by CaFiCi consortium in 1982. Despite a long test period in several regional lines, the vehicle never came into regular service.

    The railcar was designed taking advantage of the experience developed in the construction of 2-decks vehicles gained in Italy by the Casaralta workshops (Bologna) in building railways carriages derived from those in service on the Parisian “banlieue” and supplied to Ferrovie Nord Milano and Ferrovie dello Stato companies. The vehicles were built under CIMT Lorraine (a French firm) license.

    The experiment was focused on the research on a lightweight vehicle with higher capacity than railcars used at that time. The objective was to provide regional and branch lines with such vehicles, with an offer estimated at about 40-50% more passengers than equivalent traditional railcars, despite the “low power consumption and a saving of about 20% in investment and running costs”. It was designed a curious double-decker railcar reminiscent of the similar coaches of the time. The vehicle was built by a company called Cafici International, with headquarters in Geneva.

    The engine was supplied by Fiat (IVECO 828 SRI engine 4-stroke, 8-cylinder V) and installed in only one in every two carriages, which were derived from those equipped on the double-decker coaches then being delivered by Casaralta, with secondary air suspension and brake discs and mixed strains.

    The arrangement of each carriage space was such as to create in practice four distinct rooms: the two vestibules, allowing access to the high and low rooms, a capacity of 17 each, and the two central decks, with an upper and lower deck, with a capacity of 60 and 48 respectively.

    39. Which license were these railcars built on?
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    Explanation

    C-Using the keyword ‘licence’, we find this at the end of the second paragraph. We are told that ‘such vehicles were built under CIMT Lorraine (a French firm) license’. Therefore the answer here is C.

    Post Comment

    A2n001 – The Future

    The A2n 001 was an experimental Diesel railcar built in Italy by CaFiCi consortium in 1982. Despite a long test period in several regional lines, the vehicle never came into regular service.

    The railcar was designed taking advantage of the experience developed in the construction of 2-decks vehicles gained in Italy by the Casaralta workshops (Bologna) in building railways carriages derived from those in service on the Parisian “banlieue” and supplied to Ferrovie Nord Milano and Ferrovie dello Stato companies. The vehicles were built under CIMT Lorraine (a French firm) license.

    The experiment was focused on the research on a lightweight vehicle with higher capacity than railcars used at that time. The objective was to provide regional and branch lines with such vehicles, with an offer estimated at about 40-50% more passengers than equivalent traditional railcars, despite the “low power consumption and a saving of about 20% in investment and running costs”. It was designed a curious double-decker railcar reminiscent of the similar coaches of the time. The vehicle was built by a company called Cafici International, with headquarters in Geneva.

    The engine was supplied by Fiat (IVECO 828 SRI engine 4-stroke, 8-cylinder V) and installed in only one in every two carriages, which were derived from those equipped on the double-decker coaches then being delivered by Casaralta, with secondary air suspension and brake discs and mixed strains.

    The arrangement of each carriage space was such as to create in practice four distinct rooms: the two vestibules, allowing access to the high and low rooms, a capacity of 17 each, and the two central decks, with an upper and lower deck, with a capacity of 60 and 48 respectively.

    40. Railcars are often thought of as passengers capacity carried per engine. What was this meant to be for A2n 001?
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    Explanation

    B-The final paragraph tells us the number of passengers per carriage is 17 for each of the 2 vestibules (34 total) and 60 for the upper deck, and 48 for the lower deck. This gives a total of 142. However we were told in the previous paragraph that there would be one engine per two carriages, and so we must double this number to give 284 passengers per engine.

    Post Comment

    Elephant Sanctuaries

    Elephants have been used by humans to perform a variety of tasks for around 5000 years, but while people have consistently profited, this relationship has not been greatly beneficial to the elephants. Revered throughout Thailand, elephants have greatly influenced Thai culture, myth, and religion, though the deep respect held for the species is unfortunately not often reflected in the treatment of individual elephants.

    Widespread abuse, poaching, deforestation of green spaces, increased tourism, farming, and a vast reduction in habitat have all contributed to a rapid decline in elephant numbers, and Asian elephants are now officially an endangered species. It is estimated that at the turn of the century, Asian elephants numbered approximately 100,000 in Thailand alone (and likely in the millions globally).

    Currently the worldwide population has decreased to around 30,000. Of these, only 2500-4000 live in Thailand, and most of those live in captivity near metropolitan areas. Unfortunately, increases in the human population tend to lead to reductions in the number of living elephants. The main reasons for this are because of poaching, habitat loss, and increased tourism. Current estimates for 1kg of ivory on the black market in China (the worlds largest market for illegal ivory sales) is around $3000 US Dollars. Due to their high intelligence, it is possible to train elephants to perform a broad array of tasks, from hauling logs to painting.

    This adaptability and aptitude, coupled with their immense size and strength, meant elephants were naturally seen as ideal work animals. Historically, they have been utilised by logging companies to haul lumber, but widespread deforestation has caused legal logging to officially cease throughout Thailand. Sadly, logging camp elephants in the north of the country were forced by humans to contribute to the destruction of their own habitat, and deforestation is now one of the major threats to elephant survival.

    41. The relationship between elephants and humans has been a longstanding one, which:
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    Explanation

    A – the first line tells us “that this relationship has not been greatly beneficial to the elephants”, and therefore we know this statement is not true.

    B – The end of the first paragraph confirms that elephants are endangered, but there is nothing to say that they will go extinct. Humans have caused them to become endangered, but not necessarily into extinction. The fact they ‘will go extinct’ is extreme language in this statement. 

    C – The middle of the first paragraph confirms the ‘deep respect held for the species is unfortunately not often reflected in the treatment of individual elephants’, which supports this statement, meaning it is true.

    D – This is an extreme statement. We know humans have benefitted from elephants, however we do not know that it has ‘always’ led to benefit.

    Post Comment

    Elephant Sanctuaries

    Elephants have been used by humans to perform a variety of tasks for around 5000 years, but while people have consistently profited, this relationship has not been greatly beneficial to the elephants. Revered throughout Thailand, elephants have greatly influenced Thai culture, myth, and religion, though the deep respect held for the species is unfortunately not often reflected in the treatment of individual elephants.

    Widespread abuse, poaching, deforestation of green spaces, increased tourism, farming, and a vast reduction in habitat have all contributed to a rapid decline in elephant numbers, and Asian elephants are now officially an endangered species. It is estimated that at the turn of the century, Asian elephants numbered approximately 100,000 in Thailand alone (and likely in the millions globally).

    Currently the worldwide population has decreased to around 30,000. Of these, only 2500-4000 live in Thailand, and most of those live in captivity near metropolitan areas. Unfortunately, increases in the human population tend to lead to reductions in the number of living elephants. The main reasons for this are because of poaching, habitat loss, and increased tourism. Current estimates for 1kg of ivory on the black market in China (the worlds largest market for illegal ivory sales) is around $3000 US Dollars. Due to their high intelligence, it is possible to train elephants to perform a broad array of tasks, from hauling logs to painting.

    This adaptability and aptitude, coupled with their immense size and strength, meant elephants were naturally seen as ideal work animals. Historically, they have been utilised by logging companies to haul lumber, but widespread deforestation has caused legal logging to officially cease throughout Thailand. Sadly, logging camp elephants in the north of the country were forced by humans to contribute to the destruction of their own habitat, and deforestation is now one of the major threats to elephant survival.

    42. There are numerous different locations that the remaining elephants are present in. Which of the following is a description of where elephants have lived at one point or another?
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    Explanation

    A – ‘Northern’ is a good keyword, and we find this in the last paragraph. Here, we are told ‘logging camp elephants in the north of the country were forced by humans to contribute to the destruction of their own habitat’. Since elephants that contributed to deforestation destroyed their own habitat, we can assume that they lived within the green spaces that were torn down. In the first paragraph, we are told that the deforestation was specifically of green spaces.

    B – At the end of the second paragraph, we are told that some ‘live in captivity near metropolitan areas’, however this does not specify if captivity means zoo. We cannot assume this association, so this statement cannot be correct.

    C – There is no mention of Africa throughout, so this statement cannot be correct.

    D – ‘China’ is mentioned as a place for ivory trade on the black market. However, this does not confirm that elephants ever lived in China. 

    Post Comment

    Elephant Sanctuaries

    Elephants have been used by humans to perform a variety of tasks for around 5000 years, but while people have consistently profited, this relationship has not been greatly beneficial to the elephants. Revered throughout Thailand, elephants have greatly influenced Thai culture, myth, and religion, though the deep respect held for the species is unfortunately not often reflected in the treatment of individual elephants.

    Widespread abuse, poaching, deforestation of green spaces, increased tourism, farming, and a vast reduction in habitat have all contributed to a rapid decline in elephant numbers, and Asian elephants are now officially an endangered species. It is estimated that at the turn of the century, Asian elephants numbered approximately 100,000 in Thailand alone (and likely in the millions globally).

    Currently the worldwide population has decreased to around 30,000. Of these, only 2500-4000 live in Thailand, and most of those live in captivity near metropolitan areas. Unfortunately, increases in the human population tend to lead to reductions in the number of living elephants. The main reasons for this are because of poaching, habitat loss, and increased tourism. Current estimates for 1kg of ivory on the black market in China (the worlds largest market for illegal ivory sales) is around $3000 US Dollars. Due to their high intelligence, it is possible to train elephants to perform a broad array of tasks, from hauling logs to painting.

    This adaptability and aptitude, coupled with their immense size and strength, meant elephants were naturally seen as ideal work animals. Historically, they have been utilised by logging companies to haul lumber, but widespread deforestation has caused legal logging to officially cease throughout Thailand. Sadly, logging camp elephants in the north of the country were forced by humans to contribute to the destruction of their own habitat, and deforestation is now one of the major threats to elephant survival.

    43. Elephants have been used as animals of labour. The following are reasons for this, except:
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    Explanation

    A-The 4th paragraph describes reasons that elephants are prided as work animals, and this includes intelligence, adaptability and size. Ivory is mentioned earlier, as something that elephants are poached for – and therefore this is not a reason they are used for labour.

    Post Comment

    Elephant Sanctuaries

    Elephants have been used by humans to perform a variety of tasks for around 5000 years, but while people have consistently profited, this relationship has not been greatly beneficial to the elephants. Revered throughout Thailand, elephants have greatly influenced Thai culture, myth, and religion, though the deep respect held for the species is unfortunately not often reflected in the treatment of individual elephants.

    Widespread abuse, poaching, deforestation of green spaces, increased tourism, farming, and a vast reduction in habitat have all contributed to a rapid decline in elephant numbers, and Asian elephants are now officially an endangered species. It is estimated that at the turn of the century, Asian elephants numbered approximately 100,000 in Thailand alone (and likely in the millions globally).

    Currently the worldwide population has decreased to around 30,000. Of these, only 2500-4000 live in Thailand, and most of those live in captivity near metropolitan areas. Unfortunately, increases in the human population tend to lead to reductions in the number of living elephants. The main reasons for this are because of poaching, habitat loss, and increased tourism. Current estimates for 1kg of ivory on the black market in China (the worlds largest market for illegal ivory sales) is around $3000 US Dollars. Due to their high intelligence, it is possible to train elephants to perform a broad array of tasks, from hauling logs to painting.

    This adaptability and aptitude, coupled with their immense size and strength, meant elephants were naturally seen as ideal work animals. Historically, they have been utilised by logging companies to haul lumber, but widespread deforestation has caused legal logging to officially cease throughout Thailand. Sadly, logging camp elephants in the north of the country were forced by humans to contribute to the destruction of their own habitat, and deforestation is now one of the major threats to elephant survival.

    44. Which of the following best describes how the author feels towards the endangerment of elephants?
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    Explanation

    A – There is nothing to suggest that the author fears their endangerment, instead it appears the author is quite aware of this prospect.

    B – The author doesn’t talk about the endangerment positively, and doesn’t seem to suggest it will get better anytime soon.

    C – The last paragraph the author says that ‘sadly’ elephants were used to destroy their own habitat. The third paragraph also uses the word ‘unfortunately’ before describing their falling population. This suggests the author pities them and therefore feels sympathetic towards their situation.

    D – Whilst the author holds humanity accountable for the elephants endangerment, there is nothing to suggest that they feel personally responsible at all.

    Post Comment

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